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J0444 OPERATION MANAGEMENT Desain Kapasitas Pert 14 Universitas Bina Nusantara.

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Presentasi berjudul: "J0444 OPERATION MANAGEMENT Desain Kapasitas Pert 14 Universitas Bina Nusantara."— Transcript presentasi:

1 J0444 OPERATION MANAGEMENT Desain Kapasitas Pert 14 Universitas Bina Nusantara

2 Outline Kapasitas  hasil produksi atau jumlah unit yang dapat ditahan, diterima, disimpan, atau diproduksi oleh sebuh fasilitas dalam suatu periode waktu tertentu Kapasitas

3 How much long-range capacity is needed When more capacity is needed Where facilities should be located (location) How facilities should be arranged (layout) Facility planning answers: Facility Planning Perencanaan Fasilitas

4 Forecast Demand Compute Needed Capacity Compute Rated Capacity Evaluate Capacity Plans Implement Best Plan Qualitative Factors (e.g., Skills) Select Best Capacity Plan Develop Alternative Plans Quantitative Factors (e.g., Cost) Capacity Planning Process Proses Perencanaan Kapasitas

5 Types of Planning Over a Time Horizon Add Facilities Add long lead time equipment Schedule Jobs Schedule Personnel Allocate Machinery Sub-Contract Add Equipment Add Shifts Add Personnel Build or Use Inventory Long Range Planning Intermediate Range Planning Short Range Planning Modify CapacityUse Capacity * * *Limited options exist Perencaanaan Kapasitas Berdasarkan Horison Waktu

6 Definition and Measures of Capacity Capacity: Output maksimum sistem secara teoritis dalam suatu periode waktu tertentu Utilization: Output aktual sebagai persentase kapasitas desain Effective capacity: Kapasitas yang diharapkan dapat dicapai oleh sebuah perusahaan dengan baruran produk, metode penjadwalan, dan standar kualitas yang diberikan. Efficiency: Output aktual sebagai persentase kapasitas efektif Konsep dan Pengukuran Kapasitas

7 Actual or Expected Output Actual (or Expected) Output = (Effective Capacity)(Efficiency)

8 Measure of planned or actual capacity usage of a facility, work center, or machine Utilization Actual Output Design Capacity Planned hours to be used Total hours available = = Utilization Utilisasi

9 Measure of how well a facility or machine is performing when used Efficiency Actual output Effective Capacity Actual output in units Standard output in units Average actual time Standard time = = = Efficiency Efisiensi

10 Implications of Capacity Changes Changes in: Sales Cash flow Quality Supply chain Human resources Maintenance Imlikasi terhadap Perubahan Kapasitas

11 Special Requirements for Making Good Capacity Decisions Forecast demand accurately Understanding the technology and capacity increments Finding the optimal operating level (volume) Build for change Special Requirements for Making Good Capacity Decisions

12 Cost Structure for a Roadside Motel 25 room roadside motel 50 room roadside motel 75 room roadside motel Economies of Scale Diseconomies of Scale Number of Rooms Average Unit Cost (dollars per unit per night) Struktur Biaya untuk Roadside Motel

13 Strategies for Matching Capacity to Demand 1.Making staffing changes (increasing or decreasing the number of employees) 2.Adjusting equipment and processes – which might include purchasing additional machinery or selling or leasing out existing equipment 3.Improving methods to increase throughput; and/or 4.Redesigning the product to facilitate more throughput Strategies for Matching Capacity to Demand

14 Approaches to Capacity Expansion Expected Demand Time in Years Demand New Capacity Capacity leads demand with an incremental expansion Capacity leads demand with a one-step expansion Capacity lags demand with an incremental expansion Attempts to have an average capacity, with an incremental expansion Pendekatan Terhdap Ekspansi Kapasitas

15 Approaches to Capacity Expansion Expected Demand Time in Years Demand New Capacity Capacity leads demand with an incremental expansion

16 Approaches to Capacity Expansion Expected Demand Time in Years Demand New Capacity Capacity leads demand with a one-step expansion

17 Breakeven Analysis Technique for evaluating process & equipment alternatives Objective: Find the point ($ or units) at which total cost equals total revenue Assumptions –Revenue & costs are related linearly to volume –All information is known with certainty –No time value of money

18 Break-Even Analysis Fixed costs: costs that continue even if no units are produced: depreciation, taxes, debt, mortgage payments Variable costs: costs that vary with the volume of units produced: labor, materials, portion of utilities

19 Breakeven Chart Fixed cost Variable cost Total cost line Total revenue line Profit Breakeven point Total cost = Total revenue Volume (units/period) Cost in Dollars Loss

20 Decision Tree and Capacity Decision -$90,000 $60, ,000 $40,000 Market favorable (0.4) Market unfavorable (0.6) Market favorable (0.4) Market unfavorable (0.6) Market favorable (0.4) Market unfavorable (0.6) $100,000 -5,000 $0 -$14,000 $18,000 $13,000 Large Plant Medium Plant Small Plant Do nothing

21 Strategy Driven Investment Select investments as part of a coordinated strategic plan Choose investments yielding competitive advantage Consider product life cycles Include a variety of operating factors in the financial return analysis Test investments in light of several revenue projections

22 Net Present Value F = future value P = present value I = interest rate N = number of years

23 NPV in a More Convenient Form Year5%6%7%8% Present value of $1.00

24 Present Value of an Annuity (S) X = Factor from Table S = present value of a series of uniform annual receipts R = receipts that are received every year for the life of the investment Year5%6%7%8%


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