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1 Pertemuan 21 Natural Language Processing Introduction Matakuliah: T0264/Intelijensia Semu Tahun: Juli 2006 Versi: 2/1.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pertemuan 21 Natural Language Processing Introduction Matakuliah: T0264/Intelijensia Semu Tahun: Juli 2006 Versi: 2/1."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pertemuan 21 Natural Language Processing Introduction Matakuliah: T0264/Intelijensia Semu Tahun: Juli 2006 Versi: 2/1

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : >

3 3 Outline Materi Materi 1 Materi 2 Materi 3 Materi 4 Materi 5

4 4 Language Processing Problem Processing written text, using lexical, syntactic, and semantic knowledge of the language as well as the required real world information. Processing spoken language, using all the information needed above plus additional knowledge about phonology as well as enough added information to handle the further ambiguities that arise in speech.

5 5 Features of Language That Make It Both Difficult and Useful The Problem : English sentences are incomplete descriptions of the information that they are intended to convey : Some dogs are outside. Some dogs are on the lawn. Three dogs are on the lawn. Rover, Tripp, and Spot are on the lawn. The Good Side : Language allows speakers to be as vague or as precise as they like. It also allows speakers to leave out things they believe their hearers already know.

6 6 Features of Language That Make It Both Difficult and Useful contd’ The Problem: The same expression means different things in different contexts: Where’s the water ? - in a chemistry lab, it must be pure - when you are thirsty, it must be potable - dealing with a leaky roof, it can be filthy The Good Side : Language lets us communicate about an infinite world using a finite (and thus learnable) number of symbols.

7 7 Features of Language That Make It Both Difficult and Useful contd’ The Problem: No natural language program can be complete because new words, expressions, and meanings can be generated quite freely: I’ll fax it to you. The Good Side : Language can evolve as the experiences that we want to communicate about evolve.

8 8 Features of Language That Make It Both Difficult and Useful contd’ The Problem: There are lots of ways to say the same thing : Mary was born on October 11. Mary’s birthday is October 11. The Good Side : When you know a lot, facts imply each other. Language is intended to be used by agents who know a lot.

9 Introduction Understanding sudah membahas tentang type language. Mangalami kesulitan dalam hal pemahaman terhadap bahasa itu sendiri. Oleh karena itu : Pengkajian bahasa melalui Natural Language Processing (NLP). Dengan melakukan analisa morfologi, analisa Sintaktis, analasi semantis, analisa integrasi dan analisa pramatis.

10 Steps in the Process Morphological Analysis Analisa kata tunggal atas komponen penyusunnya Syntactic Analysis Analisa kata–kata yang beurutan untuk mengatahui hubunganya dengan kata lainya. “Boy the go the to store” Semantic Analysis Menciptakan struktur baru berdasarkan hasil analisa sintaktis untuk mengetahui arti dari kalimat yang tersusun.

11 11 Introduction Discourse Integration Menganalisa arti/makna dari kalimat tunggal untuk mengetahui ketergantungan dan pengaruhnya terhadap kalimat berikutnya. - kata it dalam kalimat “John wanted it” - mungkin kata John mempengaruhi kalimat berikutnya. Pragmatic Analysis Menganalisa representasi struktur kalimat baru untuk mengetahui apakah maknanya sesuai dengan makna kalimat yang dimaksudkan. “Do you know what time it is ?”  menanyakan waktu.

12 12 Morphological Analysis must do the following “I want to print Bill’s.init file”. Kata Bill’s pada proper noun Bill dan akhiran ‘s yang mengartikan kepemilikan. Mengenal.init sebagai ekstensi yang bermakna adjective dalam kalimat tersebut. ‘s dalam kata prints berarti adanya plural atau sebagai petunjuk third person singular verb (misal dalam “he prints”. There will be ambiguity “want”, “print”, dan “file”karena lebih dari satu kategori sintaktik.

13 13 The result of syntactic of : “ I want print Bill’s.init file “

14 14 Semantic analysis must do : It must map individual word into appropriate objects in the knowledge base or database. It must create the correct structures to correspond to the way the meaning of the individual words combine with each other.

15 15 Partial meaning for a sentence

16 16 The result of Pragmatic Analysis of “I want to print Bill’s.init file.” Meaning instance : Commanding agent : User068 performer : This-System Object : P27 P27 instance : Printing agent : This-System object : F1 This lead to the final result: lpr /wsmith/stuff.init

17 17 > End of Pertemuan 21 Good Luck


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