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PAN, LAN, MAN,WAN, GAN Pengantar Sistem Telekomunikasi 2009 Week 6.

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Presentasi berjudul: "PAN, LAN, MAN,WAN, GAN Pengantar Sistem Telekomunikasi 2009 Week 6."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PAN, LAN, MAN,WAN, GAN Pengantar Sistem Telekomunikasi 2009 Week 6

2 Tujuan Modul Peserta kuliah memahami mengenai jenis-jenis jaringan komputer : personal sampai dunia Peserta kuliah memahami mengenai jenis-jenis jaringan komputer : personal sampai dunia Peserta kuliah memahami teknologi jaringan : Peserta kuliah memahami teknologi jaringan : Wireless secara singkat Wireless secara singkat Ethernet secara lebih fokus Ethernet secara lebih fokus Peserta kuliah memahami secara singkat komponen perangkat jaringan komputer Peserta kuliah memahami secara singkat komponen perangkat jaringan komputer Peserta kuliah mengenal istilah : ATM, MPLS, FR, X25, FDDI, ISDN, MEN Peserta kuliah mengenal istilah : ATM, MPLS, FR, X25, FDDI, ISDN, MEN

3 Computer Network Personal Area Network (PAN) Local Area Network (LAN) Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) Wide Area Network (WAN) Global Area Network (GAN)

4 PAN

5 PAN - Personal Area Network Data transfer on short areas between the personal components belonging to a person Data transfer on short areas between the personal components belonging to a person Most personal area networks are wireless.

6 Wireless personal area network (Wireless PAN) is a personal area network - a network for interconnecting devices centered around an individual person - in which the connections are wireless. Typically, a wireless personal area network uses some technology that permits communication within about 10 meters - in other words, a very short range. Used wireless technology to connect an individual ‘ s personal electronics, such as : Cellphone, PDA, MP3 player, notebook PC and printer

7 Wireless PAN: Bluetooth Personal Area Network Standard -> primarily for interconnecting consumer devices. Frequency: 2.4 GHz Max Data Rate: 1 Mbps IRDA Provides infrared connections between communication devices such as mobile phones, desktop PCs and notebook computers; both voice and data are transferred in real time. Frequency: Infrared Max Data Rate: 115,400 bps Ultra-wide Band (UWB) Hot area but probably restricted to PAN

8 LAN Topologi Topologi Access method Access method Ethernet Ethernet Network components Network components Layered network Layered network Wireless LAN Wireless LAN

9 Local-area network (LAN) : building, campus, organizational structure High-speed, low-error data network covering a relatively small geographic area (up to a few thousand meters : building, campus, organizational structure). LANs connect workstations, peripherals, terminals, and other devices in a single building or other geographically limited area. LAN standards specify cabling and signaling at the physical and data link layers of the OSI model. High communication bandwidth (10, 100, 155 Mbit/s) Simple topology (bus, ring, tree, star) Ethernet, FDDI, and Token Ring are widely used LAN technologies.

10 10 MESH STAR RING BUS Topologi Jaringan

11 Medium Access Control (MAC) Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol adalah : metoda yang digunakan perangkat pada jaringan LAN agar mendapat akses dan mentransmisikan data ke media transmisi Metoda Akses CONTENTION TOKEN PASSING (IBM) IEEE IEEE IEEE 802.5

12 Token Passing Token Passing IEEE Token Passing Server membuat token (tongkat estafet !) Setiap workstation menunggu transmisi token Jika suatu wokstation menerima token – dan tak ada data untuk dikirim - kirim token ke komputer berikut Jika token diterima – dan ada data untuk dikirim: transmisikan data tunggu tanda terima setelah diterima, kirim token ke komputer berikut Token dibuat dengan tanda khusus (misal )

13 Ethernet Baseband LAN specification invented by Xerox Corporation and developed jointly by Xerox, Intel, and Digital Equipment Corporation. Ethernet networks use CSMA/CD and run over a variety of cable types at 10 Mbps. Ethernet is similar to the IEEE series of standards. Physical Data Link (MAC layer) Ethernet 100baseTX 10BaseT Base510Base2 100baseFX Specifications for 10mb Ethernet 802.3u Specifications for 100mb (Fast) Ethernet 100baseT4 10BaseF DIX Standard

14 Comparing Ethernet Media Requirements 10Base5 100BaseTX 10BaseT 100BaseFX Media Maximum Segment Length Topology Connector 50-ohm coax (thick) 500 meters Bus 100 meters Star Point-to-Point EIA/TIA Cat 3, 4, 5 UTP 2 pair EIA/TIA Cat 5 UTP 2 pair 62.5/125 micron multi- mode fiber AUI ISO 8877 (RJ-45) Duplex media- interface connector (MIC) ST ISO 8877 (RJ-45) 400 meters100 meters

15 Some of the popular IEEE Ethernet Standard

16 Ethernet from the OSI 7 Layer view point Layer 4 Transport Layer 3 Network Layer 2 Link Layer 1 Physical Layer 5 Session Layer 6 Presentation Layer 7 Application APPLICATION LAYERS NETWORK LAYERS Formats frames  SWITCHING. Adds cyclic redundancy check. Ethernet frames, Frame Relay frames, ATM cells, MPLS Multiprotocol Label Switching Frames, VPLS, VPWS Creates/receives datagrams, assigns addresses for ROUTING packets to their destination. IP Internet Protocol, Novell IPX, RFC 2547 over MPLS Encodes and transmits data bits over electrical, optical or radio pulses. Mux, repeater, TDM channels, SONET payload envelope, 10BASE-T Provides end-to-end transmission correctness, data recovery and flow control. TCP Transmission Control Protocol, UDP. Determines how computers represent data. ASCII, MPEG. Establishes a session and security. SSL, SQL, NetBIOS. Generates or interprets data. FTP File Transfer Protocol, , browser, HTTP Ethernet Header Ethernet Frame Ethernet Trailer IP Packet Bits

17 Ethernet IEEE Menggunakan Protokol CSMA/CD Menggunakan Protokol CSMA/CD Menggunakan medium Menggunakan medium Kabel tembaga (dibungkus dan tidak), Kabel tembaga (dibungkus dan tidak), Coax, Coax, Fiber Fiber Kapasitas 30 to 100 perangkat (‘nodes’) Kapasitas 30 to 100 perangkat (‘nodes’) Kecepatannya Kecepatannya 10 Mbps (Ethernet) 10 Mbps (Ethernet) 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet) 100 Mbps (Fast Ethernet) 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet) 1000 Mbps (Gigabit Ethernet)

18 18 Contention - CSMA/CD IEEE CSMA/CD   Setiap node/terminal (komputer) memiliki akses yang sama ke media transmisi Setiap node/terminal mengamati media transmisi untuk melihat apakah sedang ada data (message) yang ditransmisikan Jika tidak ada, komputer dapat memulai transmisi data   Pekerjaan ‘mendengar’ media transmisi disebut sebagai Carrier Sensing   Kemampuan beberapa perangkat bersama-sama mengakses media transmisi disebut Multiple Access   Jika ada dua atau lebih perangkat bersama-sama memulai transmisi, terjadi Collision Detection   Jika Collision Detection terjadi, setiap perangkat memutuskan hubungan   Setiap perangkat menunggu secara acak sebelum berusaha untuk mengirim kembali   Protokol ini disebut sebagai Carrier-Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection (CSMA/CD)   Metoda akses paling umum untuk topologi bus

19 19 Network Structure Defined by Hierarchy MPLS

20 Positioning Ethernet in the Campus Access Layer Distribution Layer Core Layer Ethernet 10BaseT Position Fast Ethernet Position Access Layer Distribution Layer Core Layer Provides connectivty between the end user device and the access switch. Not typically used at this layer. Gives high-performance PC and workstations 100-Mbps access to the server. Provides connectivity between access and distribution layers. Provides connectivity from the distribution to core layer. Provides connectivity from the server block to the core layer. Provides inter-switch connectivity. Not typically used at this layer.

21 21 Komponen Hardware LAN Media Transmisi – Kabel tembaga (Copper wire), kabel koaksial (coax cable), fiber-optic Servers – komputer penyedia layanan (file, database, printer, terminal, modem dan atau fax) Workstation – Personal computer TS atu CS Storage & Back-up – magnetic tape drives,floppy disk drives, hard disk drives, optical disks Network Interface Card (NIC) – ‘adaptor’ menghubungkan workstation dengan media transmisi

22 Components of a network Hubs : common connection point for devices in network – a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded in one or more other directions Hubs : common connection point for devices in network – a place of convergence where data arrives from one or more directions and is forwarded in one or more other directions Switches : device that connects computers to a network Switches : device that connects computers to a network Bridges : interface used to connect the same type of networks Bridges : interface used to connect the same type of networks Gateways : interface permitting communication between dissimilar networks Gateways : interface permitting communication between dissimilar networks Routers : special computer that directs message when several networks are connected together Routers : special computer that directs message when several networks are connected together Backbones : consists of many main highway – mincluding gateway, routers, and other communiacion equipment – that connect all computer networks in an organization Backbones : consists of many main highway – mincluding gateway, routers, and other communiacion equipment – that connect all computer networks in an organization

23 23 Hubbed network

24 24 Hub  Hub merupakan sentral dari suatu LAN atau enterprise network  Beberapa jenis hub antara lain : Repeater hub  Memiliki beberapa connection port utk dihubungkan ke workstation  Apabila ada station yg mengirim data, repeater meng-copy data tsb ke semua port Wiring concentrator  Merupakan token-ring network concentrator  Sering disebut multistation access unit (MAU)  Pada prinsipnya merupakan ring dalam kotak Switching hub  Disebut juga frame switch atau LAN switch  Memiliki multiport devices yang masing-masing beroperasi seperti LAN terpisah dengan broadcast domain sendiri Workgroup hub  Memiliki port-port yang dihubungkan ke hub yang lain  Bisa merupakan repeater hub, concentrator atau switching hub Enterprise hub  Merupakan sentral dimana semua workgroup hub di perusahan/organisasi terhubung

25 25  Router merupakan packet switches yang menghubungkan dua network  IP adrress paket yang diterima dichek dalam routing table Jika ada dalam tabel  paket diteruskan ke network yang bersangkutan Jika tidak ada dalam tabel  paket diteruskan ke router pada network yang hirarkinya lebih tinggi  Hal yang sama dilakukan oleh router pada hirarki network yang lebih tinggi  Pencarian IP address terakhir dilakukan oleh router pada NSP backbone Router

26 26 Mengapa LAN? ResourceSharing Sumber Daya Bersama Large Data Transfers Kirim data (besar) NetworkBackupCadangan Groupware Software Grup DistributedDatabases Basis Data Terdistribusi NetworkSecurity Keamanan Jaringan NetworkManagement Manajemen Jaringan Jika ada LAN maka …

27 Wireless LAN: DS, FH Initial standard – used for connection of fixed or portable stations in a LAN. Frequency: 2.4 GHz Max Data Rate: 2 Mbps IR Initial standard -- used for connection of fixed or portable stations in a LAN. Frequency: Infrared Max Data Rate: 2 Mbps

28 Wireless LAN: (continued) a Supplemental standard – increment and range for LAN connections. Frequency : 5.8 GHz Max Data Rate: 54 Mbps b HR DS Supplemental standard – increment and range for LAN connections. Frequency : 2.4 GHz Max Data Rate: 11 Mbps

29 Wireless LAN: (continued) HiperLAN I European Standard - designed for high-speed radio frequency connections between portable devices. Frequency : 5.2 GHz Max Data Rate: 23.5 Mbps OpenAir Designed to provide radio frequency connection for mobile wireless LAN applications -- includes long range capabilities. Frequency : 2.4 GHz Max Data Rate: 1.6 Mbps

30 Wireless LAN: (continued) Shared Wireless Access Protocol (SWAP) European Standard - designed for high-speed radio frequency connections between portable devices. Frequency : 5.2 GHz Max Data Rate : 23.5 Mbps Proprietary Device- or application-specific wireless LAN protocols. Frequency : 2.4 GHz Max Data Rate : 1.6 Mbps

31 A simple diagram of a wireless LAN:

32 A wireless local area network (Wireless LAN) is a computer network that allows a user to connect without the need for a network cable. A laptop or PDA equipped with a wireless LAN card lets a user move around a building with their computer and stay connected to their network without needing to “plug in” with a cable.

33 MAN

34 Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) A network spanning a geographical area greater than a LAN but less than a WAN (Wide Area Network) A network spanning a geographical area greater than a LAN but less than a WAN (Wide Area Network) usually in the size of Metropolitan City. usually in the size of Metropolitan City. Fast high speed network in a regional area, connecting different local area networks (1 to 100 km) Plays the role of a backbone network Simple topology (often: optical fiber ring)

35 MAN Standard IEEE ( Institution of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, USA) Protocol : X.25, Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), Dedicated E1/T1, Fractional E1/T1, Ethernet

36 Local Exchange Carrier as MAN

37 Frame Relay as MAN Connections made by virtual circuits Connection-oriented service MAN

38 Metro Ethernet Carrier as MAN E-Line E-LAN EVC Ethernet Virtual Connection MEN Metropolitan Ethernet Network

39 WAN

40 WAN - Wide Area Networks Connection of LANs and MANs over regional and above regional distances Connection of LANs and MANs over regional and above regional distances intercity, intercountry and intercontinental Heterogeneous mesh networks with packet oriented communication and routing buffering of packets in intermediary nodes higher latency times (compared to a LAN) Heterogeneous mesh networks with packet oriented communication and routing buffering of packets in intermediary nodes higher latency times (compared to a LAN) Network Protocol : Network Protocol : X.25, Frame Relay, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network), Dedicated E1/T1, Fractional E1/T1, STM N Ethernet

41 Type of Wide Area Network (WAN)

42 Long Distance Carrier as WAN

43 Frame Relay as WAN Connections made by virtual circuits Connection-oriented service WAN

44 Label Switching (MPLS) Carrier as WAN Label Switching Routers (LSRs) (ATM Switch or Router) Label Edge Routers

45 A wireless wide area network (Wireless WAN) covers a much more extensive area than wireless LANs. Coverage is generally offered on a nationwide level with wireless network infrastructure provided by a wireless service carrier.

46 Wireless WAN: 1G, 2G, 2.5G, 3G, 4G Generations / versions. 2G TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access), 2.5G CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access), 2.5G GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication)

47 Wireless WAN: (continued) GPRS (General Packet Radio Service) Data overlay system for enhancing existing GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and/or other TDMA-based networks Considered 2.5 generation. Frequency: varies Max Data Rate: 14.4 Kbps 3G/UMTS 3.5G/HSDPA 4G/WIMAX

48 GAN

49 GAN - Global Area Network NETWORK OF NETWORK Global communication network without restriction Global communication network without restriction No local restrictions (world wide to interplanetary) No local restrictions (world wide to interplanetary) Connects WANs, MANs and LANs Connects WANs, MANs and LANs Wired/Wireless WAN/LAN/MAN/PAN integration = GAN Wired/Wireless WAN/LAN/MAN/PAN integration = GAN Largely varying quality Largely varying quality GAN  INTERNET

50 Internet Access INTERNET Router LAN Us modem Internet Service Provider ISP SLIP/ PPP Or TCP/IP “terminal Emulation” TCP/IP (Mis. Perpustakaan) Online Service Provider TCP/IP ISP

51 51 Internet Infrastructure

52 52 Internet Routing Hierarchy


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