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PengembanganProduk Bab 7-8. Strategi Proses Pendekatan secara keseluruhan untuk memproduksi barang dan jasa Mendefinisikan: intensitas modal fleksibilitas.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PengembanganProduk Bab 7-8. Strategi Proses Pendekatan secara keseluruhan untuk memproduksi barang dan jasa Mendefinisikan: intensitas modal fleksibilitas."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PengembanganProduk Bab 7-8

2 Strategi Proses Pendekatan secara keseluruhan untuk memproduksi barang dan jasa Mendefinisikan: intensitas modal fleksibilitas proses integrasi vertikal keterlibatan Pelanggan

3 Dari Fungsi ke Proses Manufacturing Accounting Sales Purchasing Product Development Order Fulfillment Supply Chain Management Customer Service FunctionProcess Figure 4.1

4 Tipe Proses Proyek Proyek produksi batch produksi batch Produksi masal Produksi masal Produksi berkesinambungan Produksi berkesinambungan

5 PROJECT BATCHMASS CONTINUOUS Product UniqueMade to order Made to stock Commodity CustomerOne-at-a-timeFew individualsMass marketMass market DemandInfrequentFluctuatesStableVery stable VolumeVery lowLow to medHighVery high No. of differentInfiniteMany, variedFewVery low products products SystemLong-termDiscrete, jobRepetitive, Process industry assembly lines EquipmentVariedGeneral-purposeSpecial-purposeHighly automated Type of workContractsFabricationAssemblyMix, treat, refine SkillsExperts,Wide rangeLimited rangeEquipment craftspeopleof skillsof skillsmonitors AdvantagesCustom work,Flexibility,Efficiency,Highly efficient technologyqualityspeed, low costlarge capacity Dis-Nonrepetitive,Costly, slow,Capital investment,Difficult to advantagessmall customerdifficult tolack of change advantagessmall customerdifficult tolack of change base, expensivemanageresponsiveness ExampleConstruction,Machine shops, Autos, TV’s,Paint, chemicals, shipbuildingprinting, bakeryfast foodfood Tipe Proses Table 4.1

6 Proses Seleksi dengan Break-Even Analysis Total cost= fixed cost + total variable cost TC= c f + vc v Total revenue=volume x price TR= vp Profit= total revenue - total cost Z=TR - TC = vp - ( c f + vc v )

7 Proses Seleksi dengan Break-Even Analysis c f = fixed cost v = volume (i.e., number of units produced and sold) c v = variable cost per unit p = price per unit Total cost= fixed cost + total variable cost TC= c f + vc v Total revenue=volume x price TR= vp Profit= total revenue - total cost Z=TR - TC = vp - ( c f + vc v )

8 Pemecahan masalah untuk volume Break-Even TR= TC vp = c f + vc v vp - vc v = c f v ( p - c v )= c f v = c f p - c v

9 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft Example 4.1

10 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts c f p - c v Example 4.1

11 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts c f p - c v Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Example 4.1

12 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts c f p - c v Total revenue line Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Example 4.1

13 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts c f p - c v Total cost line Total revenue line Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Example 4.1

14 Analisis Break-Even Fixed cost= c f = $2,000 Variable cost= c v = $5 per raft Price= p = $10 per raft The break-even point is v = = = 400 rafts c f p - c v Total cost line Total revenue line Break-even point 400Units $3,000 — $2,000 — $1,000 — Example 4.1

15 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Below 2,667, choose A Above 2,667, choose B $2,000 + $5 v = $10,000 + $2 v $3 v = $8,000 v = 2,667 rafts Process AProcess B Example 4.2

16 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 —

17 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A

18 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B

19 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A

20 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A Choose process B

21 Pemilihan diantara dua Proses Processes Example 4.2 |||| Units $20,000 — $15,000 — $10,000 — $5,000 — Total cost of process A Total cost of process B Choose process A Choose process B Point of indifference = 2,667 Units

22 Point of Indifference Volume dimana biaya A = biaya B Aturan untuk memilih proses: indifference Di atas titik indifference memilih proses dengan biaya variabel terendah indifference Di bawah titik indifference memilih proses dengan biaya tetap terendah

23 Perencanaan Proses Keputusan membuat atau membeli Proses seleksi Pemilihan peralatan khusus Proses perencanaan Proses analisis

24 Keputusan Membuat atau Membeli Biaya 2. Kapasitas 3. Kualitas 4. Kecepatan 5. Reliabilitas 6. Keahlian Make? Buy?

25 Seleksi Peralatan spesifik 1.biaya pembelian 2.biaya operasional 3.penghematan tahunan 4.peningkatan pendapatan 5.Analisis Replacement 6.Risiko dan ketidakpastian 7.Analisis Piecemeal

26 Proses Perencanaan Blueprints Bill bahan Bagan perakitan / diagram struktur produk Bagan proses operasi sheet Routing

27 Process Plans Figure 4.2 Bottom bun Beef patty SaltCheeseLettuceSauceOnions Middle bun Beef patty SaltCheeseLettuceSauceOnionsPickles Sesame seed top bun WrapperSA SA First-layer assembly Second-layer assembly Completed Big Mac

28 Bagan Proses Operasi Part nameCrevice Tool Part No UsageHand-Vac Assembly No.520 Oper. No.DescriptionDept.Machine/ToolsTime 10Pour in plastic bits041Injection molding2 min 20Insert mold041#0762 min 30Check settings041113, 67, min & start machine 40Collect parts & lay flat051Plastics finishing10 min 50Remove & clean mold042Parts washer15 min 60Break off rough edges051Plastics finishing10 min Figure 4.3

29 Analisis Proses Pemeriksaan sistematis semua aspek dari proses untuk meningkatkan operasi Lebih Cepat lebih hemat lebih murah Lebih responsif alat dasar proses flowchart proses diagram peta proses

30 Process Flowchart Figure 4.4

31 Process Diagram Reserve Storage Quality Assurance Back to Vendor UPS Parcel Post Next-Day UPS Mono- gramming Embroid- ering Hemming Gift Boxing Receiving Active Bins PickingPacking Shipping Figure 4.5

32 Process Map Figure 4.6 Place order Drink Eat salad or soup Eat dinner Receives check Gives payment to waiter Collect change, leave tip Fill in tip amount Give order to waiter Prepare dinner order Prepare soup or salad order Give order to waiter Is order complete? Give soup or salad order to chef Give dinner order to chef Get drinks for customer Deliver salad or soup order to customer Deliver dinner to customer Deliver check to customer Receive payment for meal Cash or Credit? Bring change to customer Run credit card through Return credit slip to customer Collect tip Y N Credit Cash CustomerWaiterSalad ChefDinner Chef

33 Extend’s Fast Food Simulation Model Figure 4.7

34 SAP Solution for Apparel Figure 4.8

35 Continuous Improvement and Breakthroughs

36 Figure 4.9

37 Continuous Improvement and Breakthroughs Breakthrough Improvement Continuous improvement refines the breakthrough Continuous improvement activities peak; time to reengineer process Figure 4.9

38 Process Reengineering Model validation Key performance measures Detailed process map Pilot study of new design Full-scale implementation Innovative ideas Design principle s High-level process map Customer requirements data Strategic directive Baseline analysis Benchmark data Goals & specifications for process performance Figure 4.10

39 High-Level Process Map Output PerformanceGoal Input Subprocess Figure 4.11

40 Prinsip Proses Mendesain ulang Proses 1. Membuang limbah, menyederhanakan, mengkonsolidasikan 2. Proses Link untuk menciptakan nilai 3. Yang tercepat dan paling mampu mengeksekusi 4. Proses Flex 5. Menangkap dan menyebarkan informasi secara digital Table 4.2

41 Prinsip untuk Mendesain ulang Proses 6. Memberikan visibilitas melalui informasi mengenai status proses 7. Mencocokan proses dengan sensor dan umpan balik 8. Menambah kemampuan analitik 9. Hubungkan, mengumpulkan dan menciptakan pengetahuan mengenai proses 10. Proses Personalisasi Table 4.2

42 Teknik untuk Membangkitkan ide Inovatif variasi entry point untuk sebuah masalah Gambarkan analogi ubah perspektif Anda Coba sumbang terbalik Chain forward as sejauh mungkin Gunakan atribut Brainstorming Table 4.3

43 Information Technology Management Information Systems (MIS) Management Information Systems (MIS) Memindahkan data dalam jumlah besar Decision Support Systems (DSS) Decision Support Systems (DSS) Tambahkan dukungan pengambilan keputusan Expert System Expert System Rekomendasi dasar keputusan pada pengetahuan expert Rekomendasi dasar keputusan pada pengetahuan expert

44 Decision Support System Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results Data Computer system: data processing

45 Decision Support System Management Information System Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results Data Computer system: data processing

46 Decision Support System Management Information System What-if? analysis Personnel Accounting Production Marketing Distribution Other areas Management Information: reports, model results DataDecisions Computer system: data processing Quantitative techniques Figure 4.12

47 Artificial Intelligence Neural networks Meniru interkoneksi di otak Genetic algorithms Berdasarkan kemampuan adaptif di alam Fuzzy logic Mensimulasikan kemampuan manusia untuk menangani ambiguitas

48 Enterprise Software Mengumpulkan, menganalisis, dan membuat keputusan berdasarkan data ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning ERP - Enterprise Resource Planning Mengelola berbagai proses Sumber daya manusia, manajemen material, rantai pasokan, akuntansi, keuangan, manufaktur, otomasi tenaga penjualan, layanan pelanggan, entri pesanan pelanggan Menemukan pola tersembunyi melalui data mining

49 Advanced Communications Electronic data interchange (EDI) Electronic data interchange (EDI) Internet, extranets Internet, extranets Wireless communications Wireless communications Teleconferencing & telecommuting Teleconferencing & telecommuting Bar coding, RFT Bar coding, RFT Virtual reality Virtual reality

50 Manufacturing Technology Numerically controlled (NC) machines Numerically controlled (NC) machines Controlled by punched tape Controlled by punched tape Computer numerical controlled (CNC) Computer numerical controlled (CNC) Controlled by attached computer Controlled by attached computer Direct numerical control (DNC) Direct numerical control (DNC) Several NC machines controlled by single computer Several NC machines controlled by single computer Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) Flexible manufacturing systems (FMS) Includes automated material handling Includes automated material handling

51 Automated Material Handling Conveyors Conveyors Automated guided vehicle (AGV) Automated guided vehicle (AGV) Automated storage & retrieval system (ASRS) Automated storage & retrieval system (ASRS)

52 Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) Programmable machine tools Programmable machine tools Controlled by common computer network Controlled by common computer network Combines flexibility with efficiency Combines flexibility with efficiency Reduces setup & queue times Reduces setup & queue times

53 Components of e-Manufacturing Figure 4.14 eM Products Manufacture Processes Information Technology Information Technology CAD GT CAE CPCPDM Product life cycle Product Definition CNC machines STEP CAD/CAM CAPP Sourcing & e-procurement B2B, B2C Bar codes, RFT, EDI ERP SCM, CRM DSS/ES/AI Internet, Intranet, extranet, satellites FMSRobotics AGV, ASRS Process control Cells and centers Multiple factory sites & suppliers


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