Presentasi berjudul: "PROBLEMATIK LINGKUNGAN: SEBAB-SEBAB DAN SUSTAINABILITAS"— Transcript presentasi:
1 PROBLEMATIK LINGKUNGAN: SEBAB-SEBAB DAN SUSTAINABILITAS MK. PENGELOLAAN SDALHPROBLEMATIK LINGKUNGAN:SEBAB-SEBAB DAN SUSTAINABILITASDiunduh dari: smno.psdl.ppsub.2012/13.
2 Lingkungan hidupLingkungan hidup, sering disebut sebagai lingkungan, adalah istilah yang dapat mencakup segala makhluk hidup dan tak hidup di alam yang ada di Bumi atau bagian dari Bumi, yang berfungsi secara alami tanpa campur tangan manusia yang berlebihan.Lawan dari lingkungan hidup adalah lingkungan buatan, yang mencakup wilayah dan komponen-komponennya yang banyak dipengaruhi oleh manusia.diunduh dari:Lingkungan binaan atau lingkungan terbangun adalah suatu lingkungan yang ditandai dominasi struktur buatan manusia.Sistem lingkungan binaan bergantung pada asupan energi, sumberdaya, dan rekayasa manusia untuk dapat bertahan.Dalam perencanaan kota, instilah ini memberikan kesimpulan bahwa sebagian besa lingkungan yang dipakai manusia adalah lingkungan buatan, dan lingkungan buatan ini harus diatur agar dapat mempertahankan hidup manusia dengan baik.Diunduh dari :
3 Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan (AMDAL) adalah kajian mengenai dampak besar dan penting suatu usaha dan/atau kegiatan yang direncanakan pada lingkungan hidup yang diperlukan bagi proses pengambilan keputusan tentang penyelenggaraan usaha dan/atau kegiatan di Indonesia.AMDAL ini dibuat saat perencanaan suatu proyek yang diperkirakan akan memberikan pengaruh terhadap lingkungan hidup di sekitarnya.“Lingkungan hidup” yang dimaksudkan di sini adalah aspek Abiotik, Biotik, dan Kultural.Dasar hukum AMDAL adalah Peraturan Pemerintah No. 27 Tahun 1999 tentang "Analisis Mengenai Dampak Lingkungan Hidup".Diunduh dari :
4 Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kerusakan_lingkungan.. KERUSAKAN LINGKUNGANKerusakan lingkungan adalah deteriorasi lingkungan dengan hilangnya sumber daya air, udara, dan tanah; kerusakan ekosistem dan punahnya fauna liar. Kerusakan lingkungan adalah salah satu dari sepuluh ancaman yang secara resmi diperingatkan oleh High Level Threat Panel dari PBB.The World Resources Institute (WRI), UNEP (United Nations Environment Programme), UNDP (United Nations Development Programme), dan Bank Dunia telah melaporkan tentang pentingnya lingkungan dan kaitannya dengan kesehatan manusia, pada tanggal 1 Mei 1998.Kerusakan lngkungan terdiri dari berbagai tipe. Ketika alam rusak dihancurkan dan sumber daya menghilang, maka lingkungan sedang mengalami kerusakan. Environmental Change and Human Health, bagian khusus dari laporan World Resources menjelaskan bahwa penyakit yang dapat dicegah dan kematian dini masih terdapat pada jumlah yang sangat tinggi. Jika perubahan besar dilakukan demi kesehatan manusia, jutaan warga dunia akan hidup lebih lama.Di negara termiskin, satu dari lima anak tidak bisa bertahan hidup hingga usia lima tahun, terutama disebabkan oleh penyakit yang hadir karena keadaan lingkungan yang tidak baik. Sebelas juta anak-anak meninggal setiap tahunnya, terutama disebabkan oleh malaria, diare, dan penyakit pernapasan akut, penyakit yang sesungguhnya sangat mungkin untuk dicegah.Diunduh dari :
5 Pengertian dan Definisi Dampak Dampak secara sederhana bisa diartikan sebagai pengaruh atau akibat. Dalam setiap keputusan yang diambil oleh seorang atasan biasanya mempunyai dampak tersendiri, baik itu dampak positif maupun dampak negatif. Dampak juga bisa merupakan proses lanjutan dari sebuah pelaksanaan pengawasan internal. Seorang pemimpin yang handal sudah selayaknya bisa memprediksi jenis dampak yang akan terjadi atas sebuah keputusan yang akan diambil.KAMUS BESAR BAHASA INDONESIADampak adalah pengaruh kuat yang mendatangkan akibat, baik negatif maupun positifDiunduh dari : ..
6 Keputusan Kepala Badan Pengendalian Dampak Lingkungan DAMPAK PENTINGLampiranKeputusan Kepala Badan Pengendalian Dampak LingkunganNo. 56 Tahun 1994 Tanggal 18 Maret 1994Dampak penting adalah perubahan lingkungan yang sangatmendasar yang diakibatkan oleh suatu usaha atau kegiatan; Pasal 16UU Nomor 4 Tahun 1982, menyatakan bahwa setiap rencanakegiatan yang diperkirakan akan mempunyai dampak pentingterhadap lingkungan wajib dilengkapi dengan AMDAL.Dampak penting suatu usaha atau kegiatan menurut Penjelasan Pasal 16 UU Nomor 4 Tahun 1982, dan Pasal 2 dan Pasal 3 PP Nomor 51 Tahun 1993 ditentukan oleh faktor-faktor berikut:Jumlah manusia yang akan terkena dampak,Luas wilayah persebaran dampak,Lamanya dampak berlangsung,Intensitas dampak,Banyaknya komponen lingkungan lainnya yang akan terkena dampak,Sifat kumulatif dampak,Berbalik atau tidak berbaliknya dampak.Penilaian pentingnya dampak terhadap lingkungan atas dasar kemungkinan timbulnya dampak positif atau dampak negatif tak boleh dipandang sebagai faktor yang masingmasing berdiri sendiri, melainkan harus diperhitungkan bobotnya guna dipertimbangkan hubungan timbal baliknya untuk mengambil keputusan.Diunduh dari : ..
7 MASALAH LINGKUNGANBeberapa masalah lingkungan yang terjadi akibat aktivitas manusia:Perubahan iklim — Pemanasan global • Asap global • Bahan bakar fosil • Kenaikan permukaan laut • Gas rumah kaca • Peningkatan keasaman lautKonservasi — Kepunahan spesies • Penurunan jumlah polinator • Pemutihan koral • Kejadian kepunahan holosen • Spesies invasif • Perburuan liar • Spesies terancamBendungan — Dampak lingkungan dari bendunganEnergi — Konservasi energi • Energi terbarukan • Penggunaan energi yang efisien • Komersialisasi energi terbarukanRekayasa genetik — Polusi genetik • Kontroversi makanan hasil modifikasi genetikPertanian intensif — Penggembalaan berlebihan • Irigasi • Monokultur • Dampak lingkungan dari produksi dagingDegradasi lahan — Polusi tanah • DesertifikasiTanah — Konservasi tanah • Erosi tanah • Kontaminasi tanah • Salinasi tanahPenggunaan lahan — Urbanisasi • Fragmentasi habitat • Penghancuran habitatNanoteknologi — Nanotoksikologi • Polusi nanoMasalah nuklir — Keruntuhan nuklir • Pelelehan nuklir • Energi nuklir • Sampah radioaktifPopulasi berlebihan — KuburanPelubangan ozon — CFCPolusi — Polusi cahaya • Polusi suara • Polusi visualPolusi air — Hujan asam • Eutrofikasi • Polusi laut • Pembuangan sampah ke laut • Tumpahan minyak • Polusi termal • Krisis air • Sampah laut • Peningkatan keasaman laut • Polusi kapal • Air limbahPolusi udara — Kabut asap • Ozon troposferik • Kualitas udara dalam ruangan • Bahan organik volatil • Materi partikulat • Sulfur dioksidaPenghilangan sumber daya alam — Eksploitasi sumber daya alamKonsumerisme — Kapitalisme konsumen • Konsumsi berlebihanPenangkapan ikan — Peledakkan • Pukat dasar laut • Penangkapan ikan dengan sianida • Jaring hantu • Penangkapan ikan ilegal, tidak dilaporkan, dan tidak diatur • Penangkapan ikan berlebihan • Sirip hiu • Penangkapan ikan pausPenebangan hutan — Penebangan habis • Deforestasi • Penebangan hutan ilegalPertambangan — Drainase tambang asam • Pertambangan terbukaRacun — klorofluorokarbon • DDT • Gangguan kelenjar endokrin • Dioksin • Logam berat • Herbisida • Pestisida • Limbah beracun • Bifenil terklorinasi • Akumulasi biologi • BiomagnifikasiLimbah — E-waste • Sampah • Pembuangan sampah sembarangan • Sampah lautan • Tempat pembuangan akhir • Leachate • Daur ulang • InsinerasiKebakaran hutanDiunduh dari :
8 PERTUMBUHAN EKSPONENSIAL Slow start, rapid increaseHuman population2007 ~ 6.7 billion peopleProjections225,000 people per dayAdd population of U.S. < 4 years2050 ~ 9.2 billion peopleThe human population growth showed an exponential increase, with our global population now at nearly 7 billion people. Check out the Worldometer for current (real-time) population statisitcs.Worldmapper has some interesting thematic maps showing the size of each country relative to different statistics – for example population, infant mortality, life span or income. One good example of how a human population exceeded it’s carrying capacity is Easter Island.“The Mystery of Easter Island” describes how a once flourishing civilisation was reduced to starvation, disease, war and cannabilism. This was also the title of an excellent documentary. We also discussed the article “More than 100 million women are missing” and “Where did 100 million missing women go?”Diunduh dari :
9 PERTUMBUHAN EKSPONENSIAL Resource consumption, degradation, depletionPossible resultsHuge amount of pollution and wastesDisrupt economiesLoss of species, farm land, water suppliesClimate changePolitical fallout.Population GrowthThe growth of population is measured as increase in its size over a period of time and populations show characteristic patterns of growth with time. These patterns are known as population growth forms.Diunduh dari :
10 KEHIDUPAN PADA JAMAN EKSPONENSIAL Diunduh dari : ..
11 Diunduh dari : http://www.ictm.com/Investigation/Root-Cause.aspx.. PENYELESAIAN MASALAHMemahami lingkunganMempraktekkan kelestarian-keberlanjutanRoot Cause AnalysisThe indoor environment in any building is a result of the interaction between the site, climate, building systems (original design, later modifications in the structure and mechanical systems), construction techniques, contaminant sources (building materials and furnishings, moisture, processes and activities within the building, and outdoor sources), and building occupants. When a problem arises which is attributed to the building's indoor environment, the ensuing investigation will, necessarily, need to consider all of the possible factors which contribute to that environment.Diunduh dari :
12 Apakah Masyarakat yang ramah lingkungan ? KONSEP 1-1AHidup dan ekonomi kita bergantung pada energi dari matahari (solar capital) dan sumberdaya alam serta jasa-jasanya (natural capital) yang disediakan oleh bumi.KONSEP 1-1BKehidupan lestari berarti kehidupan yang bertumpu pada income alamiah bumi, tanpa mengurangi atau merusak modal alam yang menghasilkan income tersebut.The Sustainable Society Index, SSI (www.ssfindex.com), shows at a glance the level of sustainability of the country. It shows in a simple way the distance to full sustainability for each of the 24 indicators that build up the SSI. The SSI is based on the well-known Brundtland definition and is built up by 24 indicators. These can be aggregated into 8 categories, the 3 wellbeing dimensions and finally into one overall index.Diunduh dari :
13 Mengkaji konseksi-koneksi yang terjadi di Alam EnvironmentEnvironmental scienceEcologyEnvironmentalismWHAT IS ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES? Environmental Studies is concerned with the interactions between human beings and the environment. It is interdisciplinary in the sense that the field is related to many branches of the natural and human sciences and environmental studies graduates go on to address many interdisciplinary problems. Topics in Environmental Studies include: sustainability and development; environmental justice; biological conservation; environmental theology; natural and environmental history; environmental ethics; environmental thought; environmental sociology and psychology; human ecology; social movements and political ecology; environmental education and communication; risk policy and perception; environmental policy and law; native studies; animal rights and welfare; technology and cultural studies; gender, labour, race and the environment; international development; public participation; ecocriticism; deep ecology; and environmental literature.Diunduh dari :http://www.kingsu.ca/academic-programs/majors/environmental-studies.html ..
14 ETIKA LINGKUNGAN Etika Lingkungan disebut juga Etika Ekologi. Krisis lingkungan hidup yang dihadapi manusia modern merupakan akibat langsung dari pengelolaan lingkungan hidup yang “nir-etik”. Artinya, manusia melakukan pengelolaan sumber-sumber alam hampir tanpa peduli pada peran etika. Dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa krisis ekologis yang dihadapi umat manusia berakar dalam krisis etika atau krisis moral.Umat manusia kurang peduli pada norma-norma kehidupan atau mengganti norma-norma yang seharusnya dengan norma-norma ciptaan dan kepentingannya sendiri. Manusia modern menghadapi alam hampir tanpa menggunakan ‘hati nurani.Alam begitu saja dieksploitasi dan dicemari tanpa merasa bersalah.Etika Lingkungan disebut juga Etika Ekologi.Etika Ekologi selanjutnya dibedakan menjadi dua yaitu etika ekologi dalam dan etika ekologi dangkal.Selain itu etika lingkungan juga dibedakan lagi sebagai etika pelestarian dan etika pemeliharaan.Etika pelestarian adalah etika yang menekankan pada mengusahakan pelestarian alam untuk kepentingan manusia, sedangkan etika pemeliharaan dimaksudkan untuk mendukung usaha pemeliharaan lingkungan untuk kepentingan semua mahluk.Etika ekologi dalam adalah pendekatan terhadap lingkungan yang melihat pentingnya memahami lingkungan sebagai keseluruhan kehidupan yang saling menopang, sehingga semua unsur mempunyai arti dan makna yang sama.Etika ekologi dangkal adalah pendekatan terhadap lingkungan yang menekankan bahwa lingkungan sebagai sarana untuk kepentingan manusia, yang bersifat antroposentris. Etika ekologi dangkal ini biasanya diterapkan pada filsafat rasionalisme dan humanisme serta ilmu pengetahuan mekanistik yang kemudian diikuti dan dianut oleh banyak ahli lingkungan.Kebanyakan para ahli lingkungan ini memiliki pandangan bahwa alam bertujuan untuk memenuhi kebutuhan hidup manusia.Diunduh dari : ..
15 Diunduh dari : http://damarkota.com/amdal/lingkungn.htm.. BIOLOGISecara definitif lingkungan berarti semua faktor-faktor luar, fisik dan biologis yang secara langsung berpengaruh terhadap ketahanan hidup, pertumbuhan, perkembangan dan reproduksi organisme.Biologi merupakan suatu ilmu yang berusaha menjelaskan mengenai organisme dengan membagi ke dalam hirarkhi mulai dari kesatuan unsur yang berupa molekul di dalam sel hingga lingkungan (invironment) yang berarti ke dunia luar sekeliling suatu organisme, demikian Haeckel memberi acuan.Oleh karena itu membicarakan lingkungan dapat menjelaskan dunia luar sekeliling subyek organisme yang dimaksud; apakah mikroorganisme, tumbuhan, hewan/binatang dan/atau manusia.Biologi lingkungan atau Ekologi menekankan bagaimana faktor-faktor luar mempengaruhi organisme dan bagaimana pula organisme itu mengubah keadaan sekelilingnya(McNaughton and Wolf, 1994).Pada tataran pengelolaan lingkungan di sekeliling kita, konsep dari agama, dalam hal ini Islam, berusaha mendekatkan diri terhadap konsep-konsep ilmu alam dan petunjuk agama adalah sama-sama memiliki sifat universal.Usaha ini ditujukan kepada pemberian nilai terhadap pengelolaan lingkungan agar tidak terjebak kepada tujuan sesaat yang terkadang bergeser dari kepentingan keseluruhan populasi ke arah individu atau komunitas tertentu bahkan sebuah kelompok kecil dalam berbagai aspek kehidupan manusia.Pengelolaan lingkungan dimaksud untuk lestarinya daya dukung lingkungan terhadap kita dan generasi mendatang, populer dengan istilah pembangunan berkelanjutan (sustainable development).Diunduh dari :
16 EKOLOGIEkologi merupakan salah satu ilmu dasar bagi ilmu lingkungan. Kajian ekologi melingkupi semua makhluk hidup dan benda-benda mati yang ada di dalamnya termasuk tanah, air, udara dll.Komponen-komponen lingkungan yang ditempati berbagai jenis makhluk hidup tersebut saling mempengaruhi dan dipengaruhi.Ekologi mengkaji interaksi dan hubungan antara manusia dengan lingkungan hidupnya.Ekologi dan Ilmu Lingkungan Ekologi yang pertama kali berasal dari seorang biologi Jerman Ernest Haeckel, Berasal dari bahasa Yunani “Oikos” (rumah tangga) dan “logos” (ilmu), secara harfiah ekologi berarti ilmu tentangg rumah tangga makhluk hidup. Yang merupakan makhluk hidup adalah lingkungan hidupnya. Miller dalam Darsono (1995): ”Ekologi adalah ilmu tentang hubungan timbal balik antara organisme dan sesamanya serta dengan lingkungan tempat tinggalnya”.Odum dalam Darsono (1995): “Ekologi adalah kajian struktur dan fungsi alam, tentang struktur dan interaksi antara sesame organism dengan lingkungannya dan ekologi adalah kajian tentang rumah tangga bumi termasuk flora, fauna, mikroorganisme dan manusia yang hidup bersama saling tergantung satu sama lain”Soemarwoto dalam Darsono (1995) “Ekologi adalah ilmu tentang hubungan timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya”.Resosoedarmo dkk, (1985): “ekologi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari hubungan timbal balik antara makhluk hidup dengan lingkungannya”.Ilmu lingkungan sebenarnya ialah “ekologi” yang menerapkan berbagai asas dan konsepnya untuk mengkaji masalah-masalah yang lebih luas, yang menyangkut hubungan manusia dengan lingkungannya.Diunduh dari :
17 Tujuh konsep dasar ilmu geologi lingkungan, yaitu: Geologi lingkungan merupakan pengetahuan alam yang mempelajari bumi meliputi bagian komposisi, keterbentukan, dan sejarahnya.Pemahaman mengenai geologi lingkungan sebagai salah satu aspek pengelolaan memiliki peranaan yang penting dalam kegiatan pengelolaan lingkungan.Geologi lingkungan itu dapat dikategorikan lagi ke dalam 3 kategori, yaitu: Fisika yaitu geografi fisik, proses hidrologi, tipe batuan dan tanah, klimatologi, Biologi meliputi aktivitas hewan dan tanaman, perubahan dalam proses dan kondisi biologi, informasi biologi tentang analisis ruang; serta Sumberdaya manusia, seperti penggunaan tanah, ekonomi, dan estetika.Tujuh konsep dasar ilmu geologi lingkungan, yaitu:Bumi merupakan suatu sistem tertutup.Bumi adalah satu-satunya tempat kehidupan manusia, namun sumber daya alamnya terbatas.Proses-proses alam yang terjadi sekarang mengubah bentang alam yang telah tersusun selama periode geologi, baik secara alamiah maupun buatan.Selalu ada proses alam yang membahayakan dan mengancam kehidupan manusia.Pengelolaan sumberdaya lahan dan air harus diusahakan untuk mendapatkan keseimbangan antara pertimbangan ekonomi dengan penilaian estetika.Efek dari pengelolaan lahan sifatnya kumulatif, oleh karena itu kita mempunyai kewajiban untuk menerima dan menanggungnya.Komponen dasar dari setiap lingkungan manusia adalah faktor geologi, dan pemahaman terhadap lingkungannya membutuhkan wawasan dan penafsiran yang luas terhadap ilmu bumi dan ilmu lain yang berkaitan.Diunduh dari :
18 DEMOGRAFIKependudukan atau demografi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari dinamika kependudukan manusia.Kajian demografi meliputi ukuran, struktur, dan distribusi penduduk, serta bagaimana jumlah penduduk berubah setiap waktu akibat kelahiran, kematian, migrasi, serta penuaan.Analisis kependudukan dapat merujuk masyarakat secara keseluruhan atau kelompok tertentu yang didasarkan kriteria seperti pendidikan, kewarganegaraan, agama, atau etnisitas tertentu.Penduduk atau warga suatu negara atau daerah bisa didefinisikan menjadi dua:Orang yang tinggal di daerah tersebutOrang yang secara hukum berhak tinggal di daerah tersebut. Dengan kata lain orang yang mempunyai surat resmi untuk tinggal di situ. Misalkan bukti kewarganegaraan, tetapi memilih tinggal di daerah lain.Dalam sosiologi, penduduk adalah kumpulan manusia yang menempati wilayah geografi dan ruang tertentu.(diunduh dari:Pertumbuhan penduduk adalah perubahan populasi sewaktu-waktu, dan dapat dihitung sebagai perubahan dalam jumlah individu dalam sebuah populasi menggunakan "per waktu unit" untuk pengukuran. Sebutan pertumbuhan penduduk merujuk pada semua spesies, tapi selalu mengarah pada manusia, dan sering digunakan secara informal untuk sebutan demografi nilai pertumbuhan penduduk, dan digunakan untuk merujuk pada pertumbuhan penduduk dunia.Model pertumbuhan penduduk meliputi Model Pertumbuhan Malthusian dan model logistik.(diunduh dari:Diunduh dari :
19 Diunduh dari : http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ekonomi_lingkungan .. EKONOMIEkonomi lingkungan atau ilmu ekonomi lingkungan adalah ilmu yang mempelajari perilaku atau kegiatan manusia dalam memanfaatkan Sumber Daya Alam (SDA) dan lingkungannya yang terbatas sehingga fungsi atau peranan SDA dan lingkungan tersebut dapat dipertahankan dan bahkan penggunaannya dapat ditingkatkan dalam jangka panjang atau berkelanjutan.Dari sudut pandang ekonomi, masalah lingkungan timbul, karena biaya lingkungan tidak dimasukkan ke dalam biaya produksi, sehingga menyebabkan kerugian bagi orang lain atau pasar.Masalah lingkungan menyebabkan inefisiensi alokasi sumber daya alam dan lingkungan dalam proses produksi.Dalam konteks tersebut, SDA dan lingkungan menjadi (1)penyedia bahan baku (2)penyedia fasilitas (3) wadah untuk limbah.Pencemaran lingkungan yang menimbulkan biaya, berdampak pada:Menurunnya kuantitas SDA dan lingkungan sebagai penyedia bahan bakuMenurunnya kualitas SDA dan lingkungan sebagai fungsi dasar ekologisMenimbulkan ketidaknyamanan pada manusiaMemberikan dampak yang buruk kepada kesehatan dan produktivitasBeberapa metode yang lazim digunakan untuk menilai, apakah perilaku atau kegiatan manusia tersebut layak atau tidak adalah :Metode Analisis Biaya Manfaat (Benefit Cost Analysis), di mana “manfaat “adalah nilai barang/jasa bagi konsumen. Sedangkan “biaya” adalah manfaat yang hilang/dilepas/tidak diambil (opportunity cost).Diunduh dari : ..
20 ILMU POLITIK Ekologi Politik Kajian “ekologi politik” merupakan perkembangan dari ekologi manusia dan sosiologi lingkungan.Ekologi manusia untuk pertama kalinya di perkenalkan oleh Haeckel pada tahun 1866, adalah suatu ilmu yang memiliki konsep tentang hubungan manusia (human system) dengan alam (non‐human system) di biosfer.Beberapa definisi tentang ekologi politik yang asumsinya adalah sama yaitu: “environmental change and ecological conditions are (to some extent) the product of political processes”. Jika keadaan lingkungan adalah produk dari proses‐proses politik, maka tidak terlepas pula dalam hal ini adalah keterlibatan proses‐proses dialektik dalam politik ekonomi.Ekologi politik memfokuskan pada ditingkat masyarakat lemah/miskin, dihubungkan dengan lingkungan yang pada akhirnya melahirkan suatu konflik.Sedangkan isu masa depan dihubungkan untuk mengubah udara, mutu air, proses yang berkenaan dengan kota yang dihubungkan dengan organ tubuh manusiaDimensi‐Dimensi Ekologi Politik atas Kehancuran Alam dan Lingkungan:Tipologi kerusakan sumber daya alam dan lingkunganDampaknya pada kehidupan sosio‐ekonomi‐ekologi suatu sistem kemasyarakatanPendekatan penanganan secara sosiopolitis yang harus ditempuhBryant, R.L Power, Knowledge and Political Ecology In The Third World: a review. Progress in Physical Geography 22(1):Diunduh dari :
21 HIDUP LEBIH RAMAH-LINGKUNGAN Sustainabilitas – thema sentralModal AlamSumberdaya AlamJasa-jasa AlamSustainable Lifestyle PyramidThis diagram serves as an outline of how property owners can make the utmost use of their piece of ground. It encompasses desired lifestyle, energy efficiency, environmental awareness, ecological care, and long-term sustainability.At the base of the Sustainable Lifestyle Pyramid are the two cornerstones of a property intended to be a homestead: House and Landscape. People live in their homes, obviously. Their property should complement that home, provide sustainability options, and serve as a destination that matches their lifestyles.Diunduh dari : ..
22 Elements of a Sustainable Lifestyle SUMBERDAYA ALAMMaterialsRenewableNonrenewableEnergISolar capitalPhotosynthesisElements of a Sustainable LifestyleBy Brian Skeele, on July 6th, 2011“We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them.” Albert Einstein.Here’s my ideas of the major elements that make up a sustainable lifestyle. Most are not of the thinking that created our existing suburban sprawl society. Changing from car-dominated thinking to pedestrian-centered thinking is required.Diunduh dari :
23 JASA-JASA ALAM Fungsi-fungsi alam Purifikasi Udara dan Air Siklus Hara Ecological Goods and Services (EG&S) and Natural CapitalWhat are Ecological Goods and Services and Natural Capital?Ecological goods and services (EG&S) are the environmental benefits resulting from physical, chemical and biological functions of healthy ecosystems and include market goods produced from ecosystems (e.g. food, fibre, fuel, fresh water, genetic resources, etc.), the benefits from ecosystem processes, (e.g. nutrient cycling, climate regulation, water purification, waste treatment, pollination, etc.) and non-material benefits (e.g. aesthetic values, recreation, etc.) Dis-services, such as loss of wildlife habitat and biodiversity, can impair the production of EG&S.Natural capital includes the natural environment and ecosystem resources, such as soils, forests and wetlands that provide environmental assets and services essential to life. Natural capital is similar to the concept of economic capital in that it provides a continued flow of EG&S. Natural capital is composed of natural resource capital (e.g., minerals, energy, forests), land (e.g., where human activities occur) and ecosystems or environmental capital (e.g., waste assimilation by wetlands).Examples of Natural Capital and the EG&S Provided :Natural CapitalEcological Goods and Services ProvidedForestsCarbon sequestration, soil formation, waste treatment, biological control, cultural, air quality, stormwater control, recreation, raw material (timber), genetic resourcesGrasslands, rangelandsCarbon sequestration, water regulation, erosion control, soil formation, waste treatment, pollination, biological control, food productionDiunduh dari :
24 Ecosystem Services and Dis-Services From Agriculture Economic Value of EG&SEcosystem Services and Dis-Services From AgricultureGlobally, natural capital and EG&S has been declining continually as landscapes are converted from their natural states for human use. Unsustainable depletion of natural capital results in the reduction of EG&S that can be provided. These losses may cost society more than the original value of the natural capital destroyed, as replacing the services can be much more expensive than what is typically provided by nature.Investing in the maintenance of natural lands on privately owned farmlands and Crown Land is a way for society to encourage the continued provision of EG&S. Well-managed agricultural lands provide benefits to society-at-large.Agriculture is both a beneficiary and a provider of EG&S .For example, farming's viability depends on ecosystem processes like soil renewal, climate regulation, and precipitation. At the same time, well-managed agricultural lands can provide benefits to broader society that include fish and wildlife habitat, scenic views, and purification of air and water through natural processes.Source: Zhang, W., Rickets, T., Kremen, C., Carney, K., Swinton, S. (2007). Ecosystem services and dis-services to agriculture. Ecological Economics, 64:Diunduh dari :
25 SUMBERDAYA ALAM DAN JASA-JASANYA Diunduh dari : ..
26 JASA-JASA: UDARA-ATMOSFIR The twelve atmospheric services. Rank Atmospheric services Usage At risk Entity Service typeIn value trendThe air that we breath ∗∗ O2, N2 etc ProvisioningProtection from radiation,plasma and meteors ∗∗ Density, ozone layer SupportingNatural global warming of 33°C ∗∗∗∗∗ CO2, CH4, N2O, H2O++ Supporting\The cleansing capacity of theatmosphere andd ispersion ofair pollution ∗ OH, wind, temp Regulating5. The redistribution of water services ∗∗ H2O SupportingDirect use of the atmosphere forecosystems and agriculture ∗ CO2, N2, ﬁltered solar Provisioningand supporting7 Combustion of fuel − O2Provisioning8 Direct use of the atmosphere for sound,communications and transport+∗Density, pressure Supporting9 Direct use of the atmosphere for power++Wind, wave Provisioning10 The extraction of atmospheric gasesO, N, Ar etc Provisioning11 Atmospheric recreation and climate tourismSun, wind, clouds, snow Cultural12 Aesthetic, spiritual and sensual properties of the atmosphere, smell and taste+ Sky, clouds CulturalDiunduh dari :
27 Jasa-jasa tanah untuk penggunaan lahan yang lestari Soil provides a number of critical ecosystem services.It provides the physical support system for plants and retains and delivers nutrients to them.Soil can hold and release water flexibly, providing flood control and water purification benefits.Soil is the medium through which nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorous, and potassium are continually exchanged, and is a critical participant in biogeochemical cycles.Soil, aided by the complex ecosystem of bacteria, nematodes, insects, beetles, and other organisms that inhabits its pores, is able to continuously maintain its fertility.Diunduh dari :
28 Pengelolaan Sumberdaya Lahan JASA-JASA:LAHANPengelolaan Sumberdaya LahanLand is one of the most critical resources for the rural poor dependent on farming for their livelihoods. Today, about 2 million hectares of rainfed and irrigated agricultural lands are lost to production every year due to severe land degradation, among other factors.Sustainable Land Management (SLM)SLM is defined as a knowledge-based procedure that helps integrate land, water, biodiversity, and environmental management (including input and output externalities) to meet rising food and fiber demands while sustaining ecosystem services and livelihoods.SLM is necessary to meet the requirements of a growing population. Improper land management leads to land degradation and a reduction in the productive and service (biodiversity niches, hydrology, carbon sequestration) functions of watersheds and landscapes.Diunduh dari :
29 Jasa-jasa yang dihasilkan Biodiversitas Services provided by biodiversity can be broadly categorised into three areas:Siklus HaraThe movement of elements such as nitrogen, sulphur and phosphorous between different forms as they pass through the food chain. The elements cycle between gas forms and compounds which are found in the soil and living organisms. For example the nitrogen cycle; this is heavily reliant on bacteria and involves the formation of nitrates (needed for making proteins which are the functional molecules in all organisms) from atmospheric nitrogen and then the break down of nitrogen compounds to nitrogen gas. The nitrogen cycle is an important part of soil formation and soil fertility.Produksi PrimerThe capturing of energy from the sun by plants and using this to convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds. This provides food for all other species on the planet. This is part of the carbon cycle which is being unbalanced by the release of carbon dioxide by the burning of fossil fuels.Mempertahankan keseimbangan dinamis dari sistem alam yang kompleksHabitats and all their constituent parts play an important role in regulating local and global climate patterns, soil formation, water purification and nutrient cycling and many other regulatory functions which help maintain the planet in a state which is self sustaining. Removing forests can have a dramatic effect on rain fall patterns and temperatures over large areas. Plants also play a key role in the water cycle which helps filter water and remove impurities.Diunduh dari : ..
30 JASA-JASA: RENEWABLE ENERGY Renewable energy is energy which comes from natural resources such as sunlight, wind, rain, tides, and geothermal heat, which are renewable (naturally replenished). About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewables, with 10% coming from traditional biomass, which is mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity.New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of global electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.REN21 (2011). "Renewables 2011: Global Status Report". p. 17, 18.Diunduh dari :
31 JASA-JASA: NON- RENEWABLE ENERGY Non-renewable sources of energy can be divided into two types: fossil fuels and nuclear fuel.1. Fossil fuelsFossil fuels are found within the rocks of the Earth's surface. They are called fossil fuels because they are thought to have been formed many millions of years ago by geological processes acting on dead animals and plants, just like fossils. Coal, oil and natural gas are fossil fuels. Because they took millions of years to form, once they are used up they cannot be replaced.2. Nuclear fuelNuclear fuel makes use of the radioactivity of some elements. The nucleus in the atom may spontaneously break down to release energy and produce fast-moving particles, atoms of other elements. The fast-moving particles that are ejected can also strike other atoms, causing them to break down. Placing the atoms close together in a fuel rod means that atoms are more likely to be struck by these particles, and so produce more nuclear reactions. As the reactions proceed heat is produced. The task of a nuclear reactor is to control the reaction so that a steady flow of heat is produced.Diunduh dari :
32 Ramah Lingkungan = Keberlanjutan Trade-offs (compromises)Sound scienceIndividuals matterIdeasTechnologyPolitical pressureEconomic pressureSustainable firms disconnect revenue growth from depletion of natural resources. They drastically reduce the amount of natural resources required to make their products and they use resource- and energy-efficient manufacturing processes.Diunduh dari :
33 Hidup ramah-lingkungan dari Modal Alam Environmentally sustainable societyFinancial capital and financial incomeNatural capital and natural incomeBad news: signs of natural capital depletion at exponential ratesThe Yokogawa Group’s Environmental ManagementThe Yokogawa Group aims to reduce its global environmental burden across all its operations by:Proactively implementing environmental activitiesProviding environmental solutions and environmentally friendly products to customersDiunduh dari :
34 Bagaimana masyarakat ramah-lingkungan dapat berkembang secara ekonomi ? KONSEP 1-2Masyarakat dapat menjadi lestari dan ramah lingkungan melalui pembangunan ekonomi yang ditujukan untuk memperbaiki kualitas hidup setiap orang tanpa merusak sistem penunjang kehidupan bumi.Turning carbon dioxide into resourcesBiomass engineering paves the way for a sustainable societyThe 20th century was characterized by a consumption society, where the richness of the social foundation was based on the consumption of oil and coal. In the 21st century, we need to develop a sustainable society that is carbon neutral and minimizes environmental burdens such as global warming resulting from carbon dioxide emissions.Diunduh dari : ..
35 Dimensions of a Low Carbon Strategy EkonomiPertumbuhan ekonomiProduk domestik bruto = Gross Domestic Product (GDP)Per capita GDP – PPPPembangunan EkonomiNegara-negara majuNegara sedang berkembang. Sustainable Economic GrowthThe Government Economic Strategy defines sustainable economic growth as "building a dynamic and growing economy that will provide prosperity and opportunities for all, while ensuring that future generations can enjoy a better quality of life too".The Strategy notes that there are growth opportunities from moving to a low carbon economy. This would require us to achieve increases in GDP decoupled from emissions, abandoning the carbon-based growth of the past. In addition, the Government aspires that growth and productivity proceed at a faster rate than the UK and other comparator countries.Dimensions of a Low Carbon StrategyDiunduh dari :
37 18% 82% 0.1% 1.5% 77 years 66 years 85% 15% 88% 12% 75% 25% Population Percentage of World's:18%Population82%Populationgrowth0.1%1.5%Life expectancy77 years66 yearsWealth andincome85%Figure 1.5: Global outlook: comparison of developed and developing countries, 2007.Question: Why do you think less developed, less wealthy countries have higher population growth rates?(Data from the United Nations and the World Bank)15%Resourceuse88%12%Pollutionand waste75%25%Diunduh dari : ..
38 Bagaimana footprint ekologi kita mempengaruhi bumi ? KONSEP 1-3As our ecological footprints grow, we are depleting and degrading more of the earth’s natural capital.SENA, Augusto Marcos Carvalho de.A theoretical essay on sustainability and environmentally balanced output growth: natural capital, constrained depletion of resources and pollution generation.BAR, Braz. Adm. Rev. [online]. 2009, vol.6, n.3, ppThe fact that today's activities are imposing a heavy burden on the earth's capacity has led to an increasing interest in environmental issues. It is emphasized that rapid production growth has exhausted natural resources and polluted the environment.The objective of this essay is to offer a clear definition of natural capital, connect it to a qualitative concept of sustainability and, supported by two analytical models and a set of studies on related environmental literature, to show that sustainability can be attained via imposition of controls over production processes that use depletable natural resources and generate pollution.The methodology used contemplates an integrative approach combining a qualitative (seeking definitions)-analytical (appraising models) apparatus to reach a new conceptual perspective to conceive sustainability. As the main essay's contribution, it is showed that sustainability can be reached if compensation is allowed for, i.e., stocks of renewable being augmented as production depletes the stocks of nonrenewable natural resources. Moreover, that result is possible even considering nondecreasing output production, an important finding to contrast with the current environmentally based output growth literature, which asserts that slowing down output production is the only way to obtain sustainability.Diunduh dari :
39 SUMBERDAYA ALAM Perpetual – DIPERBAHARUI SECARA KONTINYU Energi MatahariRenewable – jam hingga dekadeAir dan UdaraHutan, Padang-rumputFamily altruism with a renewable resource and population growthThierry Brechet and Stephane LambrechtyOctober 30, 2006.An overlapping-generation model with a non-constant population growthis developed, in which households privately own a natural renewable resource and have a family-altruism resource bequest motive.The natural resource can be either extracted and sold to the producing firms, or bequeathed to the offspring to increase his adult disposable income.Numerical applications show how family altruism interplays with population growth to shape the dynamics of the whole economy. In particular, the role of altruism in the case of two negative demographic shocks is scrutinized. It is shown that the pressure on the natural resource is not necessarily reduced when the population size is lower. Transmission mechanisms between generations and general equilibriumeffects may yield unexpected outcomes. In particular, the family altruism may play a positive, or a negative role for resource preservation.Diunduh dari :
40 Should sustained yield be part of sustainable forest management? SUMBERDAYA ALAMHasil LestariPenggunaan maksimum sambil mempertahankan suplaiDegradasi LingkunganMelampaui batas laju pembaharuan alamiahShould sustained yield be part of sustainable forest management?2005. Luckert, M.K.; Williamson, T.B. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 35(2):This paper considers the question of whether sustainable forest management (SFM) should continue to incorporate sustained yield (SY) requirements, as it currently does in many jurisdictions.We evaluate the extent to which SY and SFM are consistent with notions of weak and (or) strong sustainability.Strong sustainability implies placing constraints on the reduction of stocks of natural capital to prevent irreversibility and (or) protect flows of services that have public good characteristics.In contrast, weak sustainability may allow market forces to draw down stocks of natural capital so long as levels of total capital (including human-made and natural capital) are maintained.We argue that with SY policies, we have probably chosen to attach strong sustainability policies to the only forest resource that does not need such protection (i.e., timber), while we have excluded other resources that could well need such protection (e.g., biodiversity) for pursuing SFM.Thus, the concept of allowable annual cuts could be dropped from SFM to be replaced by safe minimum standards on components of forest capital that are subject to irreversibility and (or) that have public good features. In other words, if we truly wish to pursue SFM, it may be necessary to leave SY behind.Diunduh dari : ..
41 R. Bras. Zootec. [online]. 2009, vol.38, n.spe, pp. 330-340. SUMBERDAYA ALAMNonrenewable – Kuantitasnya tertentuEnergy (bahan bakar fosil)Mineral logamMineral bukan-logamDaur ulang - RecyclingPemanfaatan ulang - ReuseLANA, Rogério de PaulaRational use of non renewable natural resources: biological, economical and environmental aspects.R. Bras. Zootec. [online]. 2009, vol.38, n.spe, ppDue to limitations of new land areas for agriculture, its development has being based on increase in productive indexes in animal and plant production. However, negative effects have being emerged, as excessive utilization of non renewable natural resources and environmental pollution.The objective of this work was to demonstrate the possibility of use of models of saturation kinetics in agriculture (plant and animal production) to improve efficiency of use of non renewable natural resources, avoid complete depletion of them and minimize the problems related to environmental pollution.Diunduh dari : ..
42 PEMANASAN GLOBALThe 2007 IPCC report examined data on numerous changes to natural systems that have already been observed, as well as the potential for future impacts.A climate that's already changingCurrent environmental impacts and prospects for the futureChanges in weather Heat and heat waves Rain, snow, and drought Stormy weatherChanges in ecosystems Polar and mountainous regions Plant life WildlifeDiunduh dari :
43 Diunduh dari : http://www.mass.gov/dep/air/aq/env_effects.htm .. POLUSI UDARAEnvironmental Effects of Air PollutionAcid rain is precipitation containing harmful amounts of nitric and sulfuric acids. These acids are formed primarily by nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned.Eutrophication is a condition in a water body where high concentrations of nutrients (such as nitrogen) stimulate blooms of algae, which in turn can cause fish kills and loss of plant and animal diversity. Air emissions of nitrogen oxides from power plants, cars, trucks, and other sources contribute to the amount of nitrogen entering aquatic ecosystems.Haze is caused when sunlight encounters tiny pollution particles in the air. Haze obscures the clarity, color, texture, and form of what we see. Some haze-causing pollutants (mostly fine particles) are directly emitted to the atmosphere by sources such as power plants, industrial facilities, trucks and automobiles, and construction activities.Effects on wildlife. Toxic pollutants in the air, or deposited on soils or surface waters, can impact wildlife in a number of ways. Like humans, animals can experience health problems if they are exposed to sufficient concentrations of air toxics over time. Studies show that air toxics are contributing to birth defects, reproductive failure, and disease in animals.Ozone depletion. Ozone is a gas that occurs both at ground-level and in the Earth's upper atmosphere, known as the stratosphere. At ground level, ozone is a pollutant that can harm human health. In the stratosphere, however, ozone forms a layer that protects life on earth from the sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays. But this "good" ozone is gradually being destroyed by man-made chemicals referred to as ozone-depleting substances, including chlorofluorocarbons, hydrochlorofluorocarbons, and halons.Crop and forest damage. Air pollution can damage crops and trees in a variety of ways.Ground-level ozone can lead to reductions in agricultural crop and commercial forest yields, reduced growth and survivability of tree seedlings, and increased plant susceptibility to disease, pests and other environmental stresses (such as harsh weather).Global climate change. The Earth's atmosphere contains a delicate balance of naturally occurring gases that trap some of the sun's heat near the Earth's surface. This "greenhouse effect" keeps the Earth's temperature stable.Diunduh dari : ..
44 EROSI TANAHErosion affects the environment in a number of ways, such as the falling of trees, the flooding of forests, destruction from wind erosion, and a number of others. Direct impacts of erosion on environment included on-site and off-site impacts. The on-site impacts were that soil layer became thin, soil structure was deteriorated and soil nutrients decreased. The off-site impacts were that water bodies were polluted. The indirect impacts of soil erosion on environment were the increase of fertilizer application and energy consumption, and change of adaptability of land uses. Although erosion intensity was not serious in the study area, its environmental impacts should not be ignored because of great soil nutrient loss and coarseness of soil particles.University of Florida , Soil and Water Science DepartmentErosion Impacts on Soil and Environmental Quality: Vertisols in the Highlands Region of EthiopiaLouis Philor and Samira H. Daroub (April, 2011 ).Diunduh dari :
45 The Effect of Deforestation PEMBUKAAN HUTANThe Effect of DeforestationEnvironment changeOne major effect of deforestation is climate change. Changes to the surroundings done by deforestation work in many ways. One, there is abrupt change in temperatures in the nearby areas. Forests naturally cool down because they help retain moisture in the air.Second is the long process of global climate change. As mentioned above, deforestation has been found to contribute to global warming or that process when climates around the world become warmer as more harmful rays of the sun comes in through the atmosphere.The ozone layer is a mass of oxygen or O3 atoms that serves as shield in the atmosphere against the harmful ultraviolet rays from the sun. Because ozone is made up of oxygen atoms, oxygen react with carbon monoxide. Such reaction would use up oxygen atoms.It follows that when there are more carbon monoxide atoms going to the atmosphere, the volume of oxygen would decline. Such is the case of ozone depletion.The third effect to the environment would be on the water table underneath the ground. Water table is the common source of natural drinking water by people living around forests.Water table is replenishing. That means, the supply of water underground could also dry up if not replenished regularly. When there is rain, forests hold much of the rainfall to the soil through their roots.Thus, water sinks in deeper to the ground, and eventually replenishing the supply of water in the water table. Now, imagine what happens when there is not enough forests anymore. Water from rain would simply flow through the soil surface and not be retained by the soil.Or other than that, the water from rain would not stay in the soil longer, for the process of evaporation would immediately set in. Thus, the water table is not replenished, leading to drying up of wells.Article Source:Diunduh dari :
46 The Effects of Habitat Destruction of the Environment DEGRADASI HABITAT ALAMIAHThe Effects of Habitat Destruction of the EnvironmentThe primary effect of habitat destruction is a reduction in biodiversity, i.e. the variety and abundance of different species of animals and plants in a particular setting.Pollination and Seed DispersalBoth wild and agricultural plants depend on pollination for reproduction. Fruits and vegetables, key components of the human diet, depend on bees and other insects to transfer pollen from flower to flower. When habitat destruction reduces the varieties of these pollinators, crop yields drop as well.Climate RegulationBiodiversity affects climate mainly through regulation of the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Destruction of forest habitats reduces the capacity of forests to absorb carbon dioxide. The growth rate and woodiness of a plant determines the rate of carbon turnover within it. Landscape patterns are also important since carbon sequestration is reduced at the edges of forest fragments. Marine ecosystems also play a significant role in carbon sequestration.Pest and Disease ControlPests often target specific types of plants. When habitats are destroyed and plant diversity is reduced, the environment contains more of a particular type of plant. This makes it easier for pests to spread. Plant diversity provides habitats for a greater variety of insects and other animals and for the natural enemies of pests. Fungal plant diseases are more severe in monoculture areas where a single type of crop is being cultivated.Indirect EffectsThe production of food,clothing and shelter for humans depends in many indirect ways on the biodiversity of ecosystems.A high diversity of agricultural crops protects farmers against crop failures. Destruction of habitats and reduction of species diversity can make ecosystems more vulnerable to invasive species and indirectly affect human health and well-being. The effect of invasive species is illustrated by what happened when bass were introduced into Gatun Lake, Panama. The presence of bass resulted in the reduction of predators of mosquito larvae and an increase in the incidence of malaria.Read more: The Effects of Habitat Destruction of the Environment | eHow.comDiunduh dari :
47 KEPUNAHAN SPESIES Effects on the environment when species extinct? If a species goes extinct, anything it used to eat (be it plants or animals) now has one less predator and their numbers will increase. If they increase too much unchecked by their predators they may use too many resources and cause their own starvation. Another animal may start eating them, though -- since now they don't have to compete with the old species anymore. Also, any animal which was a predator to the now-extinct species has lost a food source. They may have to find something else to eat or starve themselves into extinction, too.Read more:Impact of Species Extinction on BiodiversityAn international group of researchers has recently provided the first comprehensive and large-scale assessment of the services provided. They suggest that species extinction has impaired at least three critical ecosystem services: number of viable fisheries (-33%); provision of nursery habitats such as oyster reefs, seagrass beds and wetlands (-69%); and filtering and detoxification services provided by suspension feeders, submerged vegetation and wetlands (-63%).Additionally, the loss of filtering services has the potential to increase the risks of harmful algal blooms (e.g. ‘red tide’), oxygen depletion and declining water quality. Meanwhile, coastal flooding was also increased as a result of species extinction. Although this event is linked to sea level rise, historical losses of floodplain and erosion control provided by coastal wetlands, reefs and submerged vegetation is also responsible.Diunduh dari :
48 Aquifer Depletion is an Urban and Rural Problem DEPLESI AQUIFERAquifer Depletion is an Urban and Rural ProblemBy Wade Shepard on November 27, 2011,An aquifer is an underground layer of permeable or fractured rock or porous materials such as sand, silt, or gravel that can contain ground water. Generally, the water sits between the pores or fractures in the sediments and can be pumped up to the surface through wells. While aquifers do replenish, or recharge, over time by rain and land water, the process is often very slow — and whether aquifers can truly be considered renewable resources is a matter for debate. When ground water is extracted from an aquifer faster than it can be replenished a process called “over draft” occurs, and the water table begins to lower. The result from excessive over draft can lead to subsidence, the lowering of ground levels in relation to a depleting aquifer.A major problem with urban groundwater depletion is that, like in agriculture, much of the water that is being pumped up from the ground never returns to the aquifer. In urban areas, much of the extracted well water, after use, is deposited into sewer systems that eventually lead to oceans or large seas rather than back into the local aquifer. Agricultural extraction of water from this aquifer began in the 1930s, resulting in this region being one of the most agriculturally productive on the planet. But the aquifer is now being depleted at an alarming rate, with reports that in some areas it is dropping five or six feet a year. This is causing some farmers to drill their wells deeper and seek water use reduction practices, such as choosing to grow crops with lower water needs. Read moreDiunduh dari :
49 How does water pollution affect our environment? PENCEMARAN AIRHow does water pollution affect our environment?The contamination of water bodies has tremendous negative impact on environment, it has ability to destroy many animal habitats, and cause irreparable damage to many ecosystems.Water pollution is not only killing millions of people around the globe each year, it is also killing millions of plants and animals that simply cannot cope with the increasing levels of water pollution caused by different chemicals and other waste.In some areas of the world water pollution issue is totally out of control, and in these areas polluted water spreads different toxins and other chemicals into environment, making it dirty, and above all unhealthy place to live in. The aquatic life is mostly affected with water pollution, and water pollution can even lead to an extinction of some animal species.Chemical compounds and other water pollutants cause aquatic animals difficulties with breathing while on the other hand these chemicals can also be quite toxic for land animals once they drink this polluted water.Polluted water is also one of the major contributing factors to acid rain creation, and generally speaking this is certainly one of the biggest environmental problems.Here are the things world needs to do in order to solve water pollution issue:Strict laws and frequent monitoring of water bodies in order to avoid scenarios that include huge quantities of different chemicals being discharged either directly or indirectly into our rivers, lakes, and streams.Better education of the people. People, especially the ones living in developing countries, need to be more educated and learn that water is the most precious resource in our planet.Enable more funds to adequately treat waste water and sewage waste.Frequent chemical, biological and physical testing of different water bodies in order to prevent water pollution from reaching higher levels.Massive fines for industries and people that purposely dump waste and other chemicals into different water bodies.More wastewater treatment facilities so that there is more water discharged back into the environment without posing threat to our health and our environment. World also needs to force wastewater treatment facilities to pull more pollutants from their discharge.Decrease the amount of pesticides and fertilizers used in agriculture because advanced agriculture based on heavy use of different chemicals is one of the main factors behind growing water pollution issue.Cleaning up polluted rivers and other polluted water bodies. Cleaning polluted water bodies is very expensive procedure but this is really a small price to pay when considering harmful effects of polluted water to our heath and our environment.Better use of science. Science needs to focus more on finding the new "revolutionary" solution to clean polluted water bodies such as for instance using carbon nanotubes to clean polluted water.Water pollution needs to be tackled at both regional as well as global level because all environmental issues are becoming global and water pollution issue is certainly no exception.Diunduh dari :
50 PENURUNAN PERIKANAN LAUT OCEANS WITHOUT FISH Peter Montague National Writers Union, UAW Local 1981/AFL-CIO)The destruction of life in the oceans has progressed farther than anyone had suspected, according to a new report in SCIENCE magazine. The causes are overfishing and pollution, but the focus of the new report is overfishing alone. SCIENCE is the voice of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS).The world's catch of ocean fish peaked in 1989 and has been declining since. In the early 1990s, scientists reported that 13 of the world's 17 major fisheries were depleted or in steep decline. Typical is the Grand Banks fishery off the shallow coast of Newfoundland in the north Atlantic. There, after 350 years of commercial exploitation, the haddock, cod and flounder have all but disappeared and the fishery was officially closed a few years ago.The depletion of the world's most popular fish species has set off three trends, each of which is adding to the oceans' troubles: (1) fisherman are adopting new technologies that (2) allow them to fish in deeper waters, and (3) they are fishing lower on the food chain.CAUSES OF OVERFISHINGThe problem of overfishing is being fueled by an increase in demand for fish that in turn is fueled by increased affluence (more people can afford fish as they become richer) and people eating fish for health reasons. Almost a billion people rely on fish for protein.Fish that not so long ago hardly anybody wanted except Japan now are in high demand and cooperatives and trading companies in a number of countries are competing to acquire them, driving up their price.The biggest consumers of herring, mackerel, anchovies and sardines are agriculture and aquiculture for feed for farmed fish and protein sources for pigs and cattleCompanies out to please their shareholders fish only for immediate profit, exploiting every loophole to continue.Poor regulation and monitoring are serious problems. Fishing boats routinely report false data on their catches.Despite plummeting fish stocks overfishing is accelerating around the globe, encouraged in part by $30 billion in annual subsidies for fishing boats, fuel and other assistance, with the biggest subsidies found in Asia and Europe.Diunduh dari:Diunduh dari : .
51 Reuse dan Recycling Recycling, Reuse and Rehabilitation of Mine Wastes Bernd G. LottermoserELEMENTS December 2011 v. 7 no. 6 pIf we want to ensure a sustainable future for the human race, we must learn to prevent, minimize, reuse and recycle waste.Reuse of mine wastes allows their beneficial application, whereas recycling extracts resource ingredients or converts wastes into valuable products. Yet, today, many of the proposed reuse and recycling concepts for mine wastes are not economic.Consequently, the great majority of mine wastes are still being placed into waste storage facilities.Significant research efforts are required to develop cost-effective reuse and recycling options and to prevent the migration of contaminants from rehabilitated waste repositories in the long term.Diunduh dari : ..
52 MENGUKUR DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN Ecological footprintBiological capacity to replenish resources and adsorb waste and pollutionPer capita ecological footprintRenewable resource use per individualDefine Ecological FootprintBy Frederick s Blackmon, eHow ContributorThe ecological footprint helps scientists and businesses calculate the ecological impact of their consumption needs. Countries like the US, Japan and the UK use more global resources than their individual lands can provide. These nations are said to have an ecological deficit. On the other hand, countries like Mongolia, Gabon and Australia are in ecological reserve.Read more: Define Ecological Footprint | eHow.comXDiunduh dari :
53 ECOLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Identification The ecological footprint represents the amount of land and ocean required per year by a population for its resources, that will allow those resources to be renewed, and that can also absorb the waste generated.CalculationThe concept of the ecological footprint can be used for individuals, communities, countries and other population groupings. The net consumption of the population in question is calculated; import is included and export is subtracted.LimitationsThe ecological footprint is perhaps the best current measure of humanity's impact on the environment, but it has a number of limitations. The ecological footprint only focuses on renewable resources, and it only partially addresses the use of fossil fuels.BiocapacityHumanity's ecological footprint is exceeding its biocapacity by over a third. The Redefining Progress website reports in its Footprint Analysis that mankind is exceeding its ecological limit by thirty-nine percent.Unit of MeasureThe unit of measure commonly used to express an ecological footprint is the global hectare. One global hectare is equal to approximately two and a half acres.HistoryThe term "ecological footprint" was conceived in 1990 by William Rees and Mathis Wackernagel at the University of British Columbia. Now, the ecological footprint is used by businesses and scientists to measure and monitor ecological reserves.Read more: Define Ecological Footprint | eHow.comDiunduh dari :http://www.ehow.com/facts_ _define-ecological-footprint.html ..
55 (Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network) Total Ecological Footprint (million hectares) and share of Global Ecological Capacity (%)Per Capita Ecological Footprint (hectares per person)Projected footprintEcological footprintEarth’s ecological capacityFigure 1.8: Natural capital use and degradation: total and per capita ecological footprints of selected countries (top). In 2003, humanity’s total or global ecological footprint was about 25% higher than the earth’s ecological capacity (bottom) and is projected to be twice the planet’s ecological capacity by 2050.Question: If we are living beyond the earth’s ecological capacity, why do you think the human population and per capita resource consumption are still growing exponentially?(Data from Worldwide Fund for Nature, Global Footprint Network)Diunduh dari : ..
56 PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN DAN APA YANG DAPAT KITA LAKUKAN ? KONSEP 1-4Preventing pollution is more effective and less costly than cleaning up pollution.Pollution Prevention (P2) Planning – Essential for Management of Green BizPollution prevention is defined as “use of processes, practices, materials, products, substances or energy that avoids or minimizes the creation of pollutants and waste and reduces the overall risk to the environment or human health”. Pollution prevention planning is a systematic, comprehensive method of identifying and implementing pollution prevention options to minimize or avoid the creation of pollutants or waste. The plan would also identify recycling, treatment and other measures needed to meet environmental goals.Pollution should be prevented or reduced at the source whenever feasible;Pollution that cannot be prevented should be recycled in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible;Pollution that cannot be prevented or recycled should be treated in an environmentally safe manner whenever feasible; andDisposal or other release into the environment should be employed only as a last resort and should be conducted in an environmentally safe manner.Diunduh dari :
57 PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN Apakah Pencemaran?Point sourcesNonpoint sourcesDampak negatif akibat pencemaran lingkunganAir PollutionAir pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems. Air PollutionAir pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex, dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric ozone depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earth's ecosystems.Diunduh dari :
58 PENCEMARAN UDARA: POINT SOURCE What is Air Pollution? Definition – It is a chemical, physical (e.g. particulate matter), or biological agent that modifies the natural characteristics of the atmosphereWhat Cause Air Pollution?excess emission of gases/vapors into atmospheresaturation of chemical compounds/particulatesrate of dissipation is smaller than the rate of absorption through various cycles (i.e. carbon and nitrogen cycle)emergence of new chemical reactions of reactive and non-biodegradable compounds What are other causes?motor vehicle exhaustheat and power generation facilitiesindustrial processesauto manufacturingfertilizers plantsbuilding demolitionsolid waste disposalsolvent evaporationvolcanic eruptionfuel productionroadway constructionelectrical components manufacturingextraction of metalsforest firesagricultureDiunduh dari : .
59 Penyelesaian terhadap Pencemaran Pollution prevention (input control)Front-of-the-pipePollution cleanup (output control)End-of-the-pipeOhio Pollution Prevention and Waste Minimization Planning Guidance Manual"A pollution prevention program involves developing and implementing a continuous strategy to address all waste generated by a facility and procedures for prioritizing and systematically reducing these wastes.“Diunduh dari : ..
60 Disadvantages of Pollution cleanup (Output Control) TemporaryGrowth in consumption may offset technologyMoves pollutant from one place to anotherBurialIncinerationDispersed pollutants costly to clean upPOLICIES TO CLEAN UP TOXIC INDUSTRIAL CONTAMINATED SITES OF GELA AND PRIOLO: A COST-BENEFIT ANALYSISCarla Guerriero, Fabrizio Bianchi, John Cairns and Liliana CoriEnvironmental Health 2011, 10:68 It has been estimated that, on average, 47 cases of premature death, 281 cases of cancer and 2,702 cases of non-cancer hospital admission could be avoided each year by removing environmental exposure in these two areas. Assuming a 20 year cessation lag and a 4% discount rate we calculate that the potential monetary benefit of removing industrial pollution is €3,592 million in Priolo and €6,639 million in Gela.Given the annual number of health outcomes attributable to pollution exposure the effective clean-up of Gela and Priolo should be prioritised. This study suggests that clean-up policies costing up to €6,639 million in Gela and €3,592 million in Priolo would be cost beneficial. These two amounts are notably higher than the funds allocated thus far to clean up the two sites, €127.4 million in Gela and €774.5 million in Priolo, implying that further economic investments - even considerable ones - could still prove cost beneficial.Diunduh dari :
61 Mengapa kita menghadapi Problematik Lingkungan ? KONSEP 1-5AMajor causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful and unsustainable resource use, poverty, excluding the environmental costs of resource use from the market prices of goods and services, and trying to manage nature with insufficient knowledge.KONSEP 1-5BPeople with different environmental worldviews often disagree about the seriousness of environmental problems and what we should do about them.The standard mitigation hierarchy is to avoid impacts on the environment, reduce impacts that could not be avoided and only offset residual impacts.Applying this mitigation hierarchy requires precise knowledge on the environment that might be impacted, in order to design appropriate measures to avoid and reduce impacts as well as design and size offsets.To underline the importance of this knowledge, why not add “study” to this hierarchy?Diunduh dari :
62 AKAR MASALAH PROBLEMATIK LINGKUNGAN Pertumbuhan Populasi (Penduduk)Penggunaan sumberdaya yang boros dan tidak ramah lingkunganPovertyFailure to include environmental costs of goods and services in market pricesToo little knowledge of how nature worksNatural-Resource Exploitation with Costly Enforcement of Property RightsLouis Hotte (University of Ottawa, March 2002). U of Namur, Research Series Working Paper No. 234.This paper proposes a model of natural-resource exploitation when private ownership requires costly enforcement activities. Enforcement costs are endogenized as the outcome of a game between the owner of a resource and encroachers. In equilibrium, the analysis suggests that in order to deter encroachment, two instruments are available for the owner: she can either devote more efforts in directly enforcing her property rights, or she can purposefully "overexploit" the resource as a means of lowering the returns from encroachment activities. The latter instrument implies that, even with the institution of private property, the marginal social yield of a resource worker may be below the value of his marginal product in alternative employment.Conditions are found for which at low wage rates, further wage reductions actually lower profits. These conditions turn out to be necessary and sufficient for the existence of a range of low wages characterized by a free-access equilibrium.This provides some clues as to why free access may be more prevalent in less-developed countries for certain types of resources. It is also shown that an increase in resource price cannot lead an owner to abandon his site to a free-access exploitation.Diunduh dari : ..
63 Five Basic Causes of Environmental Problems Causes of environmental problems and the resulting negative trend are predominantly human induced. Only when the causes and the impacts of the resulting pressures on the system are known can adequate responses be formulated. To qualify and quantify the pressures, state and responses, indicators need to be found that adequately represent the extremely complex situation. The OECD PSR framework is being adopted by many for such indicator development (even though it cannot properly reflect the real world because linkages are not linear).Diunduh dari :http://www.fao.org/docrep/W4745E/w4745e07.htm ..
64 High-Consumption Lifestyles Exacerbate Problems of Population Growth PERTUMBUHAN PENDUDUKHow Global Population Growth is Creating Serious Environmental ProblemsPopulation growth causes problems from water scarcity to species extinctionPopulation Growth Causes Multiple Environmental Problems According to Population Connection, population growth since 1950 is behind the clearing of 80 percent of rainforests, the loss of tens of thousands of plant and wildlife species, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions of some 400 percent and the development or commercialization of as much as half of the Earth’s surface land.The group fears that in the coming decades half of the world’s population will be exposed to “water-stress” or “water-scarce” conditions, which are expected to “intensify difficulties in meeting…consumption levels, and wreak devastating effects on our delicately balanced ecosystems.”High-Consumption Lifestyles Exacerbate Problems of Population GrowthAnd while population numbers in most developed nations are leveling off or diminishing today, high levels of consumption make for a huge drain on resources. Americans, who represent only 4 percent of world population, consume 25 percent of all resources.Industrialized countries also contribute far more to climate change, ozone depletion and overfishing than developing countries. And as more and more residents of developing countries get access to Western media, or immigrate to the United States, they want to emulate the consumption-heavy lifestyles they see on their televisions and read about on the Internet.Diunduh dari : ..
65 PEMANFAATAN SUMBERDAYA ALAM YANG TIDAK LESTARI Unsustainable Resource Use Threatens Humanity's FutureBy J.R. PeggWASHINGTON, DC, March 30, 2005 (ENS)Human activities are rapidly changing the Earth's natural environment and threaten the planet's capacity to support future generations, according to the most comprehensive analysis ever conducted of the world's ecosystems.It concludes ecological degradation is a major roadblock to efforts to address poverty, hunger and public health and will not be reversed unless there is decisive and comprehensive action by world leaders.The study found ecological damage has accelerated tremendously in the past century and much of the degradation has occurred in the past 50 years, as society has acquired the food, fresh water, energy and materials needed to support the world's increasing population.Two services, capture fisheries and fresh water, are now well beyond levels that can sustain current, much less future, demands and the report concludes these problems will substantially diminish the benefits for future generations.Increased resource exploitation and changing land use over the past century has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in biodiversityDiunduh dari :
66 Schematic representation of dimensions of poverty KEMISKINANSchematic representation of dimensions of povertyThe 2000/2001 World Development Report groups the different dimensions of poverty as opportunity, empowerment, and security. Much recent work in the Bank follows this approach, but also includes capabilities (or human capital) as a separate category. 2 Figure 1 shows how different factors or determinants can influence different dimensions of poverty, affecting people’s opportunity, capability, security, and empowerment in many different ways. In this paper we have chosen the relationships indicated by solid lines (shown in figure 1) as examples of how these categories might relate to each other.Diunduh dari : .
67 KEMISKINAN DAN LINGKUNGAN The Impact of Poverty on the Environment Both environmental degradation and poverty alleviation are urgent global issues that have a lot in common, but are often treated separately. Consider the following:Human activities are resulting in mass species extinction rates higher than ever before, currently approaching 1000 times the normal rate;Human-induced climate change is threatening an even bleaker future;At the same time, the inequality of human societies is extreme:The United Nations 1998 Human Development Report reveals that, “Globally, the 20% of the world’s people in the highest-income countries account for 86% of total private consumption expenditures—the poorest 20% a minuscule 1.3%”To highlight this inequality further, consider that approximately 1 billion people suffer from hunger and some 2 to 3.5 billion people have a deficiency of vitamins and mineralsYet, some 1.2 billion suffer from obesityOne billion people live on less than a dollar a day, the official measure of povertyHowever, half the world — nearly three billion people — lives on less than two dollars a day.Yet, just a few hundred millionaires now own as much wealth as the world’s poorest 2.5 billion people.The Impact of Poverty on the EnvironmentPoverty and third world debt has been shown to result in resource stripping just to survive or pay off debts.For example, Nepal and Bangladesh have suffered from various environmental problems such as increasingly devastating floods, often believed to be resulting from large-scale deforestation.Forests around the world face increased pressures from timber companies, agricultural businesses, and local populations that use forest resources.Some environmentalists, from rich nations especially, also raise concerns about increasing populations placing excessive burdens on the world’s resources as the current major source of environmental problems.Diunduh dari :
68 EKSTERNALITAS BIAYA LINGKUNGAN WHAT ARE EXTERNALITIES? Externalities are common in virtually every area of economic activity. They are defined as third party (or spill-over) effects arising from the production and/or consumption of goods and services for which no appropriate compensation is paid. Externalities can cause market failure if the price mechanism does not take into account the full social costs and social benefits of production and consumption.The study of externalities by economists has become extensive in recent years - not least because of concerns about the link between the economy and the environment.PRIVATE AND SOCIAL COSTSExternalities create a divergence between the private and social costs of production.Social cost includes all the costs of production of the output of a particular good or service. We include the third party (external) costs arising, for example, from pollution of the atmosphere.SOCIAL COST = PRIVATE COST + EXTERNALITYFor example: - a chemical factory emits wastage as a by-product into nearby rivers and into the atmosphere. This creates negative externalities which impose higher social costs on other firms and consumers. e.g. clean up costs and health costs. NEGATIVE CONSUMPTION EXTERNALITIESConsumers can create externalities when they purchase and consume goods and services. Pollution from cars and motorbikes Litter on streets and in public placesNoise pollution from using car stereos or ghetto-blastersNegative externalities created by smoking and alcohol abuseExternalities created through the mis-treatment of animalsVandalism of public propertyNegative externalities arising from crimeDiunduh dari :
69 MENGELOLA ALAM TIDAK SESUAI DAYA DUKUNGNYA Carrying Capacity of Environment and Ecosystems:Carrying capacity of environment or an ecosystem is the threshold limit of use of that system without damaging the system. Every ecosystem has its resources that are used for economic development, for survival and for habitat creation.Environment and ecosystems have got the abilities to recover the loss of its resources by regenerating them over the period of time that are temporary and not exceeding the threshold damage limit.Plants, shrubs and grass species falls under producers because they can generate their own food by a process called photosynthesis. Consumers are those which depends on producers for their food. Lion, deer, tiger, bear, zebra, rat, fox and other animals falls into this category.Now suppose if the number of producers decline over the period of time. It will affect the consumers who depend directly on producers and those who depend on other consumers for their food. What happens is the instability of the system and probably the extinction of some of species.Though the ecosystem can recover the damage, but that is slow and time bound. But it can happen only if the rate of recovery is equal to the rate of damage. Once the rate of damage exceeds the rate of recovery, the ecosystem loses its power to recover. It is called carrying capacity.Diunduh dari :
70 DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN AKIBAT KEMISKINAN Diunduh dari : ..
71 KEMISKINAN DAN SANITASI Poverty and Sanitation : an Analysis of the Linkage Between Poverty and Access to Basic Sanitation in Honduras.The analysis of the linkage between poverty and access to basic sanitation in Honduras leads to the following conclusions and recommendations:prioritize pro-poor policies designed to facilitate their access to improved and sustainable sanitation services;adopt appropriate and innovative technologies and methodologies for infrastructure and service management, for the creation of sustainable basic services and for technical support;stimulate the participation of civil society organizations in decision making and service management; andinvolve the coordinated participation of nongovernmental organizations and international cooperation agencies in developing sanitationprograms.The final conclusions of this analysis present the need to:prioritize pro-poor policies designed to facilitate their access to improved and sustainable sanitation services;adopt innovative, appropriate technologies and technical support;Recognize the capacity of communities to organize and to contribute to their own development, by nurturing the articipation of civil society organizations and strengthening them to fulfill their roles;create a system to monitor programs’ performance; andinvolve the coordinated participation of NGOs and international agencies in developing sanitation programs.Diunduh dari :
72 KEMISKINAN DAN BAHAN BAKAR Poverty and firewood consumption : A case study of rural households in northern ChinaSylvie Démurger and Martin FournierThis paper discusses the determinants of firewood consumption in a poor township in rural northern China, with a special focus on the relationship between households’ economic wealth and firewood consumption. We find strong support for the poverty-environment hypothesis since household economic wealth is a significant and negative determinant of firewood consumption.Firewood can therefore be considered as an inferior good for the whole population in the rural area under study, although further evidence shows that at the top of the wealth distribution, there might be a floor effect in the decreasing firewood consumption. Besides economic wealth, our analysis also shows that the own-price effect is important in explaining firewood consumption behavior, the price effect gaining importance with rising incomes. Finally, increasing education is also found to be a key factor in energy consumption behavior, especially when dealing with energy source switching behavior.Diunduh dari :
73 KEMISKINAN DAN KAYU BAKAR The environmental impact of poverty: evidence from firewood collection in rural Nepal.Baland JM, Bardhan P, Das S, Mookherjee D, Sarkar RUniversity of Namur.Economic Development and Cultural Change [2010, 59(1):23-61]We investigate determinants of household firewood collection in rural Nepal, using and World Bank Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data. We incorporate village fixed effects, endogenous censoring, measurement error in living standards and heterogeneous effects of different household assets. We find no evidence in favor of the poverty-environment hypothesis. The evidence for the environmental Kuznets curve depends on the precise measure of living standards and time period studied. Firewood collections fall with a transition to modern occupations and rise with increasing population and household division. The local interhousehold collection externality is negligible, indicating that policy interventions are justified only by ecological considerations or nonlocal spillovers.Diunduh dari :
74 KEMISKINAN DAN AIR BERSIH WATER POVERTY: TOWARDS A MEANINGFUL INDICATOREran Feitelson, Jonathan ChenowethWater Policy 4 (2002) 263–281.Much effort has gone into the development of indicators of water problems. They largely focus on the question of whether there is sufficient water for food self-sufficiency. Yet, today’s agenda is increasingly geared toward adequate water provision for domestic use, as food is increasingly supplied through market mechanisms, and toward environmental issues.As the domestic supply of water can be usually assured, at a cost, and as both environmental concerns and social requirements can be translated to monetary terms, even if imperfectly, a water poverty index is advanced to assess the structural water problems faced by different countries.Water poverty is defined as a situation where a nation or region cannot afford the cost of sustainable clean water to all people at all times.The implications of this definition are discussed, and the variables needed to operationalize the proposed index identified.Diunduh dari : ..
75 KEMISKINAN DAN KESEHATAN Development (2007) 50, 63–69. doi: /palgrave.developmentPoverty and Health: Defeating poverty by going to the rootsAnirudh Krishna.Poverty is dynamic in nature: even as some people move out of poverty, other people simultaneously fall into poverty. The poverty pool is being simultaneously both depleted and refilled. Anirudh Krishna argues that efforts for poverty reduction tend to focus exclusively on raising people out of poverty, and therefore will not be very successful unless poverty creation is also addressed. Ill health and high healthcare expenses are the principal reasons associated with falling into poverty; therefore, reducing poverty requires investing in better healthcare.Diunduh dari :
76 KEMISKINAN DAN PERUMAHAN Housing and HealthIntersection of Poverty and Environmental ExposuresVirginia A. Rauh, Philip J. Landrigan, Luz ClaudioAnnals of the New York Academy of SciencesVolume 1136, Reducing the Impact of Poverty on Health and Human Development: Scientific Approaches. pages 276–288, June 2008The importance of adequate housing for the maintenance of health and well-being has long been a topic of scientific and public health policy discussion, but the links remain elusive. Here we explore the role of the residential environment in the etiology of illness (specifically asthma) and the persistence of socioeconomic health disparities. Housing conditions, shaped by social forces, affect exposure to physical and chemical “toxicants,” thereby translating social adversities into individual illness and population health disparities. We discuss the mediating role of housing in determining health outcomes at multiple levels (social–structural, neighborhood, and individual family). To date, little attention has been paid by most environmental health scientists to the social–structural conditions underlying gross inequities in the distribution of toxic exposures, with even less attention to the processes whereby these social conditions may directly affect susceptibility to the toxic exposures themselves. This chapter goes beyond traditional medical and environmental science models to incorporate a range of social and physical determinants of environmental pollutions, illustrating how these conditions result in health and illness. We focus here on childhood asthma as an example of a serious public health problem that has been associated with low income, minority status, and characteristics of the home environment. We end the chapter with a discussion of the environmental justice movement and the role of housing as a potential agent of change and focus of interventions aimed to reduce the harmful effects of environmental pollutants.Diunduh dari :
77 KEMISKINAN DAN PANGAN & GIZI European Journal of Development Research (2011) 23, 129–150. doi: /ejdr ; published online 29 July 2010POVERTY AND FOOD SECURITY IN GUJARAT, INDIAAnita Dixit.This article analyses poverty, in the light of the prevailing methodological and definitional debates, in Gujarat, one of the fastest growing states in India. We examine the divergence between the official and nutrition-based poverty lines (PLs) and analyse its possible causes.First, to study whether the ‘PL bundle’ has changed over time, we test whether poverty is sensitive to changes in the base year; second, we examine the impact of food prices on the change in consumption at given expenditure levels; and third, we study the possible relation between poverty and foodgrain availability.We conclude that poverty is underestimated because official figures do not consider the change in consumption patterns, occurring partly as a result of high relative food prices. Nutrition poverty levels in Gujarat are higher than all-India levels, which creates a case for direct nutritional intervention for the poor.Diunduh dari :
78 THE URBAN ENVIRONMENT, POVERTY AND HEALTH IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CAROLYN STEPHENSHealth Policy Plan. (1995) 10 (2): doi: /heapol/The process of urbanization could be described as one of the major global environmental changes directly affecting human health today. Populations particularly affected are in developing countries where rapid urban growth has been accompanied by massive urban poverty. Urban environmental health impacts, particularly the impact on adults of an environment of poverty, are still poorly understood. Definitions of the urban environment tend to be physical, excluding the complex ramifications of a social setting of disadvantage. This paper provides a brief overview of existing knowledge on the links between environment, poverty and health in urban areas of developing countries, with an emphasis on the policy implications implied by research on health differential between groups within cities. The paper argues that urban poverty and inequalities in conditions between groups within cities present a central crisis confronting urban policy in terms of human health and quality of life. The paper suggests that definitions of the urban environment tend to consider only the physical, and not the social complexity of the urban setting. The review concludes that the scale and the complexity of the urban crisis in developing countries demands a real commitment to re-thinking the management of cities to address multiple deprivation. The paper suggests that this challenges urban professionals who continue to act with a bias towards unintegrated single sector solutions despite claims to the contrary.Diunduh dari :
79 Environmental Effects of Affluence Harmful effectsHigh consumption and waste of resourcesAdvertising – more makes you happyBeneficial effectsConcern for environmental qualityProvide money for environmental causesReduced population growthImpact caps: why population, affluence and technology strategies should be abandonedBlake AlcottJournal of Cleaner Production. Volume 18, Issue 6, April 2010, Pages 552–560This paper classifies strategies to reduce environmental impact according to the terms of the I = PAT formula.Policies limiting resource depletion and pollution (Impact) – by heavily taxing resources or rationing them on a country basis – are thus called ‘direct’ or ‘left-side’ strategies.Other policies to achieve the environmental goal of lowering Impact strive to limit Population and Affluence, or to use Technology to lower the ratio of resource inputs to goods-and-services outputs. Next it is shown that lowering any of these ‘right-side’ factors causes or at least enables the other two to rise or ‘rebound’.This has two consequences: 1) Since I = PAT does not express these interdependencies on the right side, it is more accurately written I = f(P,A,T); and 2) Success in lowering any of the right-side factors does not necessarily lower Impact.Rationing or Pigouvian taxation of resources or pollution, on the other hand, necessarily lower impact and are therefore preferable to population, consumption and technological environmental strategies.Finally, lifestyle and technology changes towards more sufficiency and efficiency would follow the caps as consumers and producers work to retain the greatest amount of welfare within the limits given.Diunduh dari :
80 Evaluating Full Cost of Resources Use ExamplesClear-cutting + habitat lossCommercial fishing + depletion of fish stocksTax breaksSubsidiesTHE FULL ECONOMIC COST OF GROUNDWATER EXTRACTIONJon StrandWorld Bank December 2010When a groundwater basin is exploited by a large number of farmers, acting independently, each farmer has little incentive to practice conservation that would primarily benefit other farmers. This can lead to excessive groundwater extraction. When farmers pay less than the full cost of electricity used for groundwater pumping, this problem can be worsened; while the problem can be somewhat relieved by rationing the electricity supply.The research in this paper constructs an analytical framework for describing the characteristics of economically efficient groundwater management plans, identifying how individual water use decisions by farmers collectively depart from efficient resource use, and examining how policies related to both water and electricity can improve on the efficiency of the status quo.It is shown that an optimal scheme for pricing electricity used for pumping groundwater includes two main elements: 1) the full (marginal) economic cost of electricity must be covered; and 2) there must be an extra charge, reflected in the electricity price, corresponding to the externality cost of groundwater pumping. The analysis includes a methodology for calculating the latter externality cost, based on just a few parameters, and a discussion of how electricity pricing could be modified to improve efficiency in both power and water use.Diunduh dari : ..
81 Environmental Viewpoints Environmental worldviewEnvironmental ethicsPlanetary management worldviewStewardship worldviewEnvironmental wisdom worldviewSocial capitalENVIRONMENTAL WORLDVIEWS AND VALUESEnvironmental Worldviews include:How you think the world works.What you believe your environmental role in the world should be.What you believe is right and wrong environmental behavior.INSTRUMENTAL AND INTRINSIC VALUESInstrumental (utilitarian)A value something has because of its usefulness to us or to the biospherei.e. preserving natural capital and biodiversityIntrinsic (inherent)The value something has just because it exists regardless of whether it has any instrumental value to us.CLASSIFYING WORLDVIEWSWorldviews are generally divided into two groups:Holistic (Ecocentric) is earth centered and focuses on sustaining the earth’sNatural systems (ecosystems)Life-forms (biodiversity)Life-support systems (biosphere)For all speciesAtomistic is individual centeredAnthropocentric (human-centered)Biocentric (life-centered)Diunduh dari : . orhs.eduhsd.k12.ca.us/.../44_APES%20Projec... .
82 Social capital Social capital framework Basing our framing and use of social capital within the social justice and social inclusion perspective we emphasise that social capital is a resource, and based upon an extensive literature review of existing research we have developed a multi-faceted framework.This framework contains those key features of social capital most supported by research literature (e.g. participation in networks, trust, diversity) and contains factors which were seen as related to social capital or which might influence the enhancement and development of social capital (i.e. sense of belonging, outlook in life)FQS. Volume 7, No. 1, Art. 17 – January 2006The Context of Risk Decisions: Does Social Capital Make a Difference?Thilo Boeck, Jennie Fleming & Hazel KemshallDiunduh dari :
83 Environmental wisdom worldview Environmental Problems, Their Causes, and SustainabilityLIVING MORE SUSTAINABLYWhat Is the Difference between Environment, Ecology, and Environmental Science? DefiningSome Basic TermsEnvironmental science is a study of how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems.Environment is everything that affects a living organism (any unique form of life). Ecology is a biological science that studies the relationships between living organisms and their environment.This textbook is an introduction to environmental science, an interdisciplinary study that uses information from the physical sciences and social sciences to learn how the earth works, how we interact with the earth, and how to deal with environmental problems.Environmental science involves integrating ideas from the natural world (biosphere) and our cultural world (culturesphere).Environmentalism is a social movement dedicated to protecting the earth’s life support systems for us and other species. Members of the environmental community include ecologists, environmental scientists, conservation biologists, conservationists, preservationists, restorationists, and environmentalists.Diunduh dari :
84 Environmental wisdom worldview What Keeps Us Alive? The Sun and the Earth’s Natural CapitalAll life and economies depend on energy from the sun (solar capital) and the earth’s resources and ecological services (natural capital).Our existence, lifestyles, and economies depend completely on the sun and the earth, a blue and white island in the black void of space. To economists, capital is wealth used to sustain a business and to generate more wealth. For example, suppose you invest $100,000 of capital and get a 10% return on your money. In a year you get $10,000 in income from interest and increase your wealth to $110,000.By analogy, we can think of energy from the sun as solar capital. Solar energy includes direct sunlight and indirect forms of renewable solar energy such as wind power, hydropower (energy from flowing water), and biomass (direct solar energy converted to chemical energy and stored in biological sources of energy such as wood).Similarly, we can think of the planet’s air, water, soil, wildlife, forest, rangeland, fishery, mineral, and energy resources and the processes of natural purification, recycling, and pest control as natural resources or natural capital. See the Guest Essay by Paul Hawken on the website for this chapter.Natural capital consists of resources and ecological services that support and sustain the earth’s life and economies.This priceless natural capital that nature provides at no cost to us plus the natural biological income it supplies can sustain the planet and our economies indefinitely as long as we do not deplete them. Examples of biological income are renewable supplies of wood, fish, grassland for grazing, and underground water for drinking and irrigation.Diunduh dari :
85 Environmental wisdom worldview What Is an Environmentally Sustainable Society?One That Preserves Natural Capital and Lives Off Its IncomeAn environmentally sustainable society meets the basic resource needs of its people indefinitely without degrading or depleting the natural capital that supplies these resources.An environmentally sustainable society meets the current needs of its people for food, clean water, clean air, shelter, and other basic resources without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Living sustainably means living off natural income replenished by soils, plants, air, and water and not depleting or degrading the earth’s natural capital that supplies this biological income.Imagine you win $1 million in a lottery. Invest this capital at 10% interest per year, and you will have a sustainable annual income of $100,000 without depleting your capital. If you spend $200,000 a year, your $1 million will be gone early in the 7th year and even if you spend only $110,000 a year, you will be bankrupt early in the 18th year.The lesson here is an old one: Protect your capital and live off the income it provides. Deplete, waste, or squander your capital, and you move from a sustainable to an unsustainable lifestyle.The same lesson applies to the earth’s natural capital. According to many environmentalists and leading scientists, we are living unsustainably by wasting, depleting, and degrading the earth’s natural capital at an accelerating rate.Some people disagree. They contend that environmentalists have exaggerated the seriousness of population, resource, and environmental problems. They also believe we can overcome these problems by human ingenuity, economic growth, and technological advances.Diunduh dari :
86 Environmental wisdom worldview THE EARTH’S NATURAL CAPITAL.Energy from the sun (solar capital) and the earth’s natural capital provide resources (orange) and ecological services (green) that support and sustain the earth’s life and economies. Wedges from this diagram will be used near the titles of various chapters to indicate the components of natural capital that are the primary focus of such chapters.Diunduh dari :
87 Environmental wisdom worldview Natural capital: major types of material resources. This scheme is not fixed; renewable resources can become nonrenewable if used for a prolonged period at a faster rate than natural processes renew them.Diunduh dari :
88 Environmental wisdom worldview What Are Nonrenewable Resources?Resources We Can DepleteNonrenewable resources can be economically depleted to the point where it costs too much to obtain what is left.Nonrenewable resources exist in a fixed quantity or stock in the earth’s crust. On a time scale of millions to billions of years, geological processes can renew such resources. But on the much shorter human time scale of hundreds to thousands of years, these resources can be depleted much faster than they are formed.These exhaustible resources include energy resources (such as coal, oil, and natural gas that cannot be recycled),metallicmineral resources (such as iron, copper, and aluminum that can be recycled), and nonmetallic mineral resources (such as salt, clay, sand, and phosphates that usually are difficult or too costly to recycle).The production and depletion cycle of a nonrenewable energy or mineral resource.We never completely exhaust such a resource, but it becomes economically depletedwhen the costs of extracting and using what is left exceed its economic value. At that point,we have six choices: try to findmore, recycle or reuse existing supplies (except for nonrenewable energy resources, which cannot be recycled or reused), waste less, use less, try to develop a substitute, or wait millions of years formore to be produced.Some nonrenewable mineral resources, such as copper and aluminum, can be recycled or reused to extend supplies. Recycling involves collecting waste materials, processing them into new materials, and selling these new products. For example, discarded aluminum cans can be crushed and melted to make new aluminum cans or other aluminum items that consumers can buy. Recycling means nothing if we do not close the loop by buying products that are made from or contain recycled materials. Reuse is using a resource again in the same form. For example, glass bottles can be collected, washed, and refilled many times. Recycling nonrenewable metallic resources takes much less energy, water, and other resources and produces much less pollution and environmental degradation than exploiting virgin metallic resources.Reusing such resources takes even less energy and other resources and produces less pollution and environmental degradation than recycling.Diunduh dari :
89 Environmental wisdom worldview POLLUTION.Where Do Pollutants Come From, and What Are Their Harmful Effects? Threats to Health and SurvivalPollutants are chemicals found at high enough levels in the environment to cause harm to people or other organisms.Pollution is the presence of substances at high enough levels in air, water, soil, or food to threaten the health, survival, or activities of humans or other organisms. Pollutants can enter the environment naturally (for example, from volcanic eruptions) or through human or anthropogenic activities (for example, from burning coal). Most pollution from human activities occurs in or near urban and industrial areas, where pollution sources such as cars and factories are concentrated.Industrialized agriculture is also a major source of pollution.Most pollutants are unintended by products of useful activities such as burning coal to generate electricity, driving cars, and growing crops.Some pollutants contaminate the areas where they are produced and some are carried by wind or flowing water to other areas. Pollution does not respect the neat territorial political lines we draw on maps.The pollutants we produce come from two types of sources. Point sources of pollutants are single, identifiable sources. Examples are the smokestack of a coal- burning power plant, the drainpipe of a factory, and the exhaust pipe of an automobile. Nonpoint sources of pollutants are dispersed and often difficult to identify. Examples are pesticides sprayed into the air or blown by the wind into the atmosphere and runoff of fertilizers and pesticides from farmlands, golf courses, and suburban lawns and gardens into streams and lakes. It is much easier and cheaper to identify and control pollution from point sources than from widely dispersed nonpoint sources.Pollutants can have three types of unwanted effects.First, they can disrupt or degrade life-support systems for humans and other species.Second, they can damage wildlife, human health, and property.Third, they can be nuisances such as noise and unpleasant smells, tastes, and sights.Diunduh dari :
90 Environmental wisdom worldview What Are Key Environmental Problems and Their Basic Causes?The Big FiveThe major causes of environmental problems are population growth, wasteful resource use, poverty, poor environmental accounting, and ecological ignorance.Natural capital degradation: major environmental and resource problems.Diunduh dari :
91 Environmental wisdom worldview What Is the Relationship between Poverty and Environmental Problems?Being Poor Is Bad for People and the Earth Poverty is a major threat to human health and the environment.Many of the world’s poor do not have access to the basic necessities for a healthy, productive, and decent life. Their daily lives are focused on getting enough food, water, and fuel (for cooking and heat) to survive. Desperate for land to grow enough food, many of the world’s poor people deplete and degrade forests, soil, grasslands, and wildlife for short-term survival. They do not have the luxury of worrying about long-term environmental quality or sustainability.Another problemfor the poor is living in areas with high levels of air and water pollution and with a great risk of natural disasters such as floods, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanic eruptions. And they usually must take jobs—if they can find them—with unhealthy and unsafeworking conditions at very lowpay.Poverty also affects population growth. Poor people often have many children as a form of economic security. Their children help them grow food, gather fuel (mostly wood and dung), haul drinking water, tend livestock, work, and beg in the streets. The children also help their parents survive in their old age before they die, typically in their 50s in the poorest countries.The poor do not have retirement plans, social security, or government-sponsored health plans.Diunduh dari :
92 Environmental wisdom worldview What Is the Relationship between Resource Consumption and Environmental Problems? AffluenzaMany consumers in developed countries have become addicted to buying more and more stuff in their search for fulfillment and happiness.Affluenza (“af-loo-EN-zuh”) is a term used to describe the unsustainable addiction to over consumption and materialism exhibited in the lifestyles of affluent consumers in the United States and other developed countries. It is based on the assumption that buying more and more things can, should, and does buy happiness.Most people infected with this contagious shop-till-you-drop virus have some telltale symptoms. They feel overworked, have high levels of debt and bank-ruptcy, suffer from increasing stress and anxiety, have declining health, and feel unfulfilled in their quest to accumulate more and more stuff. As humorist Will Rogers said, “Too many people spend money they haven’t earned to buy things they don’t want, to impress people they don’t like.” For some, shopping until you drop means shopping until you go bankrupt.Between 1998 and 2001, more Americans declared bankruptcy than graduated from college.Globalization and global advertising are now spreading the virus throughout much of the world. Affluenza has an enormous environmental impact. It takes about 27 tractor-trailer loads of resources per year to support one American. This amounts to 7.9 billion truckloads of resources a year to support the population. Stretched end-to-end, these trucks would more than reach the sun.What can we do about affluenza? The first step for addicts is to admit they have a problem. Then they begin steps to kick their addiction by going on a stuff diet.For example, before buying anything a person with the affluenza addiction should ask: Do I really need this or merely want it? Can I buy it secondhand (reuse)? Can I borrow it from a friend or relative? Another withdrawal strategy: Do not hang out with other addicts.Shopaholics should avoidmalls asmuch as they can.Diunduh dari :
93 Environmental wisdom worldview The environmental worldview, known as the environmental wisdom worldview, is based on the following major beliefs,which are the opposite of those making up the planetarymanagement worldview:Nature exists for all species, not just for us and we are not in charge of the earth.The earth’s resources are limited, should not be wasted, and are not all for us.We should encourage earth-sustaining forms of economic growth and discourage earth-degrading forms.Our success depends on learning how the earth sustains itself and integrating such lessons from nature (environmental wisdom) into the ways we think and act.Some people in today’s industrial consumer societies have a planetary management worldview. Here are the basic environmental beliefs of this worldview:As the planet’s most important species, we are in charge of nature.We will not run out of resources because of our ability to develop and find new ones.The potential for global economic growth is essentially unlimited.Our success depends on how well we manage the earth’s life-support systems, mostly for our own benefit.The environmental worldview, known as the stewardship worldview, consists of the following major beliefs:We are the planet’s most important species but we have an ethical responsibility to care for the rest of nature.We will probably not run out of resources but they should not be wasted.We should encourage environmentally beneficial forms of economic growth and discourage environmentally harmful forms of economic growth.Our success depends on how well we can manage the earth’s life-support systems for our benefit and for the rest of nature.Diunduh dari :
94 Environmental wisdom worldview What Are the Greatest Environmental Problems We Face Now and in the Future?The Big PicturePoverty and malnutrition, smoking, infectious diseases, water shortages, biodiversity loss, and climate changes are the most serious environmental problems we face.The major environmental problems on a time scale in terms of the estimated number of people prematurely killed annually today and over the nexthundred years.From this diagram you can see that we should focus our money, minds, and hearts on reducing the environmental risks from poverty, malnutrition, unsafe drinking water, smoking, air pollution, infectious diseases (AIDS, TB, malaria, and hepatitis B), water shortages, climate changes, and loss and degradation of biodiversity. The poor in developing countries bear the brunt of most of these serious problems.Priorities: ranking of major environmental risks in terms of the estimated number of people prematurely killed annually now (yellow) and over the next hundred years (red). Some scientists consider biodiversity loss and climate change the two most serious ecological risks to humans and other species. Estimates of deaths from biodiversity loss and climate change 50 or more years into the future are difficult to make and could be higher or lower than those shown here.(Data from UN Food and Agriculture Organization, World Health Organization, United Nations Environment Program, U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Bank)Diunduh dari :
95 Environmental wisdom worldview What Is Environmentally Sustainable Economic Development?Rewarding Environmentally Beneficial Activities Environmentally sustainable economic development rewards environmentally beneficial and sustainable activities and discourages environ-mentally harmful and unsustainable activities.During this century, many analysts call for us to put much greater emphasis on environmentally sustainable economic development. The lists some of the shifts involved in implementing such an environmental, or sustainability, revolution during this century based on this concept. Study this figure carefully.This type of development uses economic rewards (government subsidies and tax breaks) to encourage environmentally beneficial and more sustainable forms of economic growth and economic penalties (government taxes and regulations) to discourage environmentally harmful and unsustainable forms of economic growth.Solutions: some shifts involved in the environmental or sustainability revolution.Diunduh dari :
96 Apakah empat prinsip ilmiah dari keberlanjutan? Konsep 1-6Alam telah mempertahankan dirinya sendiri selama berjuta tahun dnegan menggunakan Energi Matahari,, Biodiversitas, Regulasi Populasi, dan Siklus Hara –Pelajaran dari alam yang dapat kita gunakan dalam kehidupan dan ekonomi kita.Diunduh dari :
97 Toward an Integral Reconciliation The physical dimension of the economy, which can be measured in terms of the scale of material, energy, chemical, and biological throughput, does indeed comprise an economic sub-system of the world's physical biosphere, which includes the sources and sinks for the economic throughput. This is the partial truth in the ecological vision of the economy and it affirms the existence of certain physical limits to the scale of economic growth--but, strictly speaking, these limits only apply to physical economic growth.Diunduh dari :
98 EMPAT PRINSIP ILMIAH DARI KEBERLANJUTAN Diunduh dari : ..
99 Diunduh dari : http://www.solarenergy.gen.in/.. ENERGI MATAHARIWhat is solar energy? Solar Energy is the energy received from the sun that sustains life on earth. For many decades solar energy has been considered as a huge source of energy and also an economical source of energy because it is freely available. However, it is only now after years of research that technology has made it possible to harness solar energy.Some of the modern Solar Energy systems consist of magnifying glasses along with pipes filled with fluid. These systems consist of frontal glass that focuses the sun’s light onto the pipes. The fluid present in the pipes heats up instantly. In addition they pipes are painted black on the outside so as to absorb maximum amount of heat. The pipes have reflective silver surface on the back that reflects the sunlight back, thus heating the pipes further. This reflective silver surface also helps in protecting everything that is on the back of the solar panel.Diunduh dari :
100 BIODIVERSITASBiodiversity is the degree of variation of life forms within a given species, ecosystem, biome, or an entire planet. Biodiversity is a measure of the health of ecosystems. Biodiversity is in part a function of climate. In terrestrial habitats, tropical regions are typically rich whereas polar regions support fewer species.The diversity of species and genes in ecological communities affects the functioning of these communities. These ecological effects of biodiversity in turn affect both climate change through enhanced greenhouse gases, aerosols and loss of land cover, and biological diversity, causing a rapid loss of ecosystems and extinctions of species and local populations. The current rate of extinction is sometimes considered a mass extinction, with current species extinction rates on the order of 100 to 1000 times as high as in the past.The two main areas where the effect of biodiversity on ecosystem function have been studied are the relationship between diversity and productivity, and the relationship between diversity and community stability. More biologically diverse communities appear to be more productive (in terms of biomass production) than are less diverse communities, and they appear to be more stable in the face of perturbations.Diunduh dari : ..
101 SIKLUS HARAIn biology, the nutrient cycle is a concept that describes how nutrients move from the physical environment into living organisms, and subsequently are recycled back to the physical environment. This movement of nutrients, essential for life, from the environment into plants and animals and back again, is a vital function of the ecology of any region.In any particular environment, the nutrient cycle must be balanced and stable if the organisms that live in that environment are to flourish and be maintained in a constant population.The carbon nutrient cycle is perhaps the most basic and essential cycle for life on Earth, as life on our planet is carbon-based.Carbon is present in large quantities in the air in the form of carbon dioxide. When plants photosynthesize, they take carbon dioxide from the air, and use it to create molecules of sugar, starch, protein, and other foods. This is the first part of the carbon cycle.The carbon that is present in plants is now available to herbivores, or plant-eating animals.Diunduh dari :
102 PENGENDALIAN POPULASI Periodic increases in human population and carrying capacity.The progressive increases in agricultural production generally required more effort to structure ecosystems so that a larger share of their biological production was channelled to human consumption. This is the principle of ‘no free lunch’. Every choice has advantages and disadvantages. Every gain has its costs. One of the costs of more food is more work.Human effort required for technologies that provide higher food productionDiunduh dari :
103 BELAJAR HIDUP RAMAH-LINGKUNGAN Diunduh dari : ..
104 PENCEMARAN LINGKUNGAN Pencemaran lingkungan adalah suatu keadaan lingkungan tanah,air, dan udara dimana yang semulanya bersih menjadi kotor yang merupakan dampak yang sangat serius bagi keadaan bumi dan juga bagi kesehatan makhluk hidup yang hidup disekitarnya.Pencemaran airSuatu perubahan keadaan air yang disebabkan oleh sampah-sampah, maupun limbah pabrik yang dapat merusak ekosistem laut dan dapat berbahaya bagi manusia apabila kita menggunakan air tersebut untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari.Diunduh dari :
105 PERLINDUNGAN SPESIESHuman-animal chimeras for vaccine development: an endangered species or opportunity for the developing world?Anant Bhan, Peter A Singer and Abdallah S DaarBMC International Health and Human Rights 2010, 10:8 Development of human-animal chimeras for vaccine development has been slowed down because of opposition by some philosophers, ethicists and policy makers in the west-they question the moral status of such animals, and also express discomfort about transgression of species barriers. Such opposition often uses a contemporary western world view as a reference point. Human-animal chimeras are often being created for diseases which cause significantly higher morbidity and mortality in the developing world as compared to the developed world. We argue in our commentary that given this high disease burden, we should look at socio-cultural perspectives on human-animal chimera like beings in the developing world. On examination, it's clear that such beings have been part of mythology and cultural descriptions in many countries in the developing world.To ensure that important research on diseases afflicting millions like malaria, HIV, Hepatitis-C and dengue continues to progress, we recommend supporting human-animal chimera research for vaccine development in developing countries (especially China and India which have growing technical expertise in the area). The negative perceptions in some parts of the west about human-animal chimeras can be used as an opportunity for nurturing important vaccine development research in the developing world.Diunduh dari :
106 Penanganan Limbah Cair. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAHPenanganan Limbah Cair. Air limbah yang belum mengalami pengolahan dapat dipastikan mengandung banyak komponen – komponen yang tidak diinginkan, Bila dibuang ke lingkungan perairan. Beberapa diantaranya akan memunculkan masalah kekurangan oksigen. Sementara yang lainnya mungkin merangsang pertumbuhan mikrorganisme tertentu seperti alga.Komponen – komponen tersebut terdiri atas bahan organik maupun anorganik baik bahan terlarut maupun tidak terlarut. Dengan demikian karakteristik air limbah merupakan hal penting sebelum memulai proses seleksi dan perancangan. Air limbah diklasifikasikan menjadi dua, yaitu limbah industri dan air limbah perkotaan. Kedua jenis air limbah ini secara bersama – sama sering di buang di saluran – saluran yang sama maupun ke badan – badan air seperti sungai – sungai. Diunduh dari : ..
107 PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Penanganan Limbah Gas. Limbah gas yang berupa uap air atau gas karbondioksida dapat dibuang ke udara langsung melalui asap yang tinggi. Limbah gas yang membahayakan seperti SO ( Belerang Dioksida ) dapat ditangani dengan cara tertentu. Sejumlah proses dilakukan dengan pemisahan partikel pyrite yang merupakan sumber belerang dioksida dan batu bara. Pembakaran batu – bara dalam tempat yang dialasi butiran – butiran halus dari batu kapur atau dolomite akan mampu menyerap gas belerang oksida. Gas polutan dipanaskan terlebih dahulu dan dimasukkan ke dalam tungku perapian, dimana batu kapur akan bereaksi dengan belerang dioksida (SO2) dan oksigen (O2)untuk menghasilkan kalsium sulfat (CaSO4 atau gips). Proses ini dapat memisahkan sekitar 20-30% sulfur oksida. Senyawa sulfat, abu terbang, dan kapur yang tidak bereaksi mengalir melalui pre-heater sebelum memasuki wet scrubber, agar senyawa tersebut dapat mengalami kontak dengan air . Efisiensi pemisahan yang dapat tercapai adalah sebesar 80% untuk SO2 dan 98% untuk zat partikulat.Diunduh dari : ..
108 DEGRADASI LINGKUNGANEnvironmental degradation can lead to a scarcity of resources, such as water and farmable.Extreme weather events, such as severe flooding, increase the spread of waterborne diseases, such as malaria and diarrhoea.The effects of the major environmental problems on both health and productivity are:Water pollution and water scarcity: As per the estimation of UN, more than two million deaths and billions of illnesses a year are attributable to water pollution. Water scarcity compounds these health problems. Productivity is affected by the costs of providing safe water, by constraints on economic activity caused by water shortages, and by the adverse effects of water pollution and shortages on other environmental resources such as, declining fisheries and acquifer depletion leading to irreversible compaction.Air pollution: As per the estimation of UN, urban air pollution is responsible for 300,000—700,000 deaths annually and creates chronic health problems for many more people. Restrictions on vehicles and industrial activity during critical periods affect productivity, as does the effect of acid rain on forests and water bodies.Solid and hazardous wastes: Diseases are spread by uncollected garbage and blocked drains; the health risks from hazardous wastes are typically more localized, but often acute. Wastes affect productivity through the pollution of groundwater resources.Soil degradation: Depleted soils increase the risks of malnutrition for farmers. Productivity losses on tropical soils are estimated to be in the range of per cent of GNP, while secondary productivity losses are due to siltation of reservoirs, transportation channels and other hydrologic investments.Deforestation: Death and disease can result from the localized flooding caused by deforestation. Loss of sustainable logging potential and of erosion prevention, watershed stability and carbon sequestration provided by forests are among the productivity impacts of deforestation.Loss of biodiversity: The extinction of plant and animal species will potentially affect the development of new drugs; it will reduce ecosystem adaptability and lead to the loss of genetic resources.Atmospheric changes: Ozone depletion is responsible for perhaps 300,000 additional cases of skin cancer a year and 1.7 million cases of cataracts. Global warming may lead to increase in the risk of climatic natural disasters. Productivity impacts may include sea-rise damage to coastal investments, regional changes in agricultural productivity and disruption of the marine food chain.Diunduh dari : ..
109 Illegal Logging, A Rising Concern In East Province EKSPLOITASI SUMBERDAYA ALAMFOREST EXPLOITATIONDefinition:Forests have been exploited over the centuries as a source of wood and for obtaining land for agricultural use. The mismanagement of forest lands and forest resources has led to a situation where the forest is now in rapid retreat. The main aspects of the situation are: serious shortages in the supply of industrial wood; the catastrophic erosion and floods accompanying the stripping of forests from mountainous land; the acute shortages of fuel wood in much of the developing world; the spread of desert conditions at an alarming rate in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world; and the many environmental effects of the destruction of tropical rainforests. (Source: WPR)Illegal Logging, A Rising Concern In East ProvinceBy Robert Tumasang Illegal forest exploitation has become an issue of great concern to environment and forestry officials in the East Province.Indiscriminate logging destroys the eco-system Statistics from the East Provincial Delegation of Forestry and Wildlife indicate that 1665 cubic meters of white wood were seized from loggers in the Dengdeng and Goyoum forest reserves between November 2007 and April 2008.Diunduh dari :..
110 Population Growth Causes Multiple Environmental Problems PERTUMBUHAN PENDUDUKHow Global Population Growth is Creating Serious Environmental ProblemsPopulation growth causes problems from water scarcity to species extinctionFrom Earth Talk.Population Growth Causes Multiple Environmental ProblemsAccording to Population Connection, population growth since 1950 is behind the clearing of 80 percent of rainforests, the loss of tens of thousands of plant and wildlife species, an increase in greenhouse gas emissions of some 400 percent and the development or commercialization of as much as half of the Earth’s surface land.The group fears that in the coming decades half of the world’s population will be exposed to “water-stress” or “water-scarce” conditions, which are expected to “intensify difficulties in meeting…consumption levels, and wreak devastating effects on our delicately balanced ecosystems.”Water & Population GrowthGlobal Water Supply Drying Up as Population GrowsOne Third of World's Population Lacks Fresh WaterWater Now More Valuable Than OilEffects of Population GrowthHalf of Remaining Rainforest Could Soon DisappearMalnutrition, Pollution and Population Growth Spur Increase of Deadly DiseasesWhat is Drought?Diunduh dari :
111 . FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL CAPITAl DEGRADASI MODAL ALAM. FUNCTIONS OF NATURAL CAPITAlIt is the characteristics of the ecosystems, or naturalcapital, which give rise to the flows emanating from this capital, which De Groot (1992) calls environmental functions, defined as ‘the capacity of natural processes and components to provide goods and services that satisfy human needs (directly and/or indirectly)’.The ‘goods’ (e.g. resources) are usually provided by the ecosystem components (plants, animals, minerals, etc.); the ‘services’ (e.g. waste recycling) by the ecosystem processes (biogeochemical cycling).Environmental functions have been identified and classified in a number of different ways. De Groot et al. (2002_ divides them into four categories:Regulation functions: regulation of essential ecological processes and life support systems (bio-geochemical cycling, climate regulation, water purification, etc.);Production functions: harvesting from natural ecosystems of, for example, food, raw materials and genetic resources;Habitat functions: provision by natural ecosystems of refuge and reproduction-habitat to wild plants and animals and thereby contribution to the (in situ) conservation of biological and genetic diversity and evolutionary processes.Information functions: provision of many possibilities for recreation and aesthetic enjoyment, cultural and historical information, artistic and spiritual inspiration, education and scientific research.Sumber: Ecological Economics. Volume 44, Issues 2–3, March 2003, Pages 165–185Diunduh dari :
112 VALUES AND ATTRIBUTES OF NATURALCAPITAL MODAL ALAMVALUES AND ATTRIBUTES OF NATURALCAPITALDe Groot (1992) has identified nine different types of values of environmental functions, grouped under the three dimensions of sustainable development:Ecological (conservation and existence values).Social (human health, personal, community and option values).Economic (consumptive, productive and employment values).These values are a direct source of human welfare. Conservation value principally resides in the regulation life-support functions. Existence value reflects the welfare people derive from simply knowing that some environmental function, or part of nature, exists.Many environmental functions contribute directly or indirectly to human health. Many environmental functions, especially the habitat and information functions, contribute to community well-being.Option value derives from the concerns that people have to maintain environmental functions for possible use by future generations.The economic values of consumptive and productive use mainly derive from the source and sink environmental functions.Employment values derive also from the service environmental functions (e.g. the dependence of much tourism on unspoilt natural areas).Sumber: Ecological Economics. Volume 44, Issues 2–3, March 2003, Pages 165–185Diunduh dari :
113 They both sustain ecosystems and give them resilience. MODAL ALAMEnvironmental functions and attributes: human influences and welfare.There are social, economic, ethical and environmental influences on the naturalcapital stock, the elements of which are matter, energy and ecosystems, which include human-cultivated ecosystems (e.g. plantation forests, crops).These elements are caught up in natural processes which sustain the ecosystems and all life within them, which are collectively called the ‘functions of naturalcapital’ and which may also be described as regulation, habitat or life-support functions.They both sustain ecosystems and give them resilience.The identification of environmental functions and the naturalcapital that is required for them is largely an objective exercise informed by environmental science, although there remain large areas of uncertainty or even ignorance1 concerning the causes, effects and dynamics of the ‘functions of’ naturalcapital that sustain ecosystems.Diunduh dari :
115 ANALISIS EKO-EFISIENSI What is eco-efficiency? The purpose of Eco-Efficiency Analysis is to harmonize economy and ecology. BASF SE in Ludwigshafen, Germany, is the first chemical company to develop this method for use in its business activities. BASF started to develop this inhouse tool in To date, more than 400 different products and manufacturing processes have been analyzed using the new method. Eco-Efficiency Analysis is applied in order to use as few materials and energy as possible in producing our products and to keep emissions as low as possible. At the same time, our products can help our customers conserve resources and save energy. Eco-efficiency analyses are offered to BASF business units and to external customers as well.Ecological FootprintDiunduh dari : ..
116 ANALISIS EKO-EFISIENSI Economic analysis Economic and ecological data are plotted on an x/y graph. The costs are shown on the horizontal axis and the environmental impact is shown on the vertical axis. The graph reveals the eco-efficiency of a product or process compared to other products or processes. And it allows us to look into the future, since Eco-Efficiency Analysis is utilized in making strategic decisions and it also helps detect and exploit potential ecological and economic improvements.Diunduh dari :