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Elements of Organizations  Social entities – composed of people and groups of people  Goal-directed – exist for a purpose – trying to achieve an end.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Elements of Organizations  Social entities – composed of people and groups of people  Goal-directed – exist for a purpose – trying to achieve an end."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Elements of Organizations  Social entities – composed of people and groups of people  Goal-directed – exist for a purpose – trying to achieve an end or mission  Deliberately structured activity systems – tasks are subdivided into separate departments  Identifiable boundary – which elements are inside or outside of organization, distinct membership commitment in return for money, prestige or gain

3 Organizational Structure Organizational structure specifies the firm’s formal reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes.Organizational structure specifies the firm’s formal reporting relationships, procedures, controls, and authority and decision-making processes. It is critical to match organizational structure to the firm’s strategy. Chandler’s comment: “Structure follows strategy” needs to be balanced with dynamic nature of strategy.It is critical to match organizational structure to the firm’s strategy. Chandler’s comment: “Structure follows strategy” needs to be balanced with dynamic nature of strategy.

4 The inherent tension in corporate structure Structural stability provides the capacityStructural stability provides the capacity –required to consistently and predictably manage the firm’s daily work routines Structural flexibility provides the opportunity to Structural flexibility provides the opportunity to –explore competitive possibilities –allocate resources to activities that shape competitive advantages needed by the firm

5 ORGANISASI MEKANIK, ORGANIK DAN BIROKRATIK KOMPLEKSITASFORMALISASISENTRALISASI ORGANIKRENDAH MEKANIKTINGGI BIROKRATIKTINGGI RENDAH

6 KARAKTERISTIK BIROKRASI IDEAL DARI WEBER Pembagian tugas secara tegas Hierarki jelas Seleksi berdasarkan kualifikasi teknis Gaji tetap Merupakan pekerjaan utama Promosi berdasar senioritas atau prestasi dan tergantung pada penilaian atasan Pemisahan antara pemilik dan pekerja Aturan umum yang mengikat pegawai

7 BERBAGAI TIPE STRUKTUR (1) STRUKTUR SEDERHANA (2) STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL (3) STRUKTUR MULTIDIVIDIONAL (4) STRUKTUR MATRIKS (5) STRUKTUR HIBRIDA (6) STRUKTUR JARINGAN (NETWORK)

8 STRUKTUR SEDERHANA Biasanya terjadi pada organisasi yang baru dibentuk (misalnya usaha wiraswasta yang baru dimulai) atau organisasi yang memang sengaja dibuat kecil (mis. tempat praktek dokter). Tingkat diferensiasi dan kompleksitas RENDAH.

9 STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL Ketika struktur sederhana tidak lagi mencukupi, ketika organisasi berkembang dengan tugas-tugas yang semakin kompleks, maka biasanya dibentuk struktur FUNGSIONAL. Fungsi atau Tugas-tugas yang sama dikelompokkan menjadi satu. Misalnya, perusahaan manufaktur

10 BAGAN STRUKTUR FUNGSIONAL GENERAL MANAGER PURCHASING ENGINEERING MANUFACTURING MARKETING ACC. & FIN

11 Matching Structure and Strategy Different forms of the functional organizational structure are matched toDifferent forms of the functional organizational structure are matched to –cost leadership strategy –differentiation strategy differences in these forms can be seen in important structural characteristicsdifferences in these forms can be seen in important structural characteristics

12 Structure for _________ Strategy Office of the President Centralized Staff MarketingPersonnel EngineeringOperations Accounting Operations is main focus Operations is main focus Process engineering is emphasized over R&D Process engineering is emphasized over R&D Large centralized staff Large centralized staff Formalized procedures Formalized procedures Structure is mechanical, job roles highly structured Structure is mechanical, job roles highly structured

13 Structure for _________ Strategy Operations HumanResources President and Limited Staff Marketing New Product R&D Marketing is the main function for tracking new product ideas Marketing is the main function for tracking new product ideas New product R&D is emphasized New product R&D is emphasized Most functions are decentralized Most functions are decentralized Formalization is limited to foster change and promote new ideas Formalization is limited to foster change and promote new ideas Overall structure is organic; job roles are less structured Overall structure is organic; job roles are less structured R&D FinanceMarketing

14 Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern: SimpleStructure FunctionalStructure MultidivisionalStructure Sales Growth- Coordination and Control Problems Sales Growth- Coordination and Control Problems Efficient implementation of formulated strategy Multidivisional Structure

15 The importance of the m-form Williamson (1985) wrote: “The most significant organizational innovation of the twentieth century was the development in the 1920s of the multidivisional structure."

16 Multidivisional Structure Each division is operated as a separate businessEach division is operated as a separate business Appropriate for related-diversified businessesAppropriate for related-diversified businesses Key task of corporate managers is exploiting synergies among divisionsKey task of corporate managers is exploiting synergies among divisions

17 The example of General Motors

18 Three Variations of the Multidivisional Structure MultidivisionalStructure(M-form) Strategic Business-Unit (SBU) Form CooperativeFormCompetitiveForm

19 Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern: Three major benefitsThree major benefits – corporate officers able to more accurately monitor the performance of each business, which simplifies the problem of control –facilitates comparisons between divisions, which improves the resource allocation process –stimulates managers of poorly performing divisions to look for ways of improving performance Multidivisional Structure

20 Strategy and Structure Growth Pattern: Strategic controlStrategic control –operating divisions –each division is separate business or profit center Top corporate officer delegates responsibilities to division managersTop corporate officer delegates responsibilities to division managers –for day-to-day operations –for business-unit strategy Appropriate when the firm grows through diversificationAppropriate when the firm grows through diversification Multidivisional Structure

21 Dasar Kompetisi FLEXIBLE COMPANY QUALITY COMPANY EFFICIENT COMPANY INOVASI PILIHAN KUALITAS BIAYA ORGANISASI YANG INOVATIF ORGANISASI YANG FLEKSIBEL ORGANISASI YANG BERKUALITAS ORGANISASI YANG EFISIEN 60-an 70-an80-an 90-an TAHUN ORGANISASI YANG CERDAS DAYA SAING OTAK an PERMINTAANPASAR

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23 Keberatan Program

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25 Corporate function R&D Manuf acturi ng Marke ting SalesServic es Overseas Operation Rigid Business system known as Value Chain (equity link) A 20 th -century companyA 21st-century corporation Kenichi Ohmae, 2000 R&DSilicon ValleyTelco Engin eering Manuf acturi ng Sales Servic es In Vietnam (Outsourced) Major Markets (Outsourced) In Bangalore, Heyderabad Marke ting Custo mers The Company internet $ bill collection $ Network function with key levers at hand

26 Organisasi Hirarkis (Vertikal) Organisasi Datar/Flat (Horizontal) Proy 1 Proy 2 Ketua 1 Ketua 2 Nucleic Organization

27 Organisasi Hirarkis Organisasi Matriks PimPro 1 PimPro 2 PimPro 3 Organisasi Nucleic/ Inti Persaingan makin ketat Perlu proses pengambilan keputusan makin cepat Perlu Organisasi makin efisien Organi sasi Pembel ajaran

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30 Triarko Nurlambang Badan Kemitraan Ventura UI “The single greatest challenge facing managers in the developed countries of the world is to raise the productivity of knowledge and service workers. This challenge, which will dominate the management agenda for the next several decades, will ultimately determine the competitive performance of companies. Even more important, it will determine the very fabric of society and the quality of life in every industrialized nation… “(Drucker, 1991)

31 Absorption of knowledge from outside Diffusion of knowledge within Specialist of knowledge within Exploitation of knowledge in products and services External professional networks Education Conferences Customer contacts Competitive analysis Supplier co-operation Acquisition Patents and licences Research Knowledge management Creative scenarios Assembly and use of manuals Regulations and procedure Knowledge information system Best Practice study Internal knowledge exchange Coaching and monitoring Peer assessment Informal networks Job rotation Programme and project Concepts of final reports and product Simulation of markets and processes Quality reviews Action learning Dialogue Self assessment Performance measurement and rewards Business process reengineering Professional feedback Cross-disciplinary project teams Using existing know- how for new products Market research Promoting knowledge (internally and externally) Improving products based on customer reviews Prototyping Delivery Breaking through learning barriers

32 People Systems OrganicInformalGeneralistInnovation ContinuitySpecialist ExplicitProgramme Absorption DiffusionSpecialistExploration

33 Keahlian Pribadi Model Mental Visi Bersama Pembelajaran TimPemikiran Sistem Peter Senge

34 Personal Mystery Mental Model Shared Vision Team Learning System Thinking Essences Being Generativeness Connective ness Love of truth Openness Common purpose Partnership Collective intelligence Alignment Holism Interconnectedn ess Principles Vision Creative / emotional tension Sub-conscious Espoused theory vs. in-use Ladder of inherence Balance inquiry and advocacy Shared vision of individuals Commitment, rather than compliance Complementary dialogues and discussions Defensive routines Structure influences behaviour Policy resistance Leverage Practices Clarifying personal vision Holding creative tension with focus on results and seeing current reality Making choices Data vs abstractions from data Testing assumptions Left-hand column Envisioning through sharing visions, listening and free choice Acknowledging current reality Suspending assumptions Acting as colleagues Surfacing own defensiveness Practising System archetypes Simulation

35 Konfigurasi Organisasi (Mintzberg’s Configurations) Strategic Top Middle Management Operating Core (Pull to professionalize) Pulling togetherness Ideology Politics Pulling apart Techno- structure Support staffs Pull to collaborate Pull to rationalize Pull to lead Sumber: ten Have, et.al, 2003

36 Knowledge creation Continuous innovation Competitive advantage

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38 Beberapa contoh hasil prediksi masa depan Berdasarkan studi J.R. Mooneyham 2006 Wireless LAN 2008 Nanocomputer elements 2010 Optical cards menggantikan floppy disk 2015 Mendengarkan musik 6 hari dalam satu chip 2035 Super-jumbo jets membawa 1500 penumpang 2038 NASA mengirim orang pertama ke Mars 2050 Bertamasya ke luar angkasa 2058 Implan otak buatan meningkatkan kemampuan intelijen 2064 Otak buatan terkoneksi dengan komputer 2073 Kota bawah tanah terbangun 2087 Ekosistem di re-boot 2088 Muncul banyak spesies baru 2150 Bermunculan non-biologis yang bisa berpikir 2300 Ada kuda diangkasa 2450 Ditemukan the “United State of Earth” 2500 Pemukiman baru di Mars Siklus Kondratieff yang menjelaskan siklus 60 tahunan atas dasar adanya perubahan radikal dalam teknologi sehingga menciptakan satu bentuk kehidupan baru Tren ketenagakerjaan dikembangkan oleh Leo A. Nefiodow) dimana sektor pertanian akan mengalami kemunduran dan sektor jasa menjadi semakin utama Tren teknologi yang dikembangkan oleh Gartner (Hype Cycle) dan Moore (Moore’s Lawn  perkembang microelectronics; dunia menjadi terkonvergensidan siklus perubahan semakin pendek

39 Me Inc. (Kita/pribadi merupakan ‘satu perusahaan’) Visi untuk semangat, tubuh dan jiwa Hasrat dan tujuan hidup Nilai / model kepribadian Skenario hidup Pengalaman dan kompetensi pribadi Kehidupan/ aktifitas setiap hari KarirKeluarga Waktu Luang HobiOlah Raga Kepribadian (tipe, karakter, tingkah laku, emosi) Budaya (tingkat sosial, civilization, agama, dll) Nilai-nilai pribadi (model, idealisme,) Catatan pretasi (sertifikat, paten, publikasi, top-class achievements) Edukasi (sekolah, pelatihan, pendidikan lanjut, hobi) Pembelajaran terus menerus / life-long learning (profesional, privat) Analisis varian target/aktualisasi (umpan-balik, pengetahuan teknikal, perilaku sosial, citra) Kesehatan (olah raga, nutrisi, pandangan hidup) Kebutuhan hidup (teori / Piramida Maslow) S W O T Kebisaan/ Abilities (bakat, anugerah, hobi, soft skills) Pengetahuan (Pengalaman, keahlian, kekuatan absolut, fitur unik) Konsep Hidup (semangat,tubuh, pernikahan/hubungan sosial, kehidupan sehari- hari, waktu luang, karir, keuangan, kepribadian, kasus khusus, Pengalaman) Lingkungan sosial (standar hidup, gaya hidup, umur) ) Keilmuan / ma’rifat (intelektual, spiritual, sosial, fisikal)


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