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©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal1 Analisis Pasar.

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Presentasi berjudul: "©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal1 Analisis Pasar."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal1 Analisis Pasar

2 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal2 MARKETS AND COMPETITIVE SPACE  Markets and Strategies  Product-Market Scope and Structure  Describing and Analyzing End- Users  Analyzing Competition  Developing a Strategic Vision about the Future  Market Size Estimation

3 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal3 MARKETS AND COMPETITIVE SPACE The Challenges ― Markets are increasingly complex, turbulent, and interrelated. Importance of a broad view of the market. Essential to develop a vision about how the market is likely to change in the future.

4 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal4 MARKETS AND COMPETITIVE SPACE Continuous Monitoring is Necessary to: Find promising opportunities Identify shifts in value requirements Understand competitors’ positioning Guide targeting and positioning decisions decisions

5 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal5 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Perubahan komposisi pasar ä Fungsi pelanggan ä Pertimbangan aspek fungsi produk yang bermanfaat bagi konsumen ä Sepatu olah raga tidak hanya berfungsi untuk olah raga tapi juga mempunyai fungsi lainnya. ä PC sebagai entertaiment, internet dan bisnis

6 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal6 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Teknologi ä Fungsi konsumen dapat di puaskan dgn produk yang menggunakan teknologi yang berbeda ä Gas dan listrik menggunakan berbagai sumber energi untuk pemanas, pendingin dan fungsi lainya

7 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal7 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Segmen pelanggan ä Kebutuhan konsumen yg beraneka ragam untuk produk tertentu. ä Orang Eropa lebih suka dengan luxury Sedan dan mobil sport. ä Orang Indonesia lebih suka dengan kendaraan minibus

8 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal8 MARKETS AND STRATEGIES Markets and Strategies are Interlinked Forming a Shared Vision Value Migration Challenges

9 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal9 ä Market changes often require altering strategies ä Forces of change create both market opportunities and threats Markets Impact Strategies

10 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal10 ä Customers shift purchasing to new business designs with enhanced value offering ä Be aware of disruptive technologies ä Market sensing and organizational learning are essential Value Migrations

11 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal11 Figure Changing Consumer Needs

12 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal12 Figure Progress is a Winning Appeal

13 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal13 PRODUCT-MARKET SCOPE AND STRUCTURE  Matching Needs with Product Benefits  Product-Market Boundaries and Structure  Forming Product-Markets for Analysis  The Changing Composition of Markets

14 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal14 Matching Needs with Product Benefits ä A product – market matches people with needs to the product benefits that satisfy those needs “A product – market is the set of products judged to be substitutes within those usage situations in which similar patterns of benefits are sought by groups of customers.”* *Srivastava, et al. (1984) Journal of Marketing, Spring, 32.

15 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal15 Product – Market Boundaries and Structure ä Determining Product-Market Structure 1.Start with the generic need satisfied by the product category of interest to management 2.Identify the product categories (types) that can satisfy the generic need 3.Form the specific product – markets within the generic product – market

16 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal16 SUPER MARKETS MICROWAVE OVENS CONVENIENCE STORES TRADITIONAL RESTAURANTS Illustrative Fast-Food Product-Market Structure FAST-FOOD MARKET

17 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal17 Forming Product – Markets for Analysis Factors influencing product – market boundaries: Factors influencing product – market boundaries:  Purpose of analysis  Changing composition of markets  Extent of market complexity

18 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal18 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Sifat dan Lingkup batas Produk ä Tujuan Analisis ä Jika tujuan menarik segmen pasar perlu dilakukan penetrasi pasar ä Jika perbedaan produk memuaskan kebutuhan yg sama, batasan produknya harus berisi seluruh produk yg relevan ä Contoh : pasar produk photography harus memasukkan juga kamera digital, servis, dan film.

19 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal19 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Perubahan komposisi pasar ä Fungsi pelanggan ä Pertimbangan aspek fungsi produk yang bermanfaat bagi konsumen ä Sepatu olah raga tidak hanya berfungsi untuk olah raga tapi juga mempunyai fungsi lainnya. ä PC sebagai entertaiment, internet dan bisnis

20 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal20 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Teknologi ä Fungsi konsumen dapat di puaskan dgn produk yang menggunakan teknologi yang berbeda ä Gas dan listrik menggunakan berbagai sumber energi untuk pemanas, pendingin dan fungsi lainya

21 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal21 Faktor-faktor yang Mempengaruhi Kompleksitas Pasar ä Segmen pelanggan ä Kebutuhan konsumen yg beraneka ragam untuk produk tertentu. ä Orang Eropa lebih suka dengan luxury Sedan dan mobil sport. ä Orang Indonesia lebih suka dengan kendaraan minibus

22 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal22 Extent of Market Complexity äThree characteristics of markets: ä 1. Functions or uses of the product ä 2. The enabling technology of the product ä 3. Customer segments in the product-market

23 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal23 Illustrative Product – Market Structure Generic Product Class Product Type Variant A Regular Variant B Brands Food and beverages for breakfast meal Cereals Ready to eat Natural Pre-sweetened Life Nutritional Special KProduct 19

24 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal24 DEFINING AND ANALYZING MARKETS Define Product-Market Boundaries and Structures Identify and Describe End-Users Analyze Industry and Value Added Chain Evaluate Key Competitors Forecast Market Size and Growth Trends

25 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal25 Identifying and Describing Buyers How Buyers Make Choices Building Customer Profiles Environmental Influences DESCRIBING AND ANALYZING END-USERS

26 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal26 Identifying and Describing End- Users ä Illustrative buyer characteristics in consumer markets:  Family size, age, income, geographical location, sex, and occupation ä Illustrative factors in organizational markets:  Type of industry  Company size  Location  Type of products

27 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal27 How Buyers Make Choices  BUYING DECISION PROCESS: 1. Problem recognition 2. Information search 3. Alternative evaluation 4. Purchase decision 5. Post-purchase behavior

28 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal28 Environmental Influences ä External factors influencing buyers’ needs and wants:  Government, social change, economic shifts, technology etc. ä These factors are often non- controllable but can have a major impact on purchasing decisionns.

29 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal29 Building Customer Profiles ä Start with generic product – market ä Move next to product- type and variant profiles >> increasingly more specific ä Customer profiles guide decision making (e.g. targeting, positioning, market segmentation etc.)

30 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal30 ANALYZING COMPETITION Define Industry Structure and Characteristics 2. Identify and Describe Key Competitors 5. Identify New Competitors 3. Evaluate Key Competitors PRODUCT- MARKET STRUCTURE AND MARKET SEGMENTS 4. Anticipate Actions by Competitors

31 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal31 Examples of Levels of Competition Diet-Rite Cola Diet PepsiDiet Coke Product from competition: diet colas Regular colas Diet lemon limes Lemon limes Fruit flavored colas Product category competition: soft drinks Bottle water Wine Beer Coffee Juices Generic competition: beverages Baseball cards Fast Food Video Games Ice Cream Budget competition: food & entertainment

32 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal32 Industry Analysis ä Industry size, growth, and composition ä Typical marketing practices ä Industry changes that are anticipated (e.g. consolidation trends) ä Industry strengths and weaknesses ä Strategic alliances among competitors

33 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal33 Defining Industry Structure & Characteristics nIndustry Form nIndustry Environment nCompetitive Forces Value Added Chain SUPPLIERS PRODUCERS WHOLESALERS/ DISTRIBUTORS RETAILERS/DEAL ERS CONSUMER/ ORGANIZATIONAL END USERS

34 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal34 Jaringan Penyerahan Nilai Levi’s Persaingan terjadi antara jaringan, bukan perusahaan Pemenangnya adl perusahan dgn jaringan yg lebih baik Sears (Eceran) Sears (Eceran) Levi’s (Pakaian) Levi’s (Pakaian) Pesanan Pelanggan Du Pont (Serat) Du Pont (Serat) Pesanan Milliken (bahan) Milliken (bahan)

35 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal35 Competitive Forces 1.Rivalry among existing firms. 2.Threat of new entrants. 3.Threat of substitute products. 4.Bargaining power of suppliers. 5.Bargaining power of buyers. Source: Michael E. Porter, Competitive Advantage, Free Press, 1985, 5.

36 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal36 Analisis Pesaing ä Persaingan diantara perusahaan yang ada ä Pertumbuhan industri yang cepat ä Pertumbuhan industri yg cepat memberikan sejumlah perusahaan untuk masuk ke dalamnya.

37 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal37 Analisis Pesaing ä Ancaman pendatang baru ä Ancaman pendatang baru tergantung adanya penghalang masuk ä Beberapa penghalang masuk : ä Skala ekonomi : keunggulan biaya yang berhubungan dengan ukuran perusahaan. ä Diferensiasi (unik). ä Kebutuhan modal : investasi yang besar

38 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal38 Analisis Pesaing ä Ancaman produk pengganti ä Segmen tidak menarik jika terdapat produk substitusi ä Substitusi membatasi harga dan laba yang dapat dihasilkan oleh suatu segmen

39 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal39 Analisis Pesaing ä Kekuatan penawaran pemasok ä Pemasok cenderung lebih kuat jika mereka terkonsentrasi dan terorganisasi ä Pemasok perusahaan menaikkan harga ä Mengurangi kuantitas yang dipasok

40 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal40 Analisis Pesaing ä Kekuatan penawaran pembeli ä Pembeli cenderung lebih kuat jika mereka terkonsentrasi dan terorganisasi ä Pembeli akan memaksa agar harga diturunkan ä Meminta lebih banyak mutu dan pelayanan ä Membuat para pesaing saling beradu

41 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal41 Key Competitor Analysis ä Business scope and objectives ä Management experience, capabilities, and weaknesses ä Market position and trends ä Market target(s) and customer base ä Marketing program positioning strategy ä Financial, technical, and operating capabilities ä Key competitive advantages (e.g., access to resources, patents)

42 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal42 Extent of Market Coverage Customer Satisfaction Current Capabilities Past Performance Competitor Evaluation

43 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal43 MARKET SIZE ESTIMATION Unrealized Potential Company Sales Forecast Industry Sales Forecast Market Potential Estimate Product-Market Forecast Relationships (area denotes sales in $’s)

44 ©2000 Prentice Hall M. Ali Iqbal Sales (in 1000s of units) Market Potential Sales Forecast Company XYZ Sales Forecast Product-Market Forecast Relationships for Industrial Painting Units


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