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1 Persaingan Sempurna Bab VIII P = MC. 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari u 4 Struktur Pasar dan Bagaimana Persaingannya u 4 Kondisi Dlm Pasar Persaingan Sempurna.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Persaingan Sempurna Bab VIII P = MC. 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari u 4 Struktur Pasar dan Bagaimana Persaingannya u 4 Kondisi Dlm Pasar Persaingan Sempurna."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Persaingan Sempurna Bab VIII P = MC

2 2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari u 4 Struktur Pasar dan Bagaimana Persaingannya u 4 Kondisi Dlm Pasar Persaingan Sempurna u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Pasar Persaingan Sempurna

3 3 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari u Marginal cost dan kurva penawaran u Keuntungan maksimum dlm Jk Panjang

4 4 Topik Bab VIII u Model/Struktur Pasar u Persaingan Sempurna: Karakteristik u Permintaan u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Pendek u MC dan Kurva Supply u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Panjang u Per.Sempurna dan Efisiensi

5 5 Model/Struktur Pasar Persaingan Sempurna Struktur pasar

6 6 Monopoli Struktur Pasar Pers.Sempurna Model/Struktur Pasar

7 7 Persaingan Monopolistik Struktur Pasar Pers.sempurna monopoli Pers.monopolistik Model/Struktur Pasar

8 8 Oligopoly Struktur Pasar Pers.sempurna monopoli Pers.monopolistik Model/Struktur Pasar

9 9 Oligopoly Struktur Pasar Pers.sempurna monopoli Pers.monopolistik Model/Struktur Pasar

10 10 Bab VIII u Model/Struktur Pasar u Persaingan Sempurna: Karakteristik u Permintaan u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Pendek u MC dan Kurva Supply u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Panjang u Per.Sempurna dan Efisiensi

11 11 Struktur Pasar PureCompetition PureMonopoly MonopolisticCompetition Oligopoly Pers.Sempurna Sangat Banyak Penjual Sangat Banyak Penjual Produk Standar Produk Standar Pengambil Harga (Price Pengambil Harga (Price Taker) Taker) Free Entry and Exit Free Entry and Exit KarakteristikKarakteristik

12 12 Topik Bab VIII u Model/Struktur Pasar u Persaingan Sempurna: Karakteristik u Permintaan u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Pendek u MC dan Kurva Supply u Keuntungan Maksimum Dlm Jk Panjang u Per.Sempurna dan Efisiensi

13 13 Demand Penjual Perfectly Elastic Demand D S D Qpindustry p1p1p1p1 Perus. Dpt Menjual Sesuai dgn Harga Tertentupq D firm p1p1p1p1

14 14 Total Revenue = price X quantity Average Revenue = price Marginal Revenue = price Persaingan Sempurna Illustrasi....

15 Productprice(averagerevenue) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 0 $ 0 ]Quantitydemanded(sold) 15. Tabel 8-1

16 Productprice(averagerevenue) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 131 131 0 1 $ 0 131 $131 ]Quantitydemanded(sold) 16 Tabel 8-1

17 Productprice(averagerevenue) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 131 131131 0 1 2 $ 0 131262 ]$131131 ]Quantitydemanded(sold) 17 Tabel 8-1

18 Productprice(averagerevenue) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 131 131131131 0 1 23 $ 0 131262393 ]$131131131 ] ]Quantitydemanded(sold) 18 Tabel 8-1

19 Productprice(averagerevenue) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 131 131131131131 0 1 234 $ 0 131262393524 ]$131131131131 ] ] ]Quantitydemanded(sold) 19 Tabel 8-1

20 Productprice(averagerevenue) Quantitydemanded(sold) TotalrevenueMarginalrevenue $131 131 131131131131131131131131131131 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 ]$131131131131131131131131131131 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ]20 Tabel 8-1

21 21 Topik Bab VIII 3 Struktur Pasar 3 Persaingan Sempurna: Karakterisistik 3 Permintaan u Keuntungan Maksimum Jk.Pendek u Biaya Marjinal dan Suplai Jk.Pendek u Keuntungan Maksimum Jk.Panjang u Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi

22 22 Keuntungan Maksimum Jk.Pendek Perusahaan akan menghadapi 1. Untung (atau) 2- Rugi kurang dari fixed costnya Apakah akan Berproduksi? Berapa besar yg akan diproduksi? Apakah untung atau rugi? Pertanyaan Penting

23 TotalcostTotalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost 23 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

24 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost 24 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

25 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 25 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

26 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 26 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

27 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 27 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

28 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost Totalrevenue Profit $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 Price: $131 28 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

29 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost Totalrevenue Profit $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 Price: $131 - $100 - $100 - 59 - 8 + 53 + 124 + 185 + 236 + 277 + 298 + 299 + 280 29 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

30 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost Totalrevenue Profit $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 Price: $131 - $100 - $100 - 59 - 8 + 53 + 124 + 185 + 236 + 277 + 298 + 299 + 280 Berapa profit maksimumnya? 30 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

31 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost Totalrevenue Profit $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 Price: $131 - $100 - $100 - 59 - 8 + 53 + 124 + 185 + 236 + 277 + 298 + 299 + 280 31 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

32 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 $ 0 131262393524655786917104811791310 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost Totalrevenue Profit $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 Price: $131 - $100 - $100 - 59 - 8 + 53 + 124 + 185 + 236 + 277 + 298 + 299 + 280 Grafik.... 32 Total Revenue-Total Cost Approach Table 9 - 3

33 Figure 9-2 33 TCTRTR Maximum economic profit $299 Break-even point (normal profit) Break-even point

34 34 Total Revenue -Total Cost Approach u profit = TR - TC u grapik: profit maksimum selisih TR & TC yg terbesar u breakeven point dimana TR = TC

35 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 35 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 Bagaimanaj ika perusahaan berprod. 1 unit? Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

36 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 36 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 Bagaimana unit yg kedua?. Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

37 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 37 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 Bagaimana unit yg ke 9? Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

38 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 38 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 Bagaiman unit yg ke 10? Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

39 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 39 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 9 unit adalah profit max Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

40 40 Keuntungan Max Jk Pendek Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach MR > MC  + produksi MR < MC  - produce MR = MC  Profit Max

41 41 Keuntungan Max. Jk.Pendek Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Utk seluruh struktur pasar Utk seluruh struktur pasar dlm psr.persaingan sempurna: dlm psr.persaingan sempurna: p = MR jadi MR = MC  p = MC  p = MC MR = MC Rule

42 Totalcost 0 1 2345678910 Totalproduct TotalfixedcostTotalvariablecost $ 100 $ 100 100 100 100100100100100100100100 $ 0 90170240300370450540650780930 $ 100 1902703404004705506407508801030 42 90807060708090110130150 ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] ] Marginalcost Price = Marginalrevenue $ 131 131131131131131131131131131 TC=880 TR=9 X 131 =1179Profit=1179-880=299 Grafik....Grafik.... Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach Table 9 - 4

43 43 MC ATC AVC AFC 9 131 MR = MC SolusiOptimum

44 44 MC ATC AVC AFC 9131 97.78 lihatATC

45 45 MC ATC AVC AFC 9 Profit = 9 X (131 - 97.78) = 299131 97.78

46 46 Marginal Revenue - Marginal Cost Approach.... Kerugian (loss) Jk.Pendek

47 47 Marginal Revenue - Marginal Cost Approach.... Jika harga dari $131 ke $81 Loss Minimum Jk.Pendek

48 48 Marginal Revenue - Marginal Cost Approach.... Jika harga dari $131 ke $81 Titik MR = MC berubah.... Loss minimum Jk.Pendek

49 49 MC ATC AVC AFC81 91.67 Loss = 6 X (81 - 91.67) = -64.02 < TFC Jika rugi, Apakah perusahaan akan Menurunkan produksinya?

50 50 Marginal Revenue - Marginal Cost Approach.... Jika harga jatuh di bawah $71… Titik MR = MC berubah kembali.... Loss Minimum Jk.Pendek

51 51 MC ATC AVC AFC71 94 Loss = 5 X (71 - 94) = -115>TFC Ketika harga di bawah AVC, perusahaan tutup AVC, perusahaan tutup

52 52 Topik Bab 9 3 Struktur Pasar 3 Persaingan Sempurna: Karakterisitik 3 Permintaan 3 Keuntungan Max Jk.Pendek u Marginal Cost dan Supply Jk.Pendek u Keuntungan Max Jk.Panjang u Persaingan Sempurna dan Efisiensi

53 P Q MC AVC ATC Costs and revenues 53 Pd setiap harga, titik MR = MC mengindikasikan kuantitas akan diproduksikan.... Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

54 P Q MC AVC ATC Kuantitas akan disupply pd Setiap harga Costs and revenues 54 P3P3P3P3 MR 3 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

55 P Q MC AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Costs and revenues 55 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

56 P Q MC AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 MR 4 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 P4P4P4P4 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Q4Q4Q4Q4 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Costs and revenues 56 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

57 P Q MC AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 MR 4 MR 5 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 P4P4P4P4 P5P5P5P5 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Q4Q4Q4Q4 Q5Q5Q5Q5 Costs and revenues 57 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

58 Q P P1P1P1P1 MC MR 1 AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 MR 4 MR 5 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 P4P4P4P4 P5P5P5P5 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Q4Q4Q4Q4 Q5Q5Q5Q5 Perusahaan tidak akan berproduksi di bawah P 2 Costs and revenues 58 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

59 P Q P1P1P1P1 MC MR 1 AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 MR 4 MR 5 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 P4P4P4P4 P5P5P5P5 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Q4Q4Q4Q4 Q5Q5Q5Q5 Costs and revenues 59 Kurva marginal cost pd titik di atas AVC menunjukkan kurva Supply Jk pendek Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

60 P Q P1P1P1P1 MC MR 1 AVC ATC MR 2 MR 3 MR 4 MR 5 P2P2P2P2 P3P3P3P3 P4P4P4P4 P5P5P5P5 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q3Q3Q3Q3 Q4Q4Q4Q4 Q5Q5Q5Q5 Kurva Supply jk pendek (biru) Costs and revenues 60 Short-Run Supply Figure 9-6

61 P Q MC 1 AVC 1 Jika biaya naik.... Kurva supply Bergeser 61 Short-Run Supply

62 P Q MC 1 AVC 1 Jika biaya naik.... Kurva supply Bergeser ke sebelah kiri MC 2 AVC 2 62 Short-Run Supply

63 P Q MC 1 AVC 1 Jika biaya turun.... Kurva supply Bergeser ke sebelah kanan kanan MC 2 AVC 2 63 Short-Run Supply

64 P Q P Q D Industri Perusahaan (price taker) TotalIndustryDemand 64 Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7

65 P Q P Q 8000 D S=  MCs Industri Perusahaan (price taker) $111MC 65 Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7

66 P Q MC AVC ATC P Q 8000 D S=  MCs Industri Perusahaan (price taker) The firm “takes” the Industry Price $111 66 Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7

67 P Q MC AVC ATC 8 D P Q 8000 D Industri Perusahaan (price taker) $111 $111 67 1000 firms Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7 S=  MCs

68 P Q MC AVC ATC 8 D P Q 8000 D Industri Perusahaan (price taker) EconomicProfit $111 $111 68 Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7 S=  MCs

69 $111 $111 P Q MC AVC ATC 8 D P Q 8000 D Industri Perusahaan (price taker) Bagaimana Jk Panjang? 69 Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Keseimbangan Jk.Pendek Figure 9 - 7 S=  MCs

70 70 Topik Bab 9 3 Struktur Pasar 3 Pers.Sempurna: Karakterisitik 3 Permintaan 3 Keuntungan Max. Dlm Jk.Pendek 3 Marginal Cost Supply Jk.Pendek u Keuntungan Max. Jk.Panjang u Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi

71 71 Profit Max Dlm Jk.Panjang u Asumsi: Perusahaan keluar masuk pasarPerusahaan keluar masuk pasar Biaya identik (sama)Biaya identik (sama) Industri biaya konstanIndustri biaya konstan

72 72 Persaingan Sempurna u Dlm Jk.Pendek, perusahaan memperoleh: impasimpas untung (profit)untung (profit) Rugi (loss)Rugi (loss) u Dlm Jk Panjang, perusahaan hanya akan memperoleh impas (zero profit)

73 73 Keuntungan Max. Jk.Panjang Harga = Minimum ATC Dlm Jk. Panjang... Keuntungan = 0 Illustrasi....

74 P Q MC P Q S1S1S1S1 Industri 1000 firms Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 100,000 Apa yg Terjadi jika D naik.... Apa yg Terjadi jika D naik.... 74 Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 8 D1D1D1D1

75 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 D2D2D2D2 100,000 Keuntungan Pd harga yg lebih tinggi.... 75 Industri 1000 firms Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 8

76 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 D2D2D2D2 100,000 76 Industri Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 8.…perus baru masuk, S naik, p turun.... S2S2S2S2

77 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 D2D2D2D2 100,000 77 Industri Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 8 S2S2S2S2... Keseimbangan baru dgn banyak perus 110,000 1100 firms vs 1000 firms

78 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Industri 1000 firms Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 100,000 Apa yg terjadi jika demand turun.... 78 Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 9

79 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 $60$50$40 D2D2D2D2 100,000 Jk Pendek hilang pd harga yg lebih rendah.... 79 Industri 1000 firms. Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 9

80 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 Perusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 100 90,000 D2D2D2D2 S3S3S3S3100,000.…bbrp perus keluar, S turun, p naik.... $60$50$40 80 Industri 900 firms Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 9

81 P Q MC P Q D1D1D1D1 S1S1S1S1 IndustriPerusahaan (price taker) ATC MR $60$50$40 10090,000 D2D2D2D2 S3S3S3S3 $60$50$40 100,000... Keseimbangan baru dgn sedikit perus 81 900 firms vs 1000 firms Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang Figure 9 - 9

82 82 Keseimbangan Jk.Panjang u Jk harga > min ATC Perusahaan baru, masukPerusahaan baru, masuk S naik, harga turun ke min ATCS naik, harga turun ke min ATC u Jk harga < min ATC Perusahaan keluarPerusahaan keluar S turun, harga naik kr min ATCS turun, harga naik kr min ATC u jadi, dlm jk panjang, p=min ATC

83 83 Supply Jk.Panjang Constant Cost Industry menyebabkan Supply Elastis Sempurna Grafik.... Grafik....

84 Long-Run Constant-Cost Industry P Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 84 Figure 9 - 10

85 P>$50 Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 Permintaan naik 85 Long-Run Constant-Cost Industry Figure 9 - 10 P

86 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 Perus baru, masuk S2S2S2S2 S1S1S1S1 86 Long-Run Constant-Cost Industry Figure 9 - 10 P

87 long-run S Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 87 Harga sama dlm jk panjang Long-Run Constant-Cost Industry Figure 9 - 10 P

88 S Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Bagaimana dgn industri Increasing Cost? 88 Long-Run Constant-Cost Industry Figure 9 - 10 P

89 P Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 Long-Run Increasing-Cost Industry Permintaan naik P>>$5089 Figure 9 - 11

90 P Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 Long-Run Increasing-Cost Industry Perusahaan baru, masuk S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 P>$50 Kurva biaya bergeser ke atas, harga masih lebih besar dari $50 90 Figure 9 - 11

91 P Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Long-Run Increasing-Cost Industry long-run S Dlm Jk.panjang, supply berpindah ke harga yg lebih tinggi 91 Figure 9 - 11

92 S P Q P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Long-Run Increasing-Cost Industry S Bagaimana dgn Decreasing Cost Industri? 92 Figure 9 - 11

93 Q P P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 D2D2D2D2 Long-run Decreasing-Cost Industry P>$50 Permintaan naik 93

94 Q D2D2D2D2 P P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Long-run Decreasing-Cost Industry P<$50 Kurva biaya bergeser ke bawah, harga di bawah $50 Perusahaan baru, masuk 94

95 Q D2D2D2D2 P P=$50 D1D1D1D1 Q1Q1Q1Q1 S1S1S1S1 S2S2S2S2 Q2Q2Q2Q2 Long-run Decreasing-Cost Industry S Supply jk panjang kurva slope negatif 95. long-run supply

96 96 Topik Bab 9 3 Struktur Pasar 3 Pers.Sempurna: Karekteristik 3 Permintaan 3 Keuntungan Max. Jk.Pendek 3 Marginal Cost dan Supply Jk Pendek 3 Keuntungan Mx. Jk.Panjang u Persingan Sempurna dan Efisiensi

97 97 Apa yh dimaksud dgn Keseimbangan Kompetitif Keseimbangan Kompetitif Jk Panjang? Jk Panjang?

98 P Q P MR Q MC ATC Price = MC = Minimum ATC (normal profit) 98 Long-run Competitive Equilibrium Figure 9 - 12

99 99 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Efisiensi Produktif

100 100 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Efisiensi Produktif Produksi pd minimum ATC

101 101 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Efisiensi Produktif Efisiensi Allokatif Produksi pd minimum ATC

102 102 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Efisiensi Produktif Efisiensi Allokatif harga = MC Produksi pd minimum ATC

103 103 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Harga = MC  Nilai terakhir dari unit yg dibeli adalah sama dengan opportunity cost dari masyarakat untuk memproduksi brg tsb Price > MC  Underallocation Price < MC  Overallocation Price = MC  Yg diinginkan (“just right”)

104 104 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi Efisiensi Produktif Efisiensi Allokatif harga = MC Produksi pd minimum ATC Efisiensi Dinamis resources secara cepat merespon perubahan selera, perubahan selera,

105 105 Topik Bab 9 3 Struktur Pasar 3 Pers.Sempurna: Karekteristik 3 Permintaan 3 Keuntungan Max. Jk.Pendek 3 Marginal Cost dan Supply Jk Pendek 3 Keuntungan Mx. Jk.Panjang 3 Pers.Sempurna dan Efisiensi


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