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Presentasi berjudul: "OLEH : YUNI KILAWATI S.PI.,M.SI"— Transcript presentasi:


2 DESCRIPTION Integumentary system or skin is body skin and derivates.
All of the fish body covered by skin except eyes (tranparently skin)

Fins are supported by rays which are connected to the musculoskeletal system. There are two types of rays: Soft: flexible rays made of dermal bone segments arranged end to end in a line Spines: stiff, unjointed, mineralized rays. These are found on dorsal, anal, and pelvic fins of higher fish

4 Unpaired Fins: Dorsal: 1 or more. In higher fish the anterior portion (or first fin) is supported by spines. The dorsal fin(s) are used for rapid changes of direction Caudal: Primary fin used for locomation; shape varies with motion type used by species Anal

5 Paired Fins: Pectorals: soft rayed only. They are attached to the pectoral girdle at the posterior border of the gill cavity. They are used to stabilize and change direction Pelvic: variable location –thoracic or abdominal. Higher fish have thoracic pelvic fins. They are used to stabilize and brake

6 Skin Epidermis: Simple stratified squamous, but nonkeratinized surface layer Mucous glands: unicellular, produce mucin for cuticle Alarm (club) cells: produce pheromones which cause other fish to flee; no connection to skin surface, so pheromones only released when tissues damaged

7 Cuticle: a protective substance which coats the skin
Cuticle: a protective substance which coats the skin. It consists of mucin, immunoglobulins, etc, and is anti-pathogenic. Handling of fish should be gentle and minimal—wear wet latex-like gloves.

8 Dermis CT, vessles, nerves
Scales: protective calcified plates which originate in the dermis; usually covered with epidermis Placoid scales: a plate beneath the skin with a raised, exposed portion; includes a pulp cavity and dentin (sharks) Ganoid scales: rhomboid shape, overlapping (gar) Cycloid scales: ovoid, smooth edges (lower teleosts) Ctenoid scales: comblike with minute spikes on caudal edge (higher teleosts) Absent in some species (agnatha, catfish)

9 Lateral line: A sensory mechanism which consists of a series of pores running along both sides of the body. The pores lead to mechanoreceptors which transmit information about water pressures, currents, and sound.

10 Hypodermis: Spongy CT and adipose tisssue; contains melanocytes Skin factors to consider during surgery: Incision should be cranial-caudal, as tension lines run dorsal-ventral Nonabsorbable suture recommended because wet absorbable can pull in bacteria Close with minimal tension and make knots far from incision, because fish tissue breaks easily

11 COLOR Specialized skin cells allow amazing variety in fish coloration.
Chromatophores contain pigments (ex. Melanophores contain melanin) and iridophores contain reflective substances (ex crystals). Rapid color change is produced by movemant of pigment within the dendritic chromatophores, while long term changes are produced by changes in the number of cells. Control is hormonal (ex melanocyte stimulating hormone) and neural. Coloration is used for mimicry, species distinction, and sexual dimorphism.

12 FUNCTION First body devenses from pathogen
Harm environment protections Excretion and osmoregulations Inhalation supporting Poisonous gland productions Colour sources Light sources Odour and mucus secretions

13 STRUCTURE Skin is composed of three layers: 1. Epidermis 2. Dermis
3. Stratum spongiosum

14 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Integument of the head, transverse section (Formalin, H&E, Bar = 34.3 µm).
1. epidermis 2. dermis (stratum compactum) 3. hypodermis (areolar connective tissue) 4. epithelial cells 5. alarm cells 6. wandering leukocytes 7. chromatophores (melanocytes) 8. arteriole and venule.

15 EPIDERMIS Ceratin producing
Wet causing mucus (produced by all part of body) Part of inside always active for cleavage to cell repairing or growth This layer called GERMINATIVUM


17 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Caudal peduncle, longitudinal section (Formalin,H&E, Bar = 31.7 µm).
1. epidemis 2. scale pocket 3. dermis (stratum compactum) 4. muscle 5. scales 6. squamous epithelial cells 7. undifferentiated basal cells 8. alarm cell 9. mucous cells 10. taste bud.

18 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM: Scale (Unstained, Bar = 175 µm).
1. Radii 2. Circuli 3. Focus 4. lateral line pore (not always present).


20 DERMIS Contain of collagen fiber , the thick cell
For the fish with scale useful to scale producing (integument derivate)



23 MUCUS Composed primarily of glycoprotein (called mucin)become mucus if elaborate with water Thick mucus found in fish without scales Function : - scratch decrease during swimming - water flow protection - body devense from bacterial - lesion covering - wet protection - nest maker

24 skin - mucous cells

25 Examples: African fish summer sleep inside the nest that make from mud and mucus. Tricogaster trichopterus (sepat Jawa)& T. pectoralis (sepat siam) make the nest from mucus to save their egg.

26 Scales Called dermis scale
Very hard on primitive fish Pada ikan primitif constitute outer scale. Modern fish has the thin scale and flexible


28 Cosmoid scales of the Queensland Lungfish. Photo: C
Cosmoid scales of the Queensland Lungfish. Photo: C. Bento © Australian Museum. COSMOID : - Be a fossil - Part of : *virodentin (outer) *cosmine (inner) *isopedine (inner)  Comprise bone and & little vessel.

29 - Found in Actinopterigii The outer layer contain of
Ganoid scales of the Florida Gar, Lepisosteus platyrhincus. Photo: C. Bento © Australian Museum. GANOID - Found in Actinopterigii The outer layer contain of Organic Citrate  ganoine

30 Placoid scales of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark. Photo: S
Placoid scales of the Broadnose Sevengill Shark. Photo: S. Lindsay © Australian Museum PLACOID - Found in chondrichtyes Shape like a spine (same as teeth composer) enamel as a outer layer that cover dentin layer, have canaliculi inside dentin ( have blood vessel and peak nerve dermis)

31 Cycloid scales of Jungle Perch, Kuhlia rupestris. Photo: C
Cycloid scales of Jungle Perch, Kuhlia rupestris. Photo: C. Bento © Australian Museum. CYCLOID – found in osteichtyes - cycloid scale in malacopterygii

32 - Found in Acantopterygii
Ctenoid scales of the Paradise Fish, Macropodus opercularis. Photo: S. Lindsay © Australian Museum CTENOID - Found in Acantopterygii Shape : very thin , transparently, without dentin and enamel

33 Scale attitude Primarily on all of body : operculum until pre caudalis
Polyodon only below operculum Mas Kaca only in LL Tongkol  Pre Dorsal and hind head Half part of scale in dermis sac like roof tile The outside look more dark because of the pigment.

34 circulus Garis lingkaran pada sisik cycloid & ctenoid
Selalu ber + sepanjang musim, pd musim dingin pertumbuhan lambat. Berdempetan/ bertumpuk dsbt annulus (jmk: annuli) utk menghitung umur ikan Sisik LL & sisik palsu tdk dpt utk menentukan umuryg dpt menentukan adalah yg tertanam dlm tubuh & grs annulinya jelas

35 Dried scale of a Barramundi showing the growth rings, or annuli

36 Scale counting A. LINEA LATERALIS (LL) Sisik yg dihitung adalah sisik berpori/ gurat sisi/ linea lateralis (LL). Jumlah tdk sama utk masing-masing spesies. Dihitung dari dpn /dekat kepala kearah ekor. Jika LL tdk lurus (ex. Ikan kuweh) maka dihitung mengikuti arah LL. Jika ada 2 (ex. Ikan buntal) maka yg dekat kepala dihitung lbh dahulu (LL1 & LL2). Jika banyak (ex. Ikan belanak) yg dihitung satu saja yg plg tengah.

LTr adalah sisik transversal/ sisik yg terletak antara dorsal dg ventral. Dihitung pangkal terdepan sirip dorsal sampai LL yg kedua dihitung dari pangkal terdepan sirip anal kearah LL

38 Scale Rudimenter Sisik ketiak dada (pectoral axilliary scale) tdp di sekitar dasar sirip pectoral Sisik ketiak perut (pelvic axilliary scale) tdp di sekitar dasar sirip ventral Sisik berduri atau sisik lipat ada dua macam yaitu tdp di depan sirip perut atau pre pelvic scute dan dibelakang sirip perut (post pelvic scutes)

39 Colours Disebabkan oleh schemachrome butiran2 pigmen
Warna ikan laut dpt dibagi : a. Hdp di permukaan: perak b. Hdp di tengah : kemerahan c. Hdp di dlm/ dasar  violet s/d hitam

40 - carotenoid : kuning merah - chromolipoid : kuning s/d coklat
Biochrome  pigmen pembawa warna : - carotenoid : kuning merah - chromolipoid : kuning s/d coklat - indigoid : biru, merah, hijau - melanin : merah & coklat - perphyrin (pigmen empedu): merah, kuning, hijau, biru - flavins : kuning dg fluoresensi hijau - purine : putih keperakan - pterine : putih, kuning, merah dan orange

41 2 macam sel yang memberi warna ikan Iridocyte (leucophore & guanophore) sel kaca karena dpt merefleksikan warna di luar tubuh  tersusun dr guanin Untuk mengelabui musuh tawes, kembung, gabus, bandeng, tembang & kembung bag. Dorsal gelap & anal putih

42 Ikan dpt berubah warna krn, menjadi jelas atau pucat :
- secara cepat  stimuli chy & stimuli mata - lambat  hormon Mimicri  warna menyerupai lungkungannya.

43 chromatophore Tdp dlm dermis tdr dr butir pigmen yg dapat menyebar dan berkumpul jika berkumpul memberi warna pucat  jika menyebar membuat warna jadi jelas Chromatophore dasar ada 4 : a. Erythrophore : merah & orange b. Xantophore : kuning c. Melanophore : hitam d. Guanophore : putih / keperakan (irydococyte)

44 Light organs Cahaya yg dikeluarkan organ hidup  bioluminescense (kunang-kunang/insekta, nocticula/ plankton, cacing lamprydae, cumi-cumi, ikan) Light sources: 1. bacteri yg bersimbiose dg ikan (di kantong klj epidermis) ikan leweri batu(photoblepharon), leweri air (Anomalops) 2. dikeluarkan oleh ikan (photophore/ photocyte)

45 Head of a scaleless black dragonfish, Melanostomias species C, about 5cm in length. Note chin barbel (to lure prey), yellowish light organ below eye, and bioluminescent tooth bases.

46 Malacocephalus kekuatan chy s/d 10 m, glb chy 410 – 600 µ
Light Function: 1. Cahaya jg berfungsi pd proses reproduksi  ikan jantan membimbing betina ke tempat berpijah 2. Untuk menarik mangsa ikan pemancing

47 Poisonous Gland Mucus modification Fungsi : a. mempertahankan diri
b. menyerang musuh c. mencari makan Ikan beracun biasanya hidup di dasar air & gerakannya lamban, contoh : Dasyatidae, Myliobatidae & chimaera Racun segar dpt mematikan : - tikus setelah 11 menit - kodok stlh 41 menit - anjing sembuh kembali stlh 8 hari

48 The poisonous Fish Lepu tembaga (Synanoeja sp)
 hdp di karang/ pasir yg dangkal  racun tdp di lapisan kulit penutup jari- jari keras D & V  duri terinjak >kelenjar tertekan>cairan racun akan meresap dlm luka > korban akan demam 3 x 24 jam Baronang (Siganus spp)  kelj racun pd sirip keras D & V Ikan Pari  pd duri ekor Lele lokal (Indonesia)pd D & P jari-jari keras Ikan buntal  di empedu

49 Danke Sehr…

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