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VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: KUALITAS LAHAN Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014.

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Presentasi berjudul: "VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: KUALITAS LAHAN Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014."— Transcript presentasi:

1 VALUASI EKONOMI SUMBERDAYA LAHAN: KUALITAS LAHAN Diabstraksikan : soemarno, jtnh fpub 2014

2 KUALITAS & KARAKTERISTIK LAHAN "Karakterisik lahan" merupakan atribut lahan yang dapat diukur atau diestimasi. Misalnya: kemiringan, curah hujan, tekstur tanah, kapasitas air tersedia, biomasa vegetasi, dll. "Kualitas lahan" adalah kompleks atribut lahan yang mempunyai peranan spesifik dalam menentukan tingkat kesesuaian lahan untuk suatu penggunaan tertentu. Misalnya: ketersediaan air, resistensi erosi, bahaya banjir, dan aksesibilitas. "Kriteria diagnostik" adalah suatu peubah yang mempunyai pengaruh tertentu terhadap hasil (atau input yang diperlukan ) pada penggunaan tertentu, dan peubah ini juga berfungsi sebagai dasar untuk menilai kesesuaian suatu bidang lahan bagi penggunaan tertentu. “Kriteria diagnostik” ini dapat berupa kualitas lahan, karakteristik lahan, atau beberapa karakteristik lahan. Diunduh dari sumber:…… 5/11/2012

3 KUALITAS LAHAN Hubungan antara kualitas dan karakteristik lahan yang dipakai pada metode evaluasi lahan (Djaenudin et al. 2003).. Diunduh dari sumber:…… 5/11/2012 Kualitas Lahan Karakteristik Lahan Temperatur (tc)Temperatur rata -rata (oC) Ketersediaan air (wa)Curah hujan (mm), Kelembaban (%), Lamanya bulan kering (bln) Ketersediaan oksigen (oa)Drainase Keadaan media perakaran (rc)Tekstur, Bahan kasar (%), Kedalaman tanah (cm) Gambut Ketebalan (cm), Ketebalan (cm) jika ada sisipan bahan mineral/pengkayaan, Kematangan Retensi hara (nr)KTK liat (cmol/kg), Kejenuhan basa (%), pH, C-organik (%) Toksisitas (xc)Salinitas (dS/m) Sodisitas (xn)Alkalinitas/ESP (%) Bahaya sulfidik (xs)Bahaya sulfidik (xs) Kedalaman sulfidik (cm) Bahaya erosi (eh)Lereng (%), Bahaya erosi Bahaya banjir (fh)Genangan Penyiapan lahan (lp)Batuan di permukaan (%), Singkapan batuan (%)

4 LAND USE Land comprises the physical environment, including climate, relief, soils, hydrology and vegetation, to the extent that these influence potential for land use. It includes the results of past and present human activity, e.g. reclamation from the sea, vegetation clearance, and also adverse results, e.g. soil salinization. Purely economic and social characteristics, however, are not included in the concept of land; these form part of the economic and social context. (sumber: Land use is the human use of land. Land use involves the management and modification of natural environment or wilderness into built environment such as fields, pastures, and settlements. “LAND USE” has also been defined as "the arrangements, activities and inputs people undertake in a certain land cover type to produce, change or maintain it" (FAO, 1997; FAO/UNEP, 1999).. Diunduh dari sumber: …… 5/11/2012

5 LAND UTILIZATION A land utilization type consists of a set of technical specifications in a given physical, economic and social setting. This may be the current environment or a future Betting modified by major land improvement e, e.g. an irrigation and drainage scheme. Attributes of land utilization types include data or assumptions on: 1.Produce, including goods (e.g. crops, livestock timber), cervices (e.g. recreational facilities) or other benefits (e.g. wildlife conservation) 2.Market orientation, including whether towards subsistence or commercial production 3.Capital intensity 4.Labour intensity 5.Power sources (e.g. man's labour, draught animals machinery using fuels) 6.Technical knowledge and attitudes of land users 7.Technology employed (e.g. implements and machinery, fertilizers, livestock breeds, farm transport, methods of timber felling) 8.Infrastructure requirements (e.g. sawmills, tat factories, agricultural advisory services) 9.Size and configuration of land holdings, including whether consolidated or fragmented 10.Land tenure, the legal or customary manner in which rights to land are held, by individuals or groups 11.Income levels, expressed per capita, per unit of production (e.g. farm) or per unit area. Diunduh dari sumber: …… 5/11/2012

6 TEORI PRODUKSI NEOKLASIK The neoclassical production function for a single output and two variable inputs can be written: y = f(x1,x2) where y is the quantity of output and xi is the quantity of the ith variable input. The properties of this production function are specified by assumptions: 1.Xi ≥ 0 and finite (non-negative, real inputs); 2.f(X1,X2) is finite, nonnegative, real valued, and single valued for all possible combinations of X1 and X2; 3. f(X1,X2) is everywhere continuous and everywhere twice continuously differentiable; 4.f(X1,X2) is subject to the "law" of diminishing returns. Diunduh dari sumber: …… 5/11/2012

7 INPUT / FAKTOR PRODUKSI Diunduh dari Sumber: 2/10/2011. Of the three factors of production in classical economics, land, labor, and capital, land may be the most difficult to define. Does it refer to just the land itself? Or is land a generic term referring to all natural resources? Air, sunshine, and water, necessary to make land productive, are all part of the surrounding ecosystems. While ownership of land itself can easily be demarcated, ownership of mobile, associated resources is trickier.

8 PROSES PRODUKSI TANAMAN Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. Many processes affect crop performance : the conservative efficiency of the use of radiation, water and nutrient on crop growth, those contributing to the soil water balance and those affecting soil fertility. Crop growth has been modelled successfully as a function of environmental factors using the concept of these conservative efficiencies. Crop production will be described for these levels in terms of potential and water- or nutrient limited production. The most suitable cereal crop (depending on the agro-ecological conditions wheat, rice, maize, millet or sorghum) is taken as a proxy for a wide range of crops that could be grown, with yields expressed in 'grain equivalents'. In practice actual production levels may differ from these calculated levels due to deviant agricultural management. Actual yield is a function of biophysical as well as the socio- economic conditions Levels of production and required data for its assessment. (Modified from Rabbinge, 1993). Rabbinge, R., 1993. The ecological background in food production. In: Crop protection and sustainable agriculture. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester (Ciba Foundation Symposium 177), pp. 2-29.

9 INPUT-OUTPUT PROCESS RELATIONSHIPS Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. Figure illustrates some differently shaped production functions for the case of a single-variable input production process. Each graph shows the physical input- output relationship or total physical product curve as the level of the single variable input is increased with all other input factors held constant. In graphs A and B, the law of diminishing returns (sometimes called the law of variable proportions) prevails - beyond some point, as the level of the variable input increases with no change in the level of other input factors, increases in output occur at a diminishing rate (the marginal product is decreasing) and eventually, beyond the point of maximum output, output declines in absolute terms (the marginal product becomes negative). Stylized Production Functions or Input-Output Relationships for a Single Variable Input

10 Keterkaitan Faktor Produksi Diunduh dari Sumber: 5/11/2012. Kaitan Faktor Manajemen Dengan Faktor Produksi Lain Ada empat faktor produksi pertanian yaitu: Alam (lahan, iklim, radiasi matahari, air, udara, dll), Tenaga kerja, Modal, dan Pengelolaan (manajemen). Faktor produksi alam dan tenaga kerja sering disebut sebagai faktor produksi primer, faktor produksi modal dan pengolaan disebut faktor produksi sekunder.

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