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Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Ph.D Research Group in Regional and Rural Planning SAPPK-ITB RURAL PLANNING: Introduction.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Ph.D Research Group in Regional and Rural Planning SAPPK-ITB RURAL PLANNING: Introduction."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Djoko Santoso Abi Suroso, Ph.D Research Group in Regional and Rural Planning SAPPK-ITB RURAL PLANNING: Introduction

2 CURRICULUM Changes in Curriculum Sarjana: Tata Desa (80s) Perencanaan Pertanian (80s) Kuliah Kerja Nyata (80s) Perencanaan Pertanian dan Perdesaan + KKN Profesi (90s) Perencanaan Perdesaan (90-now) Curriculum 2008: from PL 4… to PL 3… Magister: Pembangunan Perdesaan (80s-now)

3 Minggu ke Topik BahasanTujuan 1 Garis besar struktur kuliah, tugas.Tujuan dn lingkup Cara penilaian Reference Memahami tujuan, lingkup dan sasaran kuliah. Menyiapkan Bahan bacaan wajib dan tugas2 2 Memahami Pendekatan Perencanaan PedesaanPengenalan dasar teori, dan pendekatan perencanaan pembangunan di Pedesaan 3 Pengenalan teori Keterbelakangan dan KetergantunganMemahami aspek-aspek kemiskinan dan permasalahannya 4 Masalah2 involusi pertanian dalam kehidupan PedesaanMemahami aspek-aspek pertanian dan perkembangan desa dan pedesaan 5 Peranan Pertanian pangan dan produk lainnya dalam Pembangunan Nasional Memahami peranan penting desa dalam mendukung pertumbuhan Ekonomi 6 Paradigma Dualistik Ekonomi PedesaanMemahami Dinamika Keterbelakangan dan Ketergantungan Ekonomi Desa 7 Ekonomi Rumah Tangga Petani dan industrialisasi pedesaan Memahami dasar-dasar Ekonomi Rumah Tangga Petani, In- Out Farm, Nelayan dan industry pedesaan 8 Konsep-konsep Dasar Rumah Tradisional Permukiman Pedesaan Memahami Kearifan Lokal dalam membangun rumah tradisional dan typology Desa 9 Ujian Tengah SEMESTER 10 Aspek Sumberdaya Alam Lingkungan PedesaanMemahami pengetahuan dasar tentang pembentukan tanah, klasifikasi tanah untuk pertanian dan penggunaan tanah lainnya. 11 Konservasi Sumberdaya LahanMemahami pengetahuan tentang cara-cara konservasi dan pencegahan bencana longsor 12 Infrastruktur Pedesaan dan Infrastruktur WilayahMemahami infrastruktur sosial-ekonomi Pedesaan (jalan, irigasi, listrik, pasar, sekolah dll) 13 Mitigasi Bencana Kawasan PedesaanMemahami faktor2 penyebab bencana alam pedesaan 14 Konsep dan Model Perencanaan Desa /Village PlanMembahas kasus Perencanaan Desa pasca Tsunami 15 Design and Modeling Pusat Pertumbuhan DesaMembahas Model PU dlm menetapkan Pusat Pertumbuhan Desa 16 P5D, Pola Desa dan FGD dalam MusrenbangDesMembahas Prosedur Perencanaan Pembangunan Desa

4 Assessment UTS =25% UAS=40% Tugas 1 =10% Tugas 2 =10% Tugas 3 =10% Aktivitas Kelas= 5%

5 Perencanaan Perdesaan Memberikan pemahaman tentang berbagai pendekatan dalam perencanaan pembangunan Pedesaan dengan memberikan kerangka teori dasar Pembangunan Desa dan Wilayah. Masalah-masalah dasar sumberdaya alam pedesaan, sumberdaya manusia dan pergeseran-pergeseran social-budaya-ekonomi di Pedesaan dengan berbagai tipologi Desa, secara intensif perlu didiskusikan untuk memahami persoalan-persoalan dasar pedesaan sebelum merumuskan pendekatan perencanaan pedesaan itu sendiri. Dengan demikian diharapkan mhs mampu merumuskan pendekatan perencanaan pembangunan Desa

6 AIMS Memahami Aspek-aspek penting untuk Typologi Pedesaan Memahami Teori-teori Sosial, Ekonomi dan Administrasi Desa Pendekatan Komprehensif dalam Perencanaan Desa An introduction to: Rural development perspectives Rural problems Rural changes Planning for rural areas Approach: Integrated, holistic, regional approach  rural is part of regional systems

7 References/Bibliography 1. Chambers, R., 1988 :Pembangunan Desa Mulai Dari Belakang (terj). LP3ES, Jakarta 2. Geertz, C., 1983: Involusi Pertanian :Proses Perubahan Ecologi di Indonesia (terj. Bhatara Karya Aksara, Jakarta. 3. Hansen, D.E.: Agriculture and Rural Development in Indonesia.” Westview, Boulder 4..Hayami, Y dan M Kikuck, 1987: Dilemna Ekonomi Desa. Yayasan Obor Indonesia, Jakarta. 5. ESCAP.1978, Guideline for Rural Center Planning. Bangkok. 6. Herington, J., “Planning Process: An Introduction for Geographer”, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Johnston, RJ., “ City and Society: An Outline for Urban Geography”, Unwin Hyman, Boston, Lipton, 1974, “Why the Poor People stay Poor”, John Willey, London

8 DEFINITION Rural = non-urban area (residual approach) UU 26/2007: Kawasan Perdesaan: wilayah yang mempunyai kegiatan utama pertanian, termasuk pengelolaan sumber daya alam dengan susunan fungsi kawasan sebagai tempat permukiman perdesaan, pelayanan jasa pemerintahan, pelayanan sosial, dan kegiatan ekonomi. Kawasan perkotaan: wilayah yang mempunyai kegiatan utama bukan pertanian, dengan susunan fungsi kawasan sebagai tempat permukiman perkotaan, pemusatan dan distribusi pelayanan jasa pemerintahan, pelayanan sosial, dan kegiatan ekonomi

9 continued Urban is defined based on: Population Economic structure Urban facilities Rural is not similar with villages (desa) or hamlets (dusun)  lower order settlement units

10 RURAL CHARACTERISTICS ‘Rural’ in Less Developed Countries (LDCs) is not similar with ‘rural’ in Developed Countries Characteristics: Physical attributes Social aspects Economic aspects

11 WHY BOTHER Rural  an important spatial element, despite urbanization Rural problems  national concerns: Poverty and backwardness Rural-urban inequalities Internal rural inequalities Functions of rural areas: Community Agricultural production Recreation Ecological functions

12 STRUCTURAL CHANGES Incomes Output Industry & Services Agriculture

13 RURAL PLANNING Planning  for development Development: Acceleration of changes Expansion of productive capacity Improvement of rural situations Coping with macro changes Realization of social/community capacity  participation Rural development = modernization? Rural development = rural transformation? Rural development = accelerated urbanization?

14 Rural Development (World Bank, 1975) Strategy designed to improve the economic and social life of…the rural poor…Since rural development is intended to reduce poverty, it must be clearly designed to increase production and raise productivity…it is concerned with the modernation and monetization of rural society, and with its transition from traditional isolation to integration with the national economy.

15 MODERNIZATION Traditional vs modern society Rural backwardness  lacks of modern elements Modernization  transformation of various aspects (accelerated changes): Economy  industry Social  value systems, life style Physical  adequate housing, infrastructure and facilities Inducement of modernity (via technology, education etc) Critiques: Similar path of changes in society? Convergence vs divergence thesis Disappearing traditionalism?

16 RURAL TRANSFORMATION Economic elements/activities/work Social elements/people/folk Physical elements/space/place Transformation means changes, not preservation!!

17 INCLUSIVE RURAL DEVELOPMENT (ADB)

18 Rural Planning (Escap, 1979) Rural Planning entails more than planning for agriculture development, the landless and near-landless, for instance, are more likely to become victims rather than recipients of increased agricultural productivity

19 RURAL PROBLEMS

20 POVERTY: The Biggest Challenge It includes many aspects of incapacity (economically, socially, politically) It is in tandem with inadequate living conditions It brings about impacts on the environment It creates social and political problems It is a persistent problem It Contradicts with Humanity!!

21 Inequalities: The Next Challenge Rural-urban Internal rural areas

22 Poverty Defined Based on absolute measures (income)  basic living requirements Based on relative terms  socially constructed

23 Children of Rural Nepal

24 Children of Rural Papua

25 Children of Sumba

26 Poor or Friendly to the Environment?

27 Poverty Map

28 The Biggest Challenge: Poverty

29

30 Rural Problems Population growth Limited resources Limited infrastructure and facilities Low Productivity Rural Poverty Urban bias policy Inadequate knowledge & skills

31 Factors of Poverty Internal to rural areas: Population/people Activities Productive assets Resources (natural and man-made) External to rural areas: National policies Global factors

32 Levels of Explanation Individual: Less productive attitude and behavior Community: Local culture Local resources/assets Macro: Policy of local government Impeding national and global factors

33 Is Globalization Good? Asymmetric relations between LDCs and DCs  neo colonialism It increases competition It creates opportunity (for whom)

34 Is Rural-urban Migration Good? Relies on urban industrialization Urban capacity to cope with the influx of rural people The capacity of rural-urban migrants Impacts on food/agricultural production?

35 Is Agrarian Reform Necessary? Availability of land Economic and political consequences

36 Rural Problems: The National Government Says Limited employment Limited economic linkages sectorally and spatially Barriers to interregional trade Risk and vulnerability of farmers and business actors Limited assets of rural people Low services Low quality of human resources Conversion of fertile-irrigated land Environmental degradation Institution and community organization weaknesses Problems of coordination

37 PERSPECTIVES ON RURAL DEVELOPMENT

38 Rancabali, Southern Bandung

39 Damai dan Sehat (tapi Capai?)

40 Real Gotong Royong

41

42 BIG QUESTIONS Do we need (rural) development?: Planning (developmentalism) vs market mechanism Ethical issues If YES, how should (rural) development be undertaken?: Many theories and approaches Various experiences

43 WHAT PERSPECTIVE Paradigms or theoretical orientations to guide development actions Theories of development mostly are empirically constructed Development may result from ‘trial and error’ Universal vs specific, particular, local approach Universal principles of rural development has to be adjusted to the local context

44 PERSPECTIVES Modernization Dependency, the world systems Industry led development/growth strategy Agriculture led development Equitable development/basic needs approach Balanced development Rural-regional development Sustainable development People centered development Locally based, indigenous development and others

45 DEPENDENCY & WORLD SYSTEMS (Rural) underdevelopment is caused by structural impediments Division of labor among nations  sustaining colonialism Exploitation of ‘peripheries’ by ‘cores’ (international and national)  supported by elites Rural-urban linkages  intensify exploitation World systems: Cores, semi-peripheries, peripheries Chances to move up-ward in the hierarchy of nations

46 INDUSTRY LED/GROWTH STRATEGY Part of the modernization approach Industry is a leading and dynamic sector  urban industrialization, growth st For LDCs: import substitution industrialization Spatially  growth pole (centers) strategy Urban bias Critiques: Rural-urban inequalities, persistence of rural poverty Urban problems

47 What?!

48 Over-urbanization

49 AGRICULTURE LED Under modernization approach Agriculture is a dynamic sector (Johnston and Mellor) Increasing agricultural productivity is important (neo classic views: land, labor, capital, technology) The next stage: agro-industry

50 EQUITABLE DEVELOPMENT/ BASIC NEEDS Dissatisfaction with industrialization led/urban bias Mainstreaming rural issues Attacking rural poverty directly through basic needs: food, clothes, shelter, health, education For rural: appropriate technology, labor intensive programs

51 BALANCED DEVELOPMENT Growth and equity Acknowledging the positive role of urban areas Increasing rural productivity + the provision of infrastructure and facilities Urban and rural linkages


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