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Pokok bahasan: Use case Identifikasi use case dan actor Business use case dan system use case Menggunakan use case Use case Developing Software Woth UML.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pokok bahasan: Use case Identifikasi use case dan actor Business use case dan system use case Menggunakan use case Use case Developing Software Woth UML."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pokok bahasan: Use case Identifikasi use case dan actor Business use case dan system use case Menggunakan use case Use case Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

2 Use case modeling adalah suatu proses untuk membuat model fungsi-fungsi dari sistem dari kejadian- kejadian bisnis, siapa yang melakukannya, dan bagaimana sistem bereaksi terhadap suatu kejadian. Use case modeling mengidentifikasi dan menjelaskan fungsi-fungsi sistem dari perspektif pengguna eksternal dengan menggunakan tools yang disebut use case. Use case adalah serangkaian langkah-langkah yang saling berhubungan (skenario), baik otomatis maupun manual, dengan tujuan untuk menyelesaikan suatu kegiatan bisnis tunggal. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Membuat model fungsi sistem

3 Use case menggambarkan fungsi-fungsi sistem dari perspektif pengguna luar. Use case adalah hasil dari dekomposisi lingkup fungsi-fungsi dari sistem menjadi statement-statement yang lebih kecil mengenai fungsional oleh fungsi-fungsi sistem. Pembuatan use case sudah dibuktikan merupakan suatu teknik yang baik untuk mengerti lebih baik dan mendokumentasi kebutuhan sistem. Use case sendiri bukan sebagai kebutuhan fungsional, tetapi ceritanya (skenario) yang diceritakan dari use case menangkap essensi dari satu atau lebih kebutuhan-kebutuhan. Use case diawali atau dipicu oleh pengguna eksternal atau sistem yang disebut actor. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

4 Actor menggambarkan segala sesuatu yang berinteraksi dengan sistem untuk melakukan pertukaran informasi. Actor adalah pengguna, pemeran (role), yang bisa berupa sistem eksternal maupun orang. Actor menginisiasi aktivitas sistem, dalam bentuk use case, bertujuan untuk melengkapi beberapa kegiatan bisnis. Actor menggambarkan peranan yang dilakukan oleh user yang berinteraksi dengan sistem dan bukan menggambarkan individual jabatan pekerjaan. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved

5 1.Sebagai dasar untuk membantu mengidentifikasi objek-objek dan hubungan tingkat tinggi dan tanggung jawab masing-masing. 2.Sebagai gambaran dari behavior sistem yang akan dibuat dari sisi pengguna eksternal. 3.Sebagai alat yang efektif untuk memvalidasi kebutuhan. 4.Sebagai alat komunikasi yang efektif 5.Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan perencanaan testing. 6.Sebagai dasar untuk melakukan pembuatan user manual. SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Keuntungan Use Case

6 1.Mengidentifikasi actor-actor tambahan dan use case-use case 2.Buatlah model Use Case 3.Dokumentasikan kejadian-kejadian dalam Use Case 4.Definisikan Analysis Use Cases SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Langkah-langkah dalam membuat use case modeling

7 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 1: Identifying Actors and Use Cases Actor Potential Member Club Member Past Member Marketing Time Use Case Name SUBMIT NEW SUBSCRIPTION PLACE NEW MEMBER ORDER MAKE ACCOUNT INQUIRY MAKE PURCHASE INQUIRY MAINTAIN MEMBER ORDER SUBMIT CHANGE OF ADDRESS SUBMIT RESUBSCRIPTION SUBMIT NEW MEMBER SUBSCRIPTION PROGRAM SUBMIT PAST MEMBER RESUBSCRIPTION PROGRAM SUBMIT NEW PROMOTION GENERATE QUARTERLY PROMOTION ANALYSIS GENERATE QUARTERLY SALES ANALYSIS GENERATE QUARTERLY MEMBERSHIP ANALYSIS GENERATE ANNUAL SALES ANALYSIS GENERATE ANNUAL MEMBERSHIP ANALYSIS Use Case Description Potential member joins the club by subscribing. (“Take anu 12 CDs for one penny and agree to buy 4 more at regular club prices within two years.”) Club member places order. Club member wants to examine his or her account history. (90-day time limit) Club member inquires about his/her purchase history. (three-year time limit) Club member wants to revise an order or cancel an order. Club member changes address. (including and privacy code) Past member rejoins the club by resubscribing. Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to entice new members. Marketing establishes a new membership resubscription plan to lure back former members. Marketing initiates a promotion. (Note: A promotion features specific titles, usually new, that company is trying to sell at a special price. These promotions are integrated into a catalog sent (or communicated) to all members.) Print quarterly promotion analysis report. Print annual sales analysis report. Print annual membership analysis report. Print annual sales analysis report. Print annual membership analysis report.

8 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 2: Constructing a Use Case Model Diagram

9 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical Course Author: S. ShepardDate: 10/05/200 Use Case Name:Submit New Member Order Actor(s):Member Description:This use case describes the process of a member submitting an order for SoundStage products. On completion, the member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. References:MSS-1.0 Typical Course of Events: Actor Action Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member submits an order to be processed Step 7: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice. System response Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address is validated against what is currently recorded in member services. Step 3: The member’s credit status is checked with Accounts Receivable to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 4: For each product being ordered, validate the product number and then check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information. Step 5: Create a picking ticket for the member order containing all ordered products that are available and route it to the warehouse for processing. Step 6: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. 1 2

10 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 3: Documenting the Use Case Typical Course (concluded) AlternateStep 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the Courses:promotion order, update the club member’s record with the new information. Step 3: If Accounts Receivable returns a credit status that the customer is in arrears, send an order rejection notice to the member. Step 4: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting them to submit a valid product number. If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark as “back-ordered.” Pre-condition:Orders can only be submitted by members. Post-condition:Member order has been recorded and the picking ticket has been routed to the warehouse. Assumptions:None at this time.

11 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Extension and Abstract Use Cases An extension use case extends the functionality (typical course) of an original use case. An extension use case can only be invoked by the use case it is extending. An abstract use case contains typical course steps that were common to two or more original use cases. An abstract use case reduces redundancy and promotes reuse.

12 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Generate Warehouse Packing Order Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax Place New Member Order Revise Street Address Submit Change of Address Extension use case Extension use case Abstract use case Depicting Extension and Abstract Use Cases using UML Notation

13 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case System Response Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address and phone number is validated against what is currently on file. Step 3: For each product being ordered, validate the product number. Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information such as the quantity being ordered. Step 5: Invoke extension use case Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax. Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 7: Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse Packing Order. Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. (continued) USE CASE NAME: ACTOR(S): DESCRIPTION: REFERENCES TYPICAL COURSE OF EVENTS: Author: S. ShepherdDate: 10/25/2000 ANALYSIS USE CASE Place New Member Order Club Member This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for SoundStage products. On completion, the club member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. MSS-1.0 Actor Action Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member submits an order to be processed. Step 9: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice.

14 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Step 4: Defining the Analysis Use Case (concluded) ALTERNATE COURSES: PRECONDITION: POSTCONDITION: ASSUMPTIONS: Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the order, invoke abstract use case Revise Street Address. Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears, a credit problem notice is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold pending payment.” Orders can only be submitted by members. Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse. None at this time.

15 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Finding and Identifying Business Objects Step 1: Find the Potential Objects –Underlining (or highlighting) the use case nouns Step 2: Select the Proposed Objects –Removing the nouns that represent : Synonyms Nouns outside the scope of the system Nouns that are roles without unique behavior or are external roles Unclear nouns that need focus Nouns that are really actions or attributes

16 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Use Case with Nouns Highlighted USE CASE NAME: ACTOR(S): DESCRIPTION: REFERENCES TYPICAL COURSE OF EVENTS: Author: S. ShepherdDate: 10/25/2000 ANALYSIS USE CASE Place New Member Order Club Member This use case describes the process of a club member submitting a new order for SoundStage products. On completion, the club member will be sent a notification that the order was accepted. MSS-1.0 Actor Action Step 1: This use case is initiated when a member submits an order to be processed. Step 9: This use case concludes when the member receives the order confirmation notice. System Response Step 2: The member’s personal information such as address and phone number is validated against what is currently on file. Step 3: For each product being ordered, validate the product number. Step 4: For each product being ordered, check the availability in inventory and record the ordered product information such as the quantity being ordered. Step 5: Invoke extension use case Calculate Order Subtotal & Sales Tax. Step 6: The member’s credit card information is verified based on the amount due and Accounts Receivable transaction data is checked to make sure no payments are outstanding. Step 7: Invoke extension use case Generate Warehouse Packing Order. Step 8: Generate an order confirmation notice indicating the status of the order and send it to the member. (continued)

17 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Use Case with Nouns Highlighted (concluded) ALTERNATE COURSES: PRECONDITION: POSTCONDITION: ASSUMPTIONS: Step 2: If the club member has indicated an address or telephone number change on the order, invoke abstract use case Revise Street Address. Step 3: If the product number is not valid, send a notification to the member requesting the member to submit a valid product number. Step 4: If the product being ordered is not available, record the ordered product information and mark the order as “backordered.” Step 6: If member’s credit card information is invalid or if member is found to be in arrears, a credit problem notice is sent to the member. Modify the order’s status to be “on hold pending payment.” Orders can only be submitted by members. Member order has been recorded and the Packing Order has been routed to the Warehouse. None at this time.

18 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Potential Objects Extracted from Use Case POTENTIAL OBJECT LIST Accounts Receivable Department Amount Due Club Member Credit Card Information Credit Problem Notice Credit Status File Marketing Department Member Address Member Order Member Phone Number Member Services Department Member Services System Order Order Confirmation Notice Order Sales Tax Order Status Order Subtotal Ordered Product Ordered Product Information Ordered Product Quantity Past Member Payments Potential Member Product Product Inventory Product Number Street Address Transaction Warehouse Warehouse Packing Order

19 SYSTEMS ANALYSYS AND DESIGN METHODS 5 TH Edition Whitten Bentley Dittman Irwin/McGraw-Hill The Mcgraw-Hill Companies All Right reserved Analysis of the Potential Objects

20 Sebuah use case menjelaskan interaksi antara user dengan sistem aplikasi. Sebagai contoh dalam sebuah sistem reservasi peminjaman mobil (rent a car), sebuah use case harus dapat menjelaskan apa yang user lakukan dengan sistem aplikasi dalam sebuah kejadian/event bisnis dalam sebuah proses bisnis. Misalnya reservasi sebuah mobil Ferrari untuk Pak Agus. Sebuah proses dapat dibagi menjadi beberapa use case jika dapat diketahui dengan jelas tiap-tiap kejadiannya atau jika bagian-bagian yang diidentifikasi tersebut dikerjakan oleh orang-orang yang berbeda. Jika diasumsikan sistem yang akan di analisa adalah Sistem Informasi Peminjaman Mobil (Rent a car) maka orang yang akan kita temui adalah: Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

21 Customer service (central telephone operator) –Information –Reservation Customer service (branch office) –Vehicle hand-over –Vehicle return Service personnel (branch office, vehicle clerk) Branch office management Phone service management Managing clerks, vehicle transfer staff, accounting staff (jika diperlukan) Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

22 Objek-objek yang disebutkan diatas harus dapat diidentifikasi dan diberi nama. Sebagai contoh objek-objek tersebut adalah: Data customer Kontrak Invoice Konfirmasi reservasi Aturan pengembalian mobil Aturan pemarkiran Dokumentasi kendaraan Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

23 Aksesories yang ada dalam mobil Fixed accessories (AC, tape, sun roof) Kunci-kunci kendaraan File-file customer Alokasi / lot tempat parkir Contract condition / aturan kontrak Dsb. Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

24 Gambar use case dari kasus diatas dapat dilihat pada gambar di bawah ini. Disini actor-nya adalah interested party yaitu customer, dan staff untuk reservasi (staff for reservation), penyerahan mobil yang akan dipinjam (vehicle hand-over) dan pengembalian mobil (vehicle return) Interested party (Calon customer) berbeda dengan Customer, karena calon customer biasanya belum ada datanya (anonymous), karena data mereka belum terdaftar Identifikasi use case dan actor Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

25 Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

26 Dalam bisnis use case, actor adalah semua peran (role) yang terlibat dalam proses bisnis, sedangkan dalam system use case, mereka dibatasi hanya kepada mereka yang mempunyai kontak langsung dengan sistem aplikasi. Biasanya customer tidak memiliki akses langsung dengan sistem aplikasi, tetapi dalam bisnis use case mereka tetap dicatat. Jika customer dapat melakukan reservasi melalui self-service terminal atau melalui internet, mereka berinteraksi langsung dengan sistem aplikasi dan oleh karena itu mereka harus digambarkan dalam system use case. Business use case dan System use case Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

27 Jika use case car rental agency diatas dikelompokkan, bentuknya : Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley

28 Menggambarkan use case dalam bentuk diagram elips adalah langkah pertama, setelah itu yang berikutnya adalah menjelaskannya dalam bentuk lebih detil lagi. Penjelasan detil dari use case adalah tujuan utama dari use case analysis untuk itu ada dua contoh yang menggambarkan use case lebih detil. Menggunakan use case Developing Software Woth UML Booch Jacobson Rumbaugh Addison-Wesley


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