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Bab 7-8 Pengembangan Produk.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Bab 7-8 Pengembangan Produk."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Bab 7-8 Pengembangan Produk

2 Strategi Proses Pendekatan secara keseluruhan untuk memproduksi barang dan jasa Mendefinisikan: intensitas modal fleksibilitas proses integrasi vertikal keterlibatan Pelanggan

3 Supply Chain Management
Dari Fungsi ke Proses Manufacturing Accounting Sales Purchasing Product Development Order Fulfillment Supply Chain Management Customer Service Function Process Figure 4.1

4 Tipe Proses Proyek produksi batch Produksi masal
Produksi berkesinambungan

5 Tipe Proses PROJECT BATCH MASS CONTINUOUS Product Unique Made to order Made to stock Commodity Customer One-at-a-time Few individuals Mass market Mass market Demand Infrequent Fluctuates Stable Very stable Volume Very low Low to med High Very high No. of different Infinite Many, varied Few Very low products System Long-term Discrete, job Repetitive, Process industry assembly lines Equipment Varied General-purpose Special-purpose Highly automated Type of work Contracts Fabrication Assembly Mix, treat, refine Skills Experts, Wide range Limited range Equipment craftspeople of skills of skills monitors Advantages Custom work, Flexibility, Efficiency, Highly efficient technology quality speed, low cost large capacity Dis- Nonrepetitive, Costly, slow, Capital investment, Difficult to advantages small customer difficult to lack of change base, expensive manage responsiveness Example Construction, Machine shops, Autos, TV’s, Paint, chemicals, shipbuilding printing, bakery fast food food Table 4.1

6 Proses Seleksi dengan Break-Even Analysis
Total cost = fixed cost + total variable cost TC = cf + vcv Total revenue = volume x price TR = vp Profit = total revenue - total cost Z = TR - TC = vp - (cf + vcv)

7 Proses Seleksi dengan Break-Even Analysis
Total cost = fixed cost + total variable cost TC = cf + vcv Total revenue = volume x price TR = vp Profit = total revenue - total cost Z = TR - TC = vp - (cf + vcv) cf = fixed cost v = volume (i.e., number of units produced and sold) cv = variable cost per unit p = price per unit

8 Pemecahan masalah untuk volume Break-Even
TR = TC vp = cf + vcv vp - vcv = cf v(p - cv) = cf v = cf p - cv

9 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost = cf = $2,000
Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft Example 4.1

10 The break-even point is
Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost = cf = $2,000 Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts cf p - cv 2000 10 - 5 Example 4.1

11 The break-even point is
Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost = cf = $2,000 Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts cf p - cv 2000 10 - 5 Units Example 4.1

12 The break-even point is
Analisis Break-Even Total revenue line Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Fixed cost = cf = $2,000 Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts cf p - cv 2000 10 - 5 Example 4.1

13 The break-even point is
Analisis Break-Even Total cost line Total revenue line Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Fixed cost = cf = $2,000 Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts cf p - cv 2000 10 - 5 Example 4.1

14 The break-even point is
Analisis Break-Even Total cost line Total revenue line Break-even point 400 Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Fixed cost = cf = $2,000 Variable cost = cv = $5 per raft Price = p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts cf p - cv 2000 10 - 5 Example 4.1

15 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses
$2,000 + $5v = $10,000 + $2v $3v = $8,000 v = 2,667 rafts Process A Process B Below 2,667, choose A Above 2,667, choose B Example 4.2

16 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Example 4.2

17 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Example 4.2

18 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Example 4.2

19 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A Example 4.2

20 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A Choose process B Example 4.2

21 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes
| | | | Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A Choose process B Point of indifference = 2,667 Units Example 4.2

22 Point of Indifference Volume dimana biaya A = biaya B
Aturan untuk memilih proses: Di atas titik indifference memilih proses dengan biaya variabel terendah Di bawah titik indifference memilih proses dengan biaya tetap terendah

23 Perencanaan Proses Keputusan membuat atau membeli Proses seleksi
Pemilihan peralatan khusus Proses perencanaan Proses analisis

24 Keputusan Membuat atau Membeli
1. Biaya 2. Kapasitas 3. Kualitas 4. Kecepatan 5. Reliabilitas 6. Keahlian Make? Buy?

25 Seleksi Peralatan spesifik
biaya pembelian biaya operasional penghematan tahunan peningkatan pendapatan Analisis Replacement Risiko dan ketidakpastian Analisis Piecemeal

26 Proses Perencanaan Blueprints Bill bahan Bagan perakitan / diagram
struktur produk Bagan proses operasi sheet Routing

27 Process Plans Bottom bun Beef patty Salt Cheese SA Lettuce Sauce
Onions Middle bun Pickles Sesame seed top bun Wrapper SA First-layer assembly Second-layer assembly Completed Big Mac Figure 4.2

28 Bagan Proses Operasi Part name Crevice Tool Part No. 52074
Usage Hand-Vac Assembly No. 520 Oper. No. Description Dept. Machine/Tools Time 10 Pour in plastic bits 041 Injection molding 2 min 20 Insert mold 041 #076 2 min 30 Check settings , 67, min & start machine 40 Collect parts & lay flat 051 Plastics finishing 10 min 50 Remove & clean mold 042 Parts washer 15 min 60 Break off rough edges 051 Plastics finishing 10 min Figure 4.3

29 Analisis Proses Pemeriksaan sistematis semua aspek dari proses untuk meningkatkan operasi Lebih Cepat lebih hemat lebih murah Lebih responsif alat dasar proses flowchart proses diagram peta proses

30 Process Flowchart Figure 4.4 Operation Transport Inspect Step Delay
Storage Distance (feet) Time (min) Description of process 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Unload apples from truck Move to inspection station Weigh, inspect, sort Move to storage Wait until needed Move to peeler Apples peeled and cored Soak in water until needed Place in conveyor Move to mixing area Total Page 1 0f 3 480 30 20 15 360 190 ft 20 ft 50 ft 100 ft Date: Analyst: TLR Location: Graves Mountain Process: Apple Sauce Figure 4.4

31 Process Diagram Figure 4.5 Reserve Storage Quality Assurance
Back to Vendor UPS Parcel Post Next-Day UPS Mono-gramming Embroid-ering Hemming Gift Boxing Receiving Active Bins Picking Packing Shipping Figure 4.5

32 Process Map Figure 4.6 Customer Waiter Salad Chef Dinner Chef N
Place order Drink Eat salad or soup Eat dinner Receives check Gives payment to waiter Collect change, leave tip Fill in tip amount Give order to waiter Prepare dinner order Prepare soup or salad order Is order complete? Give soup or salad order to chef Give dinner order to chef Get drinks for customer Deliver salad or soup order to customer Deliver dinner to customer Deliver check to customer Receive payment for meal Cash or Credit? Bring change to customer Run credit card through Return credit slip to customer Collect tip Y N Credit Cash Customer Waiter Salad Chef Dinner Chef Figure 4.6

33 Extend’s Fast Food Simulation Model
Figure 4.7

34 SAP Solution for Apparel
Figure 4.8

35 Continuous Improvement and Breakthroughs

36 Continuous Improvement and Breakthroughs
Figure 4.9

37 Continuous Improvement and Breakthroughs
Breakthrough Improvement Continuous improvement refines the breakthrough Continuous improvement activities peak; time to reengineer process Figure 4.9

38 Process Reengineering
Model validation Key performance measures Detailed process map Pilot study of new design Full-scale implementation Innovative ideas Design principles High-level process map Customer requirements data Strategic directive Baseline analysis Benchmark data Goals & specifications for process performance Figure 4.10

39 High-Level Process Map
Output Performance Goal Input Subprocess Figure 4.11

40 Prinsip Proses Mendesain ulang Proses
Membuang limbah , menyederhanakan , mengkonsolidasikan Proses Link untuk menciptakan nilai Yang tercepat dan paling mampu mengeksekusi Proses Flex Menangkap dan menyebarkan informasi secara digital Table 4.2

41 Prinsip untuk Mendesain ulang Proses
Memberikan visibilitas melalui informasi mengenai status proses Mencocokan proses dengan sensor dan umpan balik Menambah kemampuan analitik Hubungkan , mengumpulkan dan menciptakan pengetahuan mengenai proses Proses Personalisasi Table 4.2

42 Teknik untuk Membangkitkan ide Inovatif
variasi entry point untuk sebuah masalah Gambarkan analogi ubah perspektif Anda Coba sumbang terbalik Chain forward as sejauh mungkin Gunakan atribut Brainstorming Table 4.3

43 Information Technology
Management Information Systems (MIS) Memindahkan data dalam jumlah besar Decision Support Systems (DSS) Tambahkan dukungan pengambilan keputusan Expert System Rekomendasi dasar keputusan pada pengetahuan expert

44 Decision Support System
Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results Data Computer system: data processing

45 Decision Support System
Management Information System Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results Data Computer system: data processing

46 Decision Support System
Management Information System What-if? analysis Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results Data Decisions Computer system: data processing Quantitative techniques Figure 4.12

47 Artificial Intelligence
Neural networks Meniru interkoneksi di otak Genetic algorithms Berdasarkan kemampuan adaptif di alam Fuzzy logic Mensimulasikan kemampuan manusia untuk menangani ambiguitas

48 Enterprise Software Mengumpulkan, menganalisis , dan membuat keputusan berdasarkan data ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning Mengelola berbagai proses Sumber daya manusia , manajemen material , rantai pasokan , akuntansi, keuangan , manufaktur , otomasi tenaga penjualan , layanan pelanggan , entri pesanan pelanggan Menemukan pola tersembunyi melalui data mining

49 Advanced Communications
Electronic data interchange (EDI) Internet, extranets Wireless communications Teleconferencing & telecommuting Bar coding, RFT Virtual reality

50 Manufacturing Technology
Numerically controlled (NC) machines Controlled by punched tape Computer numerical controlled (CNC) Controlled by attached computer Direct numerical control (DNC) Several NC machines controlled by single computer Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) Includes automated material handling

51 Automated Material Handling
Conveyors Automated guided vehicle (AGV) Automated storage & retrieval system (ASRS)

52 Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)
Programmable machine tools Controlled by common computer network Combines flexibility with efficiency Reduces setup & queue times

53 Components of e-Manufacturing
Products Manufacture Processes Information Technology CAD GT CAE CPC PDM Product life cycle Product Definition CNC machines STEP CAD/CAM CAPP Sourcing & e-procurement B2B, B2C Bar codes, RFT, EDI ERP SCM, CRM DSS/ES/AI Internet, Intranet, extranet, satellites FMS Robotics AGV, ASRS Process control Cells and centers Multiple factory sites & suppliers Figure 4.14


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