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Restrukturisasi & Privatisasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia Onno W. Purbo Pensiunan PNS.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Restrukturisasi & Privatisasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia Onno W. Purbo Pensiunan PNS."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Restrukturisasi & Privatisasi Telekomunikasi Indonesia Onno W. Purbo Pensiunan PNS

3 Disclaimer Saya tidak objektif. Saya sangat bias dengan Internet. Berfikir alternatif. Di dominasi oleh SMEs. Transparan, copyleft, copywrong. Pembrontak, anti kemapanan. Bias oleh Conceptual Framework Nusantara-21

4 Pola / Langkah Berfikir Berawal dari tujuan yang jelas & spesifik. Independent Regulatory Body (IRB). Di jabarkan dalam strategi. Model – penting untuk melihat effek. Di tindak lanjuti dalam action.

5 Vision Traditional Society Knowledge based Society Infrastruktur Telematika Transformation vehicle

6 Tantangan Vision 1% Internet users < 5% densitas komputer < 5% densitas telepon

7 Visi.. Empower bangsa Indonesia menuju knowledged based society. Pendidikan adalah kunci utama. Encourage SME & Teleworker. Berpihak pada orang banyak, khususnya pihak yang produktif, menciptakan lapangan pekerjaan & mencegah disintegrasi bangsa. Encourage kompetisi.

8 Independent Regulatory Body

9 Separation of Regulatory & Operational Functions. Freedom from direct political pressure. Fair and transparent procedures. Delegation of board authority to an expert agency to establish rules and adjudicate dispute, to regulate in the public interest.

10 Ethical Conduct Standards of Ethical Conduct Conflict of Interest Financial Disclosure

11 Standards of Ethical Conduct Gifts from Outside Sources Gifts Between Employees Conflicting Financial Interests Impartiality in Performing Official Duties Seeking Other Employment Misuse of Position

12 Miscellaneous Ethics Provisions Political Activities Travel Expense Payments by Non- Government Sources Statutory Gift Acceptance Authority

13 Conflict of Interest Bribery Prohibition Representational Limitations Post-employment Restrictions Financial Conflicts of Interest

14 Financial Disclosure

15 IRB in plain text.. Transparan tarif perijinan. Transparan proses perijinan. Tidak ada uang di bawah meja.

16 Filosofi Naif Regulasi

17 Filosofi Dasar

18 Pola Regulatory Framework

19 Framework Regulasi Internet Norm / Value Law Konsensus / Market Driven Platform

20 Framework Regulasi Internet Norm / Value Nilai, Budaya, Agama. Law Konsensus / Market Driven Platform

21 Framework Regulasi Internet Norm / Value Law Hukum Pidana Hukum Perdata dll hukum yang lain. Konsensus / Market Driven Platform

22 Framework Regulasi Internet Norm / Value Law Konsensus / Market Driven konsensus open system. Konsensus International - RFC, IETF, dll. Konsensus player / aktor di Indonesia. Platform

23 Framework Regulasi Internet Norm / Value Law Konsensus / Market Driven Platform Internet - cepat & interaktif. Seminar - komunikasi satu arah. Workshop. MPR / DPR. Demonstrasi dll

24 Proses Pembuatan Regulasi Closed- pemerintah mengatur Expert- “expert” yang mengatur Open System- “masyarakat / pasar” mengatur (lebih banyak mengadopsi konsensus / kesepakatan).

25 Proses Pembuatan Regulasi Internet Internet memungkinkan interaksi masyarakat adopsi konsensus player adopsi keinginan masyarakat Moderator / Fasilitator dipegang oleh Pemerintah. Approval dilakukan oleh MPR & Society melalui mailing list.

26 Licensing Ensure licensees have the capacity to provide reasonably priced quality telecommunications to the largest segment of the population. Licensing options: no requirement of any license registration or notification of service being provided blanket licensing where all entities providing service are covered individual licensing after formal application and competitive selection individual licensing by auction

27 Licensing Procedures Open-entry policy, or may impose qualifying conditions, e.g., financial qualifications. Impose operating conditions, such as rules governing the conduct of telecommunications providers, that must be met after being authorized. These conditions are usually placed on classes of licenses. or are general regulations binding upon all service providers, although they may be tailored to specific issues raised in an individual license application.

28 Licensing in plan-text Tarif lisensi yang eksplisit & terbuka. Prosedur lisensi yang transparan.

29 Beberapa Model Struktur..

30

31 Model Usaha VoIP

32 Model Strategi.. Nusantara-21

33 N-21 Metaphor Knowledge Based Tele Education Telecom Infrastructure & Regulation Telecom & Informatics Resources Demand Pull Information Network Data / Info Creation Knowledge Management Quality Assurance Guide by the law Tele MedicineTele WorkingE-Commerce E-Bank / E-Finance IPTEKnetTourismPostal Services E-Commerce

34 N-21 Action Plan Pattern Legislative & Government Player Community / Market Competitive Action Plans

35 Government Service & Supporting Industries Operators Research & education institutions Should be voluntarily Acknowledgement / Copyright is held by each contributor / sponsor Concept Implementation Leadership Financing

36 Proposed Strategies

37 Regulation and National Goals Encourage private investment, Innovation and Infrastructure build-out. Promote fair competition. Manage Scarce Resources Efficiently. Promote the Public Interest Where the Market May Not.

38 Essential Function of Regulator Licensing. Rulemaking. Enforcement and adjudication. Management of scarce resources. Equipment approval. Telecommunication Standards.

39 Proposed Strategies Privatization, liberalization and competition throughout the communication market place. Empower educational institutions. Deregulation as competition develops Universal Access To Communication Service & Technology. Opportunity to underserved populations.

40 Overcoming Resistance Permit access to market that it does not serve. Use greater pricing flexibility. Reduce and remove certain regulatory oversight. Create incentive for network development Slow the introduction of competition

41 Competitor will want.. Clear terms and conditions and fair prices for interconnection. The ability to select network elements and locate its own equipment in the incumbent carrier’s switching facilities. Viable resale opportunities access to spectrum access to rights of way

42 Method in introducing competition Facilities-based competition unbundling the network elements resale

43 Competition Success Key Interconnection Internet Exchange (max. 3 hops) Minute Exchange (auction) Bandwidth Exchange

44 Competitive Safeguard

45 Protection from Market Power Outright Prohibition on Providing the Competitive Product or Service Price Caps for Regulated Monopoly Services. Separate Subsidiary Requirement. Tariffing Requirements. Accounting Separation. Imputation Requirements.

46 Protection from Market Power Service Quality Reporting Requirements Resale Requirements Unbundling Requirements. Comparably Efficient Interconnection Requirements. Network Interface Disclosure Requirement Customer Proprietary Network Information Requirements.

47 Protection from Market Power Prompt and Sure Resolution of Dispute

48 Action Plan (Real Example) Internet Case Referensi: Master Plan IT POSTEL

49 Internet Reg’l Strategy Hands Off Regulatory Approach Principles to Promote NII Competition Investment Technological Neutrality

50 Scope / Objektif / Tujuan Meningkatkan Aksesibilitas 2003 – 20 juta.

51 Potensi Massa wartel/net 1300 Univ 4000 SMK SMU Pesantren Bisnis / Perkantoran Share Resources ~30 juta orang ~5 juta orang ~4 juta orang ~7 juta orang ~10 juta orang Reduce Cost

52 Persentasi Potensi Massa Umum Pendidikan Profesional Total di Pusat Massa Kebutuhan SSL ~30 juta ~23 juta ~10 juta ~63 juta ~ line

53 Expektasi Aplikasi Internet Berkomunikasi (2 arah) Suara (VoIP) , chatting, video conf. Sumber Informasi (1 arah) Community Telecenter Information Retrieval, browser Internet sbg sumber Informasi Servis (transactional) e-government teleducation

54 Expektasi Content Pendidikan Bisnis (profesional) Bisnis (UKM)

55 Kondisi Hari ini..

56 Definisi IT Communication Computer Content (Broadcast)

57 Infrastruktur PC 2.2 juta PC Diperkirakan 1% dari 220 juta penduduk dapat akses ke PC.

58 Telekom Servis Dasar 6.08 juta satuan sambungan; 2.8% penetrasi. 3 sambungan untuk setiap 100 orang Indonesia. 2.2 juta pengguna telepon selular. Telkomsel memiliki 1.1 juta subscriber & adalah pengguna SIMPATI.

59 Telekom Non-Dasar 76 pager. 8 public VSAT operator. 4-5 GMPCS license issued. 1 cable tv operator licensed.

60 Internet di Indonesia

61 ISP & APJII 139 Lisensi ISP 66 Aktif menawarkan layanan Lebih 100 kota, seluruh propinsi Fasilitas Bersama APJII APJII IIX APJII IDNIC Domain Registration & NIR (APNIC)

62 Izin Prinsip & Izin Operasional Sumber : Dirjen Postel

63 Pertumbuhan Domain Baru Sumber : IDNIC

64 Pertumbuhan Domain Baru Sumber : IDNIC

65 Jumlah Pelanggan & Pemakai Sumber : APJII

66 Distribusi Pelanggan

67 Program APJII Program SEKOLAH-2000 Interconnect sekolah menengah Program Kerjasama National Certification Authority Internet Masuk Wartel Business Information Center & Trade Point dlsb

68 Pola Fikir Master Plan

69 Pola Berfikir Master Plan

70 Existing SDM Tingkat Pendidikan Masyarakat IT literacy Demand creation Infrastruktur Regulasi Aplikasi

71 Faktor External Global Teknologi

72 Penghambat Budaya Aspek Sosial Pola fikir

73 Rekomendasi Pendidikan Services Dll..

74 Model Jaringan Internet

75

76 Model Global Aplikasi Internet Infrastruktur Telekomunikasi

77 Infrastruktur Telekom 1 arah (broadcast) 2 arah (interaktif) Terbuka untuk semua jenis trafik (voice & data).

78 Infrastruktur Telekom 1 arah (broadcast) Frekuensi Radio (TV, satelit, radio) Kabel (kabel TV)

79 Infrastruktur Telekom 2 arah (interaktif) Bergerak Terrestrial Selular GMPCS Tetap Akses Network Circuit Switch (POTS, xDSL FTTH/C) Packet Switch (ATM, FR) Leased line Kabel (E1) Radio (VSAT, WLAN, IR, MMDS, LMDS) Cable TV (HFC)

80 Strategi

81 Strategi SDM (Meningkatkan Demand) Mendorong pemanfaatan internet di pendidikan. Mendorong sosialisasi / awareness. Insentif untuk R&D + pengembangan pengetahuan untuk disebarluaskan ke masyarakat. (Masalah Hak Cipta).

82 Proyeksi Pertumbuhan Pengguna Internet (x 1000)

83 Strategi Infrastruktur Teknologi Netral – membuka kesempatan pemilihan teknologi. kemudahan pemanfaatan bandwidth asing (satelit & cable) utk mendapatkan harga yang kompetitif. Mengembangkan kemudahan akses Internasional. Interkoneksi hukumnya wajib sekali.

84 Strategi Infrastruktur - Frekuensi Empower Frekuensi untuk akses data; konsep reuse, share resource. Frekuensi - Kemudahan, Keterbukaan, alokasi frekuensi menjadi public document. Dukung unified messaging – SMS eXchange, , fax.

85 Strategi Infrastruktur - Kabel Koordinasi PEMDA - standar proses perijinan (gali kabel, warnet). Liberalisasi pembangunan jaringan kabel.

86 Strategi Infrastruktur Aksesibilitas Fokus pada pusat komunitas. Umum, Pendidikan & Profesional. Kemudahan Terminal. Pengembangan konsep sharing akses – managemen building, rt/rw-net, kelurahan-net, kecamatan-net.

87 Strategi USO Lembaga USO transparan – ambil dari revenue; masukan ke sebuah account & open utk public bid (disesuaikan dg otonomi daerah). USO – untuk semua operator jaringan & jasa (termasuk VoIP harus ada USO-nya). USO digunakan untuk mencapai target (digunakan di akses, content, aplikasi).

88 Strategi Regulasi di IT Sisi pemerintah “hands off policy” & sebagai pengawasan + pengendalian (arbitrator). Sisi player – mengembangkan konsensus (contoh formatur WLI). Lisensi dibatasi bila terkait dengan resource yang terbatas. Adjustment terhadap otonomi daerah.

89 Program Demand meng-create Supply. Jangan Supply meng-create Demand.

90 Program Sosialisasi Bimbingan / pendidikan untuk pusat massa yang sifatnya komersial (warnet? Kantor?) Penerbitan buku / CD IT berbahasa Indonesia. Sekolah 2000, JIS Roadshow, Seminar, Workshop.

91 Program Infrastuktur Liberalisasi Operator Kemudahan lisensi servis IP-based. USO akses Internet bagi ISP (tidak harus gratis) menginternetkan pendidikan. Lebih agresif untuk bergabung ke konsorsium penggelaran kabel laut. Peering Internet regional. Mewajibkan Interkoneksi 3 hop max. antar operator / penyelenggara.

92 Program Infrastruktur Frek ISM Band 2.4, 3.3, 5 & 5.8 GHz dimudahkan. Gratis untuk pendidikan. Penggunaan satelit asing.

93 Program Infrastruktur Kabel USO line untuk pusat massa line untuk pusat massa line murah utk internet pendidikan.

94 Program Regulasi PEMDA “hands off” di birokrasi / ijin. PAD PEMDA dari pajak pengusaha IT di daerah. Empowerment regulator (context pengawasan & pengendalian). Kemudahan & keterbukaan proses perijinan. Transparansi performance & kualitas penyelenggara kepada masyarakat. Penerapan modern licensing (hak & kewajiban operator thd masyarakat).

95 Rekomendasi Terminal Murah Bebas tax / bea masuk (nego dengan INDAG & DEPKEU). Empower Pendidikan. Pendidikan jauh terakreditasi di ijinkan (DIKTI). Pengembangan digital library network. Penyelenggara Jaringan Terbuka untuk semua jenis traffik (voice & data). Insentif untuk konten


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