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1 Pertemuan 2 Function & Pointer Matakuliah: T0044/Pemrograman Berorientasi Obyek Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pertemuan 2 Function & Pointer Matakuliah: T0044/Pemrograman Berorientasi Obyek Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pertemuan 2 Function & Pointer Matakuliah: T0044/Pemrograman Berorientasi Obyek Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : menjelaskan prinsip kerja function menjelaskan prinsip kerja pointer

3 3 Outline Materi Function Definitions Function Prototypes Recursion vs. Iteration Inline Functions Default Arguments Function Overloading Pointer Operator

4 4 Pendahuluan Functions membagi program ke dlm komponen program (modularisasi program) agar mudah di di-manage Modules: functions dan classes Programs dapat mengunakan modul baru dan “prepackaged” modules –Modul baru: programmer-defined functions, classes –Prepackaged: dari standard library (mis. Library Math) Functions dipanggil oleh function call –Berupa function name dan argument Analogy: Boss ke anak buah –Boss (calling function or caller) minta anak buahnya (called function) untuk melakukan task dan melaporkan (return) hasilnya.

5 5 Mendefinisikan Function Format function definition return-value-type function-name ( parameter-list ) { declarations and statements } –Return-value-type Data type hasil return ( void if nothing to returned) –Parameter list Deklarasi variable lokal yg dipisahkan oleh koma yg dikirim ke function Untuk mendapatkan informasi dari luar function If no arguments, use void or leave blank

6 6 Contoh Fungsi int square( int y ) { return y * y; } keyword return –Returns data, dan control ke function’s caller If no data to return, use return; atau void pada return value type

7 7 Function Prototypes Memberitahukan compiler tentang tipe argument dan return type function int square( int ); Detail definisi fungsi ditulis nanti Function prototype berisi –Function name –Parameters –Return type ( void if return nothing)

8 8 Function Prototypes Function Prototype harus sama dengan function definition –Function prototype double maximum( double, double, double ); –Function Definition double maximum( double x, double y, double z ) { … } Function signature –Adalah nama dan parameter function double maximum( double, double, double ); Function signature

9 9 Argument Coercion –Arguments dapat memaksa type tertentu Converting int (4) to double (4.0) cout << sqrt(4) –Aturan konversi Argument secara otomatis di-convert Mengubah double menjadi int dapat memotong data 3.4 menjadi 3 Mixed type menjadi highest type (promotion) Int * double  double

10 10 Header files Header files berisi –Function prototypes –Definisi data types dan constant Header files berakhiran.h –Programmer-defined header files #include “myheader.h” –Library header files #include

11 11 Recursion Recursive functions –Functions that call themselves –Hanya dapat menyelesaikan base case Jika tidak base case –Pecahkan problem ke dalam smaller problems –Buat function baru yg bekerja di smaller problem (recursive call/recursive step) Slowly converges towards base case Function makes call to itself inside the return statement

12 12 Contoh Rekursi: Faktorial n! = n * ( n – 1 ) * ( n – 2 ) * … * 1 –Recursive relationship  n! = n * ( n – 1 )! 5! = 5 * 4! 4! = 4 * 3!… –Base case  1! = 0! = 1 unsigned long factorial( unsigned long number ) { if ( number <= 1 ) // base case return 1; else return number * factorial( number - 1 ); }

13 13 Contoh Rekursi: Deret Fibonacci Deret Fibonacci fib(n) = fib(n-1) + fib(n-2) 0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8... C++ code for Fibonacci function long fibonacci( long n ) { if ( n == 0 || n == 1 ) // base case return n; else return fibonacci( n - 1 ) + fibonacci( n – 2 ); }

14 14 Recursion vs. Iteration Repetition –Iteration: explicit loop –Recursion: repeated function calls Termination –Iteration: loop condition fails –Recursion: base case recognized Both can have infinite loops

15 15 Inline Functions Inline functions –Keyword inline before function –Asks the compiler to copy code into program instead of making function call Reduce function-call overhead Compiler can ignore inline –Good for small and often-used functions Example inline double cube( const double s ) { return s * s * s; } –const tells compiler that function does not modify s

16 16 Call by value vs Call by reference Call by value –Copy of data passed to function –Changes to copy do not change original –Prevent unwanted side effects Call by reference –Function can directly access data –Changes affect original

17 17 Reference parameter –Alias for argument in function call Passes parameter by reference –Use & after data type in prototype void myFunction( int &data ) Read “ data is a reference to an int ” –Function call format the same However, original can now be changed

18 18 Default Arguments Function call with omitted parameters –If not enough parameters, rightmost go to their defaults –Default values Can be constants, global variables, or function calls Set defaults in function prototype int myFunction( int x = 1, int y = 2, int z = 3 ); –myFunction(3) x = 3, y and z get defaults (rightmost) –myFunction(3, 5) x = 3, y = 5 and z gets default

19 19 Function Overloading Function overloading –Functions with same name and different parameters –Should perform similar tasks I.e., function to square int s and function to square float s int square( int x) {return x * x;} float square(float x) { return x * x; } Overloaded functions dibedakan oleh signature –Based on name and parameter types (order matters) –Name mangling Encodes function identifier with parameters –Type-safe linkage Ensures proper overloaded function called

20 20 DEKLARASI POINTER Variabel Pointer –Contain memory addresses as values –Normally, variable contains specific value (direct reference) –Pointers contain address of variable that has specific value (indirect reference) Indirection –Referencing value through pointer Pointer declarations –* indicates variable is pointer int *myPtr; declares pointer to int, pointer of type int * –Multiple pointers require multiple asterisks int *myPtr1, *myPtr2; –Can declare pointers to any data type Pointer initialization –Initialized to 0, NULL, or address 0 or NULL points to nothing

21 21 POINTER OPERATORS & (address operator) –Returns memory address of its operand –Example int y = 5; int *yPtr; yPtr = &y; // yPtr gets address of y –yPtr “points to” y yPtr y 5 yptr y 5 address of y is value of yptr

22 22 POINTER OPERATORS * (indirection/dereferencing operator) –Returns synonym for object its pointer operand points to –*yPtr returns y (because yPtr points to y ). –dereferenced pointer is lvalue *yptr = 9; // assigns 9 to y * and & are inverses of each other

23 23 Tugas 2 Tugas 2A: Mahasiswa diminta membuat contoh program dengan menggunakan passing argumen by value & by reference Tugas 2B: Mahasiswa membuat function overloading dengan 4 function prototype yang berbeda Tugas 2C: Mahasiswa membuat analisis dari satu contoh program pointer


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