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ASESMEN KLINIS: TES PROYEKTIF. Sejarah William Shakespeare menulis ttg kualitas proyektif awan, William Stern m’gunakan awan sbg stimulus tes, Sir Francis.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ASESMEN KLINIS: TES PROYEKTIF. Sejarah William Shakespeare menulis ttg kualitas proyektif awan, William Stern m’gunakan awan sbg stimulus tes, Sir Francis."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ASESMEN KLINIS: TES PROYEKTIF

2 Sejarah William Shakespeare menulis ttg kualitas proyektif awan, William Stern m’gunakan awan sbg stimulus tes, Sir Francis Galton (1879) menyarankan metode asosiasi kata, & Kraeplin m’gunakannya, Binet & Henri (1896) bereksperimen dgn gambar sbg alat proyektif, Alfred Adler meminta pasiennya utk me- recall ingatan pertamanya yg jg mrp pdkt proyektif. Adanya teknik proyektif oleh Herman Rorschach th 1921 yg m’jelaskan penggunaan bercak tinta sbg metode utk m’diagnosa psikopatologi

3 1920, David Levy m’bawa bercak tinta ke Amerika, lalu Beck, Klopfer, & Hertz mulai m’ajarkan kursus Rorscach 1935, Morgan & Murray mengenalkan Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) 1938, Murray menjelaskan proses proyeksi Kata ‘Proyektif’ populer stlh papernya L. K. Frank di th 1939 dlm metode proyektif

4 Karakteristik Teknik Proyektif 1.In response to unstructured or ambiguous stimulus, examinees are forced to impose their own structure and, in so doing, reveal something of themselves (needs, wishes, & conflict). 2.The stimulus material is unstructured 3.The method is indirect 4.There is freedom of response 5. Response interpretation deals with more variables

5 Pengukuran & Standardisasi Standardisasi The dissenters argue that interpretations from projective cannot be standardized – every person is unique, & any normative descriptions will inevitably be misleading – so many interacting variables that standardized interpretive approaches would surely destroy the holistic nature of projective test  interpretation is an art

6 Reliabilitas How many differences between two stories are permissible? One can bypass test responses altogether & deal only with the realibility of the personality interpretations made by clinicians  May confound the reliability of the test with the reliability of the judge Test-retest reliability may be affected by psychological changes in the individual, particularly when dealing with patient population

7 Validitas Proyektif digunakan utk beragam tujuan  - Apakah TAT valid? - Apakah Rorschach mrp tes kepribadian yg bagus?  Pertanyaan harus lebih spesifik: - Apakah TAT m’prediksikan keagresifan di situasi A? - Apakah skor X dari Rorschach b’korelasi dgn penilaian kecemasan secara klinis?

8 The Rosrchach Ada bbrp pdkt umum Rorschach yg b’beda2  Menyusahkan dlm reliabilitas & validitas  Menyusahkan dlm interpretasi hasil di penelitian2 & p’generalisasian dari satu studi ke studi yg lain  Diharapkan, respon2 Roschach diberi skor dgn cara yg sama oleh para rater independen.

9 Skoring  Location, content, determinants Deskripsi - Tdd dari 10 kartu dgn bercak tinta yg simetris kanan- kirinya - 5 kartu hitam putih (dgn bayangan abu2) & lainnya b’warna Administrasi ?

10 Rorschach Inkblot “Method” - Weiner (1994): The Rorschach is best conceptualized as a method of data collection, not a test. - Implikasi lain mnrt Weiner: 1. Data generated from the Rorschach method can be interpreted from a variety of theoretical positions 2. Practical implication is that viewing the Rorschach as a method allows one to fully use all aspects of the data that are generated, resulting in a more thorough diagnostic evaluation

11 The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) Diperkenalkan oleh Morgan & Murray th 1935 Tujuan: To reveal patients’ basic personality characteristics through the interpretation of their imaginative productions in response to a series of pictures. Although the test is designed to reveal central conflicts, attitudes, goals, & repressed material, it actually produces material that is a collage of these plus situational influences, cultural stereotypes, trivia, etc.  Klinisi harus bisa m’bedakan mana yg pokok & penting, & mana yg tidak

12 Banyak klinisi m’gunakan TAT sbg metode utk mengetahui kebutuhan psikologis (achievement, afiliasi, ketergantungan, kekuatan, seks, dsb) & cara indvd b’interaksi dgn lingkungannya Deskripsi - Tdd dari 31 kartu TAT (satu kartu adalah blank card ) - Digunakan utk boys & men, girls & women, dan kedua2nya. - Murray menyarankan p’gunaan 20 kartu dari 31 kartu yg ada. - TAT tdk se-ambigu Rorschach

13 - Gbr2 di TAT jelas m’gambarkan orang, tapi tdk selalu jelas gender, siapa, apa yg dilakukan, dan apa yg dipikirkan orang tsb. Administrasi ? Skoring ? Reliabilitas Since one cannot expect word-for-word similarity from one occasion to the next, one is usually studying the reliability of judges’ interpreations

14 Validitas Bbrp usaha utk menegakkan validitas TAT: 1. Comparison of TAT interpretations with case data or with therapist evaluations of the patient 2. Matching techniques and analyses of protocol with no additional knowledge about the patient 3. Comparison between cilinical diagnoses derived from the TAT and psychiatrist’ judgment 4. Establishment of the validity of certai general principles of interpretations


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