Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Infrastruktur dalam Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Database Pertemuan 05-06 Matakuliah: F0174 / Audit Laporan Keuangan Berbasis Komputer Tahun: 2008.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Infrastruktur dalam Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Database Pertemuan 05-06 Matakuliah: F0174 / Audit Laporan Keuangan Berbasis Komputer Tahun: 2008."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Infrastruktur dalam Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Database Pertemuan Matakuliah: F0174 / Audit Laporan Keuangan Berbasis Komputer Tahun: 2008

3 Bina Nusantara Infrastruktur Sistem Informasi Akuntansi 3

4 Bina Nusantara Four fundamentalobjectives to manage data: –Sharability: Different stakeholders in organization should be permitted to access and use the same data. –Availability If data were to be shared, different stakeholders should be able to access and use the data whenever they needed it. –Evolvability Facilities had to exist that allowed data and its definition to be modified easily in response to changingstakeholder needs. –Integrity If data were to be shared among multiple stakeholders, its authenticity, accuracy, and completenees had to preserved

5 Bina Nusantara Konsep Digitalisasi Data 5

6 Bina Nusantara MEMAHAMI BAGAIMANA KOMPUTER MENYAJIKAN DATA PENGKODEAN –ASCII (American National Standard Code for information Interchange) format yang biasanya dijumpai pada IBM Mainframe Komputer dan Mid Range Komputer –EBCDIC (Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code) Format yang dijumpai pada hampir semua jenis komputer

7 Bina Nusantara HIERARKI DATA DIGITAL (BINARY DIGIT) DIGITAL ANALOG BYTE BIT UNICODE=16BIT=>65000CRKTR WORD RECORD DATA FILE DATABASE

8 Bina Nusantara Representing Pictures, Time Pictures –Pixel : Ukuran ketajaman/detail jumlah cell dalam tiap inchi Time –Millisecond = 1/1000 seconds –Microsenond = 1/1,000,000 –Nanosecond = 1/1,000,000,000 –Picosencond = 1/1,000,000,000,000 Size is measured by the number of bytes –KB-Kilobyte = 1,000 bytes (actually 1024) –MB-Megabyte = 1,000 kilobytes = 106 bytes –GB-Gigabyte = 109 bytes –TB-Terabyte = 1012 bytes –PB -Petabyte = bytes –Exabyte- = bytes Representing Size of Bytes

9 Bina Nusantara Konsep Data Base 9

10 Bina Nusantara File Systems program 1 data description 1 program 2 data description 2 program 3 data description 3 File 1 File 2 File 3

11 Bina Nusantara Database Management database DBMS Application program 1 (with data semantics) Application program 2 (with data semantics) Application program 3 (with data semantics) description manipulation control

12 Bina Nusantara Motivation Database Technology Computer Networks integrationdistribution integration integration ≠ centralization Distributed Database Systems

13 Bina Nusantara Distributed Computing A concept in search of a definition and a name. A number of autonomous processing elements (not necessarily homogeneous) that are interconnected by a computer network and that cooperate in performing their assigned tasks.

14 Bina Nusantara Synonymous terms –distributed function –distributed data processing –multiprocessors/multicomputers –satellite processing –backend processing –dedicated/special purpose computers –timeshared systems –functionally modular systems Distributed Computing

15 Bina Nusantara Processing logic Functions Data Control What is distributed …

16 Bina Nusantara What is a Distributed Database System? A distributed database (DDB) is a collection of multiple, logically interrelated databases distributed over a computer network. A distributed database management system (D–DBMS) is the software that manages the DDB and provides an access mechanism that makes this distribution transparent to the users. Distributed database system (DDBS) = DDB + D–DBMS

17 Bina Nusantara A timesharing computer system A loosely or tightly coupled multiprocessor system A database system which resides at one of the nodes of a network of computers - this is a centralized database on a network node What is not a DDBS?

18 Bina Nusantara Centralized DBMS on a Network Site 5 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Communication Network

19 Bina Nusantara Distributed DBMS Environment Site 5 Site 1 Site 2 Site 3 Site 4 Communication Network

20 Bina Nusantara Implicit Assumptions Data stored at a number of sites  each site logically consists of a single processor. Processors at different sites are interconnected by a computer network  no multiprocessors –parallel database systems Distributed database is a database, not a collection of files  data logically related as exhibited in the users’ access patterns –relational data model D-DBMS is a full-fledged DBMS –not remote file system, not a TP system

21 Bina Nusantara Shared-Memory Architecture Examples :symmetric multiprocessors (Sequent, Encore) and some mainframes (IBM3090, Bull's DPS8) P1P1 PnPn M D

22 Bina Nusantara Shared-Disk Architecture Examples :DEC's VAXcluster, IBM's IMS/VS Data Sharing D P1P1 M1M1 PnPn MnMn

23 Bina Nusantara Shared-Nothing Architecture Examples :Teradata's DBC, Tandem, Intel's Paragon, NCR's 3600 and 3700 P1P1 M1M1 D1D1 PnPn MnMn DnDn

24 Bina Nusantara Manufacturing - especially multi-plant manufacturing Military command and control EFT Corporate MIS Airlines Hotel chains Any organization which has a decentralized organization structure Applications

25 Bina Nusantara Distributed DBMS Promises  Transparent management of distributed, fragmented, and replicated data  Improved reliability/availability through distributed transactions  Improved performance  Easier and more economical system expansion

26 Bina Nusantara Transparency Transparency is the separation of the higher level semantics of a system from the lower level implementation issues. Fundamental issue is to provide data independence in the distributed environment –Network (distribution) transparency –Replication transparency –Fragmentation transparency horizontal fragmentation: selection vertical fragmentation: projection hybrid

27 Bina Nusantara Example TITLESAL PAY Elect. Eng Syst. Anal Mech. Eng Programmer24000 PROJ PNO PNAME BUDGET ENOENAMETITLE E1J. DoeElect. Eng. E2M. SmithSyst. Anal. E3A. LeeMech. Eng. E4J. MillerProgrammer E5B. CaseySyst. Anal. E6L. ChuElect. Eng. E7R. DavisMech. Eng. E8J. JonesSyst. Anal. EMP ENOPNORESP E1P1Manager12 DUR E2P1Analyst24 E2P2Analyst 6 E3P3Consultant10 E3P4Engineer48 E4P2Programmer18 E5P2Manager24 E6P4Manager48 E7P3Engineer36 E8P3Manager40 ASG P1 Instrumentation P3CAD/CAM P2Database Develop P4Maintenance E7P5Engineer23

28 Bina Nusantara Transparent Access SELECTENAME,SAL FROMEMP,ASG,PAY WHEREDUR > 12 ANDEMP.ENO = ASG.ENO ANDPAY.TITLE = EMP.TITLE Paris projects Paris employees Paris assignments Boston employees Montreal projects Paris projects New York projects with budget > Montreal employees Montreal assignments Boston Communication Network Montreal Paris New York Boston projects Boston employees Boston assignments Boston projects New York employees New York projects New York assignments Tokyo

29 Bina Nusantara Distributed Database - User View Distributed Database

30 Bina Nusantara Distributed DBMS - Reality Communication Subsystem User Query DBMS Software DBMS Software User Application DBMS Software User Application User Query DBMS Software User Query DBMS Software

31 Bina Nusantara Potentially Improved Performance Proximity of data to its points of use –Requires some support for fragmentation and replication Parallelism in execution –Inter-query parallelism –Intra-query parallelism

32 Bina Nusantara Parallelism Requirements  Have as much of the data required by each application at the site where the application executes –Full replication How about updates? –Updates to replicated data requires implementation of distributed concurrency control and commit protocols

33 Bina Nusantara System Expansion Issue is database scaling Emergence of microprocessor and workstation technologies –Demise of Grosh's law –Client-server model of computing Data communication cost vs telecommunication cost

34 Bina Nusantara Distributed DBMS Issues Distributed Database Design –how to distribute the database –replicated & non-replicated database distribution –a related problem in directory management  Query Processing –convert user transactions to data manipulation instructions –optimization problem –min{cost = data transmission + local processing} –general formulation is NP-hard

35 Bina Nusantara Distributed DBMS Issues  Concurrency Control –synchronization of concurrent accesses –consistency and isolation of transactions' effects –deadlock management Reliability –how to make the system resilient to failures –atomicity and durability

36 Bina Nusantara Directory Management Relationship Between Issues Reliability Deadlock Management Query Processing Concurrency Control Distribution Design

37 Bina Nusantara Struktur Data/File 37

38 Bina Nusantara HIERARKI DATA DIGITAL (BINARY DIGIT) DIGITAL ANALOG BYTE BIT UNICODE=16BIT=>65000CRKTR WORD RECORD DATA FILE DATABASE

39 Bina Nusantara Representing Pictures, Time Pictures –Pixel : Ukuran ketajaman/detail jumlah cell dalam tiap inchi Time –Millisecond = 1/1000 seconds –Microsenond = 1/1,000,000 –Nanosecond = 1/1,000,000,000 –Picosencond = 1/1,000,000,000,000 Size is measured by the number of bytes –KB-Kilobyte = 1,000 bytes (actually 1024) –MB-Megabyte = 1,000 kilobytes = 106 bytes –GB-Gigabyte = 109 bytes –TB-Terabyte = 1012 bytes –PB -Petabyte = bytes –Exabyte- = bytes Representing Size of Bytes

40 Bina Nusantara Format Data Base 40

41 Bina Nusantara Hirarkis Data Hirarkis data meliputi bit, ruas, rekod, dan file, yang merupakan unsur-unsur suatu database. Data dapat dikelompokkan menurut hirarki kategori, masing- masing terus meningkat ke yang lebih kompleks. Hirarki penyimpanan data terdiri dari tingkatan data disimpan: bit, byte (karakter), ruas, rekord, file, dan database

42 Bina Nusantara Hirarkis Data

43 Bina Nusantara Sistem Manajemen Database Apakah yang dimaksud dengan sistem manajemen database? (Database Management System=DBMS). Sistem manajemen database adalah sistem berbasis komputer untuk mendefinisikan, membuat, memanipulasi, mengawasi, mengatur, dan menggunakan database. Sebuah database adalah kumpulan dari integrasi data yang terorganisir seperti byte, ruas, rekod, dan file. DBMS adalah menggantikan sistem manajemen file lama dan dengan demikian meningkatkan integritas data dan kemandirian, serta mengurangi pemborosan data

44 Bina Nusantara Manajemen File v.s. Manajemen Database

45 Bina Nusantara Fundamental DBMS DMBS membutuhkan kapasitas penyimpanan besar, biasanya menggunakan magnetic tape, hard disk, CD-ROM, dan sistem penyimpanan (mass storage systems). Perangkat lunak DBMS biasanya termasuk bahasa query, penulis laporan, utiliti, kamus data, dan log transaksi. Perangkat keras: Menghitung kapasitas penyimpanan Perangkat lunak: Pengawasan

46 Bina Nusantara Perangkat Lunak dan Contoh Laporan dari DBMS

47 Bina Nusantara Kamus Data dan Log Transaksi Paket Perangkat Lunak Database

48 Bina Nusantara Jenis Organisasi Database Tiga jenis umum struktur database adalah: Hirarkis: pada struktur database hirarkis, ruas atau rekod diatur dalam kelompok yang berhubungan menyerupai ranting pohon Jaringan: database jaringan hampir sama dengan hirarkis, tetapi masing-masing anak rekod dapat memiliki induk lebih dari satu rekod Relasional: Jenis pengorganisasian yang paling fleksibel, database relasional menghubungkan data di dalam file berbeda melalui penggunaan suatu ruas kunci, atau elemen data umum

49 Bina Nusantara Database Hirarkis

50 Bina Nusantara Database Jaringan

51 Bina Nusantara Database Relasional

52 Bina Nusantara Format File dalam project audit/tabel data Open Data Base Conectifity Delimited files Text File Acces File EXCEL File DBF File Dat File PNG File ACL format File PDF File


Download ppt "Infrastruktur dalam Sistem Informasi Akuntansi dan Database Pertemuan 05-06 Matakuliah: F0174 / Audit Laporan Keuangan Berbasis Komputer Tahun: 2008."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google