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SISTEM GERAK PADA MANUSIA SK/KD/INDIKATOR MATERI KUIS LINK STANDAR KOMPETENSI Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi organ manusia dan hewan tertentu, kelainan/penyakit.

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Presentasi berjudul: "SISTEM GERAK PADA MANUSIA SK/KD/INDIKATOR MATERI KUIS LINK STANDAR KOMPETENSI Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi organ manusia dan hewan tertentu, kelainan/penyakit."— Transcript presentasi:

1 SISTEM GERAK PADA MANUSIA SK/KD/INDIKATOR MATERI KUIS LINK STANDAR KOMPETENSI Menjelaskan struktur dan fungsi organ manusia dan hewan tertentu, kelainan/penyakit yang mungkin terjadi serta implikasinya pada salingtemas. KOMPETENSI DASAR Menjelaskan keterkaitan antara struktur, fungsi, dan proses serta kelainan/penyakit yang dapat terjadi pada sistem gerak pada manusia INDIKATOR Mengidentifikasi struktur dan fungsi tulang dan otot dalam sistem gerak Mengurutkan proses terjadinya sebuah gerakan.

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4 Do we have more bones when we are a baby or when we are all grown up? Baby has 305 bones and an adult has 206 bones. This is because as we grown some of our bones join together to form one bone. The longest bone in our bodies is the femur (thigh bone). The smallest bone is the stirrup bone inside the ear. Each hand has 26 bones in it. our nose and ears are not made of bone; they are made of cartilage, a flexible substance that is not as hard as bone. Differences between males and females: Males and females have slightly different skeletons, including a different elbow angle. Males have slightly thicker and longer legs and arms; females have a wider pelvis and a larger space within the pelvis, through which babies travel when they are born. Interesting Facts about the Skeletal System

5 Lets look at the skeleton The Skeleton is the name given to the collection of bones that holds our body up. Without the trunk and branches of a tree, were would the leaves be? Without your skeleton, where would you be?

6 Types of Skeletons Exo-skeleton: animals that have shells Endo-skeleton: hard structure inside the animal. Hydrostatic skeleton: Fluid held inside the body No skeleton

7 Understanding bone strength Bone Strength Activity In your groups…….. 1.Take a sheet of paper and curl it up. 2.Put a piece of sticking tape on to hold it. 3.Place as many weights on this hollow structure as possible How much weight do you think it will hold?

8 Skeletal System Function Protection Framework Movement Mineral Storage Blood Cell Formation Bone Classificatio n Long Bones Short Bones Flat Bones Irregular Bones Composition Hard Bone Cartilage Part Appendicular Skeleton Axial Skeleton

9 Support- framework that supports body and cradles its soft organs Protection- for delicate organs, heart, lungs, brain Movement- bones act as levers for muscles Mineral storage- calcium & phosphate Blood cell formation- hematopoiesis

10 The Skeletal System  Parts of the skeletal system  Bones (skeleton)  Joints  Cartilages  Ligaments (bone to bone)(tendon=bone to muscle)  Divided into two divisions  Axial skeleton  Appendicular skeleton – limbs and girdle

11 Long Bones- metacarples, metatarsals, phelangies, humerus, ulna, radius, tibia, fibula Short Bones- carpals, tarsals Flat Bones- rib, scapula, skull, sternum Irregular Bones- vertebrae, some facial bones Sesamoid- patella

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13 Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Long bones  Typically longer than wide  Have a shaft with heads at both ends  Contain mostly compact bone Examples: Femur, humerus

14 Gross Anatomy of a Long Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Diaphysis  Shaft  Composed of compact bone  Epiphysis  Ends of the bone  Composed mostly of spongy bone Figure 5.2a

15 275 bones 12 weeks (6-9 inches long)

16 cartilage calcified cartilage bone epiphyse al plate epiphyseal line Endochondral Ossification 2 o ossification center Fetus: 1 st 2 months Adul t Childhoo d Just before birth

17 Osteoblast Osteocyte Osteoclast Eats bone Builds new bone Mature bone cell

18 Structures of a Long Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Periosteum  Outside covering of the diaphysis  Fibrous connective tissue membrane  Sharpey’s fibers  Secure periosteum to underlying bone  Arteries  Supply bone cells with nutrients Figure 5.2c

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20 Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Short bones  Generally cube-shape  Contain mostly spongy bone  Examples: Carpals, tarsals

21 Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Flat bones  Thin and flattened  Usually curved  Thin layers of compact bone around a layer of spongy bone  Examples: Skull, ribs, sternum

22 Classification of Bones Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Irregular bones  Irregular shape  Do not fit into other bone classification categories  Example: Vertebrae and hip

23 Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Surface features of bones  Sites of attachments for muscles, tendons, and ligaments  Passages for nerves and blood vessels  Categories of bone markings  Projections and processes – grow out from the bone surface  Depressions or cavities – indentations

24 Sesamoid Bones  Extra Bones Found in Certain Tendons i.e. Patella

25 Types of Bone Cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium  Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

26 Types of Bone Cells Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Osteocytes  Mature bone cells  Osteoblasts  Bone-forming cells  Osteoclasts  Bone-destroying cells  Break down bone matrix for remodeling and release of calcium  Bone remodeling is a process by both osteoblasts and osteoclasts

27 Changes in the Human Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  In embryos, the skeleton is primarily hyaline cartilage  During development, much of this cartilage is replaced by bone  Cartilage remains in isolated areas  Bridge of the nose  Parts of ribs  Joints

28 Changes in the Human Skeleton Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Initially collagen fibers secreted by fibroblasts Cartilage deposited between the fibers Skeleton fully formed by 2 nd month of fetal development (all cartilage) Ossification begins after 8 th week of fetal development

29 Bone Growth Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  Epiphyseal plates allow for growth of long bone during childhood  New cartilage is continuously formed  Older cartilage becomes ossified  Cartilage is broken down  Bone replaces cartilage

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31 Bones of the Human Body Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings  The skeleton has 206 bones  Two basic types of bone tissue  Compact bone  Homogeneous  Spongy bone  Small needle-like pieces of bone  Many open spaces Figure 5.2b

32 Microscopic Anatomy of Bone Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 5.3

33 Based on the substance composition, the bone can be divided into hard bone and cartilage. Based on the characteristic of its motion, articulation is difference as –sinartrosis (dead joints)=sutura – amfiartrosis (stiff joints)= columnar vertebrate –diartrosis (joint motion)= the joint between femur and tibia

34 Relations between the bones with one another are called articulation or joint. According to the direction of motion, joint is distinguished as –bullets joint=shoulder with upper arm –hinge joints=elbow or knees –swivel joints=atlas bone with axis bone –saddle joints=finger and palm –sliding joints=palm and sool –joints kondiloid= hand wrist

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36 Based on the substance composition, the bone can be divided into hard bone and cartilage. Based on the characteristic of its motion, articulation is difference as –sinartrosis (dead joints)=sutura – amfiartrosis (stiff joints)= columnar vertebrate –diartrosis (joint motion)= the joint between femur and tibia

37 Relations between the bones with one another are called articulation or joint. According to the direction of motion, joint is distinguished as –bullets joint=shoulder with upper arm –hinge joints=elbow or knees –swivel joints=atlas bone with axis bone –saddle joints=finger and palm –sliding joints=palm and sool –joints kondiloid= hand wrist

38 MATERI STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT

39  Sebagai pembentuk rangka tubuh  Sebagai sistem gerak pasif karena adanya sendi  Sebagai penyimpan Kalsium, Fosfor, Natrium dan elemen lain  Sebagai penghasil sel-sel darah  Proteksi terhadap organ tubuh yang lemah  Pembentuk Limfosit B sebagai sistem immunologis tubuh STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG FUNGSI TULANG LANJUT

40 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG TENGKORAK = 28 BUAH TULANG SERVIK = 7 BUAH RANGKA AKSIAL TULANG TORAKAL = 12 BUAH TULANG LUMBAL = 5 BUAH TULANG SAKRUM = 5 BUAH TULANG KOKSIGEA = 4 BUAH TULANG RUSUK SEJATI = 7 PS TULANG RUSUK PALSU = 3 PS TULANG RUSUK MELAYANGTULANG RUSUK MELAYANG =2 PS TULANG DADA = 3 BUAH Rangka manusia terdiri atas RANGKA AKSIAL dan RANGKA APENDIKULER LANJUT Kembali

41 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG RANGKA APENDIKULER Rangka Apendikuler atau rangka tam- bahan Merupakan rangka pendukung gerak/lokomosi. Terdiri atas Tungkai Atas dan Tungkai Bawah TUNGKAI ATAS TUNGKAI BAWAH KEMBAL

42 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN-BAGIAN TUNGKAI ATAS Klavikula = 1 ps Skapula = 1 ps Humerus = 1 ps Ulna = 1 ps Radius = 1 ps Carpal = 1 ps Metacarpal = 4 ps Phalanges = 5 ps KEMBAL

43 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN-BAGIAN TUNGKAI BAWAH KOKSEA = 1 PASANG PETALA = 1 PASANG FEMUR = 1 PASANG FIBULA = 1 PASANG TIBIA = 1 PASANG TARSAL = 1 PASANG METATARSAL = 4 PASANG PALANGES = 5 PASANG KEMBALI

44 BAGIAN–BAGIAN PENYUSUN TULANG Bagian Penyusun Tulang Sumber :www.homepage.mac.com Epipise Proksimal Diapisis Episise Distal Tulang Spon Garis Epipise Arteri Medula Cavity Garis Epipise Tulang Kompak Sumsum Kuning Sumsum Merah Periosteum Tulang Kompak Periosteum Tulang Spon Endosteum

45 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG BAGIAN – BAGIAN TULANG TENGKORAK Sumber : TULANG-TULANG TENGKORAK KEMBAL

46 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI TULANG Bagian Penyusun Tulang Dada Sumber :www.medicalook.com/systems_images Jugular Tautan rusuk Jugular Sternal Angle Badan Kipoid Manubrium 3 Penghubung Klaikula 2 KEMBAL

47  Sebagai alat gerak aktif karena memiliki kemampuan Kontraksi, Ektensi dan Relaksasi  Sebagai Penyimpan gula dalam bentuk glikogen otot STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT FUNGSI OTOT MACAM OTOT STRUKTUR OTOT KONTRAKSI OTOT Kembali ANIMASI AKTIVASI OTOT ANIMASI KONTRAKSI OTOT

48 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT MACAM OTOT OTOT POLOSOTOT RANGKAOTOT JANTUNG Ciri dan fungsi a. Fusiform shape b. Involuntary c.One nuclei in the centre Ciri dan fungsi a. voluntary b. Has not branch c. Composed of miofibril Ciri dan fungsi a. involuntary b. Has branch c. Nuclei located in the middle Kembali

49 Tendon Selaput otot Epimisium Fasikulus Endomisium Sarkolema Sarkoplasma Mio fibril Nukleus Serabut Otot Perimisium STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT STRUKTUR OTOT Kembali

50 STRUKTUR DAN FUNGSI OTOT KONTRAKSI OTOT aktinMiosin Otot Berektensi 1.Zona H memanjang 2.Zona I memanjang 3.Band A melebar Miosin aktin Otot Relaksasi 1.Zona H normal 2.Zona I normal 3.Band A normal Miosin aktin Otot Berkontraksi 1.Zona H menyempit 2.Zona I memendek 3.Band A memendek Lanjut Kembali


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