The circulatory system carries blood and dissolved substances to and from different places in the body. The Heart has the job of pumping these things around the body. The Heart pumps blood and substances around the body in tubes called blood vessels. The Heart and blood vessels together make up the Circulatory System. What is the circulatory system?
Heart contraction : Sistole Heart relaxation : Diastole THE MECHANISM OF HEART
Darah dari ventrikel kanan akan dipompa melalui katup pulmoner ke dalam arteri pulmonalis, menuju ke paru-paru. Darah akan mengalir melalui pembuluh yang sangat kecil (kapiler) yang mengelilingi kantong udara di paru-paru, menyerap oksigen dan melepaskan karbondioksida yang selanjutnya dihembuskan. Darah yang kaya akan oksigen mengalir di dalam vena pulmonalis menuju ke atrium kiri. Peredaran darah diantara bagian kanan jantung, paru-paru dan atrium kiri disebut sirkulasi pulmoner.
Darah dalam atrium kiri akan didorong ke dalam ventrikel kiri, yang selanjutnya akan memompa darah yang kaya akan oksigen ini melewati katup aorta masuk ke dalam aorta (arteri terbesar dalam tubuh). Aorta ini bercabang menjadi arteri lebih kecil yang mengantarkan darak ke gabian-bagian tubuh tertentu. Arteri ini bercabang dan beranting menjadi arteriol yang mengantarkan darah ke tissu sel. Arteriol membentuk cabang-cabang yaitu kapiler, tempat pertukaran zat antara tissu sel dengan pembuluh darah terjadi. Lalu kapiler bersatu di venula. Venula-venula bersatu menjadi vena yang membawa kembali darah ke jantung. Darah kaya oksigen ini disediakan untuk seluruh tubuh, kecuali paru-paru.
3 TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS 1.Capillaries: Microscopic blood vessels- make contact with all cells of the body Walls of capillaries consist of a thin layer of epithelial tissue enables diffusion of nutrients and oxygen out of the blood & the diffusion of waste products into the blood 2.Arteries: Blood flows from the heart to the capillaries through thick walled blood vessels = arteries Walls of arteries = epithelial tissue wrapped in layers of smooth muscle and connective tissue Muscle tissue enables arteries to constrict & dilate; Blood in arteries is under pressure due to the heart’s pumping action
3 TYPES OF BLOOD VESSELS 3. Veins: Blood returns from the capillaries to the heart through vessels = veins Walls of veins consist of epithelial tissue surrounded by smooth muscle & connective tissue… but muscle layer is thinner than that in arteries Blood is under little pressure Contracting skeletal muscles squeezes the veins and forces blood back to the heart
Blood is a transportation device of important substances in the body. It is a special tissue composed of liquid matrix of plasma and blood cells. red blood cell platelets white blood cell plasma
Pumped by our heart. Travels through thousands of miles of blood vessels Carries nutrients, water, oxygen and waste products to and from our body cells. The ratio of plasma and blood cell is 55 : 45
Plasma is the liquid part of the blood About half of our blood is made of plasma The plasma carries the blood cells throughout the body Plasma is used to regulate the blood osmotic pressure. Plasma is made in the liver. The composition of plasma is mostly water (90%) and the other 10 % are protein, amino acid, sugar, vitamin, mineral salt, enzyme, hormone and antibodies, gas, and metabolic residue.
RED BLOOD ( ERYTHROCITE ) Erythrocyte has biconcave – shaped structure and has no nucleus Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to all the cells of the body. Takes carbon dioxide and transports it back to the lungs About 5,000,000 Red Blood Cells in ONE drop of blood. ( 5 million per 1mm 3 )
Get color from hemoglobin Made in red bone marrow Circulate for 120 days The plateles have a large amount of Hemoglobin (Hb) Hemoglobin is a complex protein that has iron – containing nucleus. It performs the function of carrying O 2 and CO 2. RED BLOOD ( ERYTHROCITE )
LEUKOCYTE Leukocyte is produced in red marrow, lymphoid tissues, and lympatic glands The number of leukocyte of a person is normally about 6000 – 9000 white blood cells per mm 3. White blood cell can be classified into two types, granular and agranular cell. Granular cell consist of neuthrophil, basophil, and eosinophil. Agranular consist of lympocytes and mnocytes. Function : defend the body against infectious disease by “eating” the agent causing disease, called phagocytosis.
TROMBOSIT Trombosit cells have irregular shape, smaller, than other blood cells, and no nucleus. The normal number of thrombocyte is about 200.000 – 300.000 The special function of the cell is for blood formation
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM a.Anemia Anemia is a blood deficiency disease. It can be caused by nutrition deficiency that results in iron deficiency as a material to form Hb (Hb deficiency)or simply because the number of erythrocyte that is below the normal range. Anemia is not genetic disorder.
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM b.Leukemia Leukemia is a blood cancer signed by very large amount of white blood cells because its production cannot be controlled. ( up to 20.000 ) The conditions leads blood cells eat or destruct the red blood cells. The leukimia patient becomes very weak or even dies.
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM c.Varicose Vein Varicose vein is a vein enlargement. It is suffered mostly by adult or elderly persons. Most of the vein enlargement occurs in leg area ( calf, thigh ) or anus. Varicose vein on anus is called hemorrhoids.
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM d.Sclerosis Sclerosis is a hardening of arteries. It causes disturbance of bloodstream. Sclerosis is caused by the formation of fatty plaques called atherosclerosis and by the thickening with plaque which is called arteriosclerosis.
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM e.Hypertension Hypertension is a condition in which a person has high blood pressure. Hypertension is caused by several factors : Age, diet, genetics Uncontrolled hypertension can lead to kidney and stroke or the burst of blood vessel on head ( pecahnya pembuluh darah di kepala )
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM f.Hypotension Hypotension is an abnormally low blood pressure signed by systolic / diastolic pressure under 100/80 mmHg
DISORDER AND DISEASE OF CIRCULATORY SYSTEM g.Hemophilia Hemophilia is a blood disorder in which the ability of blood to clot is impaired at injury. It is a genetic disease caused by inability of blood to form blood coagulator factor.