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Teori Organisasi dan Manajemen IV Teori Penggerak II.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Teori Organisasi dan Manajemen IV Teori Penggerak II."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Teori Organisasi dan Manajemen IV Teori Penggerak II

2 2015/4/192 The Human Resources Perspective Sebuah perspektif manajemen yang menunjuk kan pekerjaan harusdirancang untuk memenu hi kebutuhan tingkat yang lebih tinggidengan memungkinkan para pekerja untuk menggunakan potensi mereka sepenuhnya.

3 2015/4/193 Defining Motivation The processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal.

4 2015/4/194 Key Element of Motivation Intensity: how hard a person tries Direction: toward beneficial goal Persistence: how long a person tries

5 2015/4/195 Representatives of The Human Resources Perspective Douglas McGregor (1906~1964) Abraham Maslow (1908~1970)

6 2015/4/196 Douglas McGregor (1906~1964)

7 2015/4/197 Theory of X and Theory of Y by Douglas McGregor McGregor diinterpretasikan sebagai pendukung Teori Y sebagaisebuah etika baru dan unggul. Teori Y berlaku untuk pemberdayaan.

8 2015/4/198 Abraham Maslow 1908~1970

9 2015/4/199 Abraham Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs motivational model

10 2015/4/1910 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (1) (by Abraham Maslow) Five general types of motivating needs in order of ascendance: 1.Physiological needs: heat, air base salary. 2.Safety needs: safe work, job security. 3.Belongingness needs: work groups. 4.Esteem needs: recognition, increased responsibility. 5.Self-actualization needs: Opportunities for training, advancement.

11 2015/4/1911 Hierarchy of Needs Theory (2) (by Abraham Maslow) Basic Needs in order of ascendance: 1.Physiological needs 2.Safety needs 3.Belongingness and love needs 4.Self-esteem needs Growth Need in order of ascendance: 5.Need to know 6.Aesthetic needs 7.Self-actualization needs

12 2015/4/1912 Hierarchy of Needs Criticism

13 2015/4/1913 ERG Theory proposed by Clayton Alderfer

14 2015/4/1914 ERG Theory Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Core Needs Existence: provision of basic material requirements. Relatedness: desire for relationships. Growth: desire for personal development. Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases (i.e., frustration- regression). Concepts: More than one need can be operative at the same time. If a higher-level need cannot be fulfilled, the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases (i.e., frustration- regression). There are three groups of core needs: existence, relatedness, and growth.

15 2015/4/1915 David McClelland’s Theory of Needs nAch nPow nAff Need for Achievement The drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards, to strive to succeed. Need for Affiliation The desire for friendly and close personal relationships. Need for Power The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise.

16 2015/4/1916 David McClelland

17 2015/4/1917 Theory of Needs

18 2015/4/1918 Matching High Achievers and Jobs

19 2015/4/1919 Frederick Herzberg 1923~

20 2015/4/1920 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction

21 2015/4/1921 Two-Factor Theory (by Frederick Herzberg) Two-Factor (Motivation-Hygiene) Theory Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction, while extrinsic factors are associated with dissatisfaction. Hygiene Factors Factors—such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary—that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied.

22 2015/4/1922 Comparison of Satisfiers and Dissatisfiers Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job dissatisfaction Factors characterizing events on the job that led to extreme job satisfaction Source: Reprinted by permission of Harvard Business Review. An exhibit from One More Time: How Do You Motivate Employees? by Frederick Herzberg, September–October 1987.

23 2015/4/1923 Teori Evaluasi kognitif Cognitive Evaluation Theory Memberikan imbalan ekstrinsik untuk perilaku yang te lah dilakukan sebelumnya dengan hakekatnya hanya memberi penghargaan dan cenderungmenurunkan keseluruhan tingkat motivasi. Teori ini hanya dapat relevan dengan pekerjaan yang sangat membosankan atau tidak sangat menarik.

24 2015/4/1924 Goal-Setting Theory (by Edwin A. Locke) Goal-Setting Theory The theory that specific and difficult goals, with feedback, lead to higher performance. Self-Efficacy The individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task. Factors influencing the goals–performance relationship: Goal commitment, adequate self-efficacy, task characteristics, and national culture.

25 2015/4/1925 Teori Penguatan Konsep: Perilaku ini disebabkan lingkungan. Perilaku dapat dimodifikasi (diperkuat) dengan menyediakan(mengendalikan) konse kuensi. Perilaku Diperkuat cenderung diulang. Asumsinya bahwa perilaku merupakan fungsi dari konsekuensi-konsekuensinya.

26 2015/4/1926 The behavioral sciences approach Sebuah bagian perspektif manajemen hu manistik yang berlakuilmu sosial dalam konteks organisasi, tergambar dari segi ekonomi,psikologi, sosiologi, dan disiplin lainnya.

27 2015/4/1927 Management Science Perspective Sebuah perspektif manajemen yang mun cul setelah Perang Dunia II yang menerapkan matematika, statistik, dan teknik kuantitatif lainuntuk masalah ma najerial.

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