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TERBENTUKNYA TURUNAN “BARU” 1. KAWIN SILANG - SEKSUAL 2. PARASEKSUAL 3. MUTASI 4. FUSI SEL KONYUGASI TRANSFORMASI TRANSDUKSI KIMIA SPONTAN SINAR PENGION.

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Presentasi berjudul: "TERBENTUKNYA TURUNAN “BARU” 1. KAWIN SILANG - SEKSUAL 2. PARASEKSUAL 3. MUTASI 4. FUSI SEL KONYUGASI TRANSFORMASI TRANSDUKSI KIMIA SPONTAN SINAR PENGION."— Transcript presentasi:

1 TERBENTUKNYA TURUNAN “BARU” 1. KAWIN SILANG - SEKSUAL 2. PARASEKSUAL 3. MUTASI 4. FUSI SEL KONYUGASI TRANSFORMASI TRANSDUKSI KIMIA SPONTAN SINAR PENGION HIBRIDA SOMATIK : CYBRIDE ANTIBODI MONOKLONAL  EVOLUSI  SINAR MATAHARI-KOSMIS  POLUTAN / CEMARAN  BIBIT UNGGUL DARI BIJI  TOKSISITAS OBAT PERPINDAHAN SIFAT RESISTENSI MIKROBA TERHADAP ANTIBIOTIK TURUNAN BARU POPULASI MIKROBA RESISTEN ALAMIAH PERBAIKAN GENERASI PERBIAKAN UNGGULAN TANAMAN UNGGULAN TURUNAN DENGAN SIFAT BAIK KEDUANYA

2 TERBENTUKNYA TURUNAN BARU 5. REKAYASA GENETIK TERBENTUKNYA TURUNAN IDENTIK VEGETATIP KLONING ORGANISME 6. TRANSGENIK PRODUKSI PROTEIN BIOAKTIF PADA ORGANISME LAIN ( INSULIN, VAKSIN-HB ) PERUBAHAN GEN --> FENOTIP DAN PRODUK BARU TURUNAN UNGGULAN YANG SAMA UNGGULAN PRODUK BARU MEMPERBANYAK DIRI IDENTIK ALAMIAH PROTEIN ENGINEERING

3 RESISTENSI MIKROBA PATOGEN TERHADAP ANTIBIOTIK 1. Bakteri 2. Virus 3. Parasit

4 Bacterial cells divide by the process of binary fission. A cell will first duplicate its chromosome, elongate, and then pinch in the middle creating two genetically identical daughter cells. During replication of the chromosome, there is no built in repair mechanism, so if mistakes occur during replication they will be passed on to daughter cells. Some mistakes have no effect on the bacterial cell. Other mistakes can create fatal errors and the cell will die. However, some mistakes provide new variants genes.

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12 Bacterial cells divide by the process of binary fission. A cell will first duplicate its chromosome, elongate, and then pinch in the middle creating two genetically identical daughter cells. During replication of the chromosome, there is no built in repair mechanism, so if mistakes occur during replication they will be passed on to daughter cells. Some mistakes have no effect on the bacterial cell. Other mistakes can create fatal errors and the cell will die. However, some mistakes provide new variants genes.

13 2. GEN FOR ANTIBIOTIC ALTERING ENZYME/TARGET 3. GEN FOR ANTIBIOTIC DEGRADING ENZYME 1. GENE FOR “EFFLUX” PUMPS THAT EJECT ANTIBIOTICS FROM CELL ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA HOW - WHY ? OTHER GENETIC MECHANISM ???

14 TRANSFORMASI KONYUGASI TRANSDUKSI BACTERIA PICK UP RESISTANCE GENES

15 sensitive bacterium resistance bacterium DNA-frament = resistance gene transformation

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18 BACTERIA PICK UP RESISTANCE GENES from other bacterial cells in three main ways.  Often they receive whole plasmids bearing one or more such genes from a donor cell (a).  Other times, a virus will pick up a resistance gene from one bacterium and inject it into a different bacterial cell (b).  Alternatively, bacteria sometimes scavenge gene-bearing snippets of DNA from dead cells in their vicinity (c). Genes obtained through viruses or from dead cells persist in their new owner if they become incorporated stably into the recipient's chromosome or into a plasmid. ANTIBIOTIC-RESISTANT BACTERIA owe their drug insensitivity to resistance genes. For example, such genes  might code for "efflux" pumps that eject antibiotics from cells (a).  Or the genes might give rise to enzymes that degrade the antibiotics (b) or  that chemically alter--and inactivate--the drugs (c). Resistance genes can reside on the bacterial chromosome or, more typically, on small rings of DNA called plasmids. Some of the genes are inherited, some emerge through random mutations in bacterial DNA, and some are imported from other bacteria.

19 Genetic Basis of Acquired Resistance 1.Mutation - spontaneous alteration in genetic sequence in bacterial chromosome 2.Conjugation - transfer of genetic information via conjugation tubes 3.Transduction (bacteriophage) - phage incorporation of genetic information which can then be transferred to another bacterium 4.Transformation - possible assimilation of genetic material across cell wall/membrane Location: plasmids, transposons, chromosome Phenotypic Mechanisms of Resistance 1.Enzyme degradation 2.Barrier to the target 3.Target absent

20 Antibiotic resistance results from gene action. Bacteria acquire genes conferring resistance in any of three ways In spontaneous DNA mutation, bacterial DNA (genetic material) may mutate (change) spontaneously (indicated by starburst). Drug- resistant tuberculosis arises this way. In a form of microbial sex called transformation, one bacterium may take up DNA from another bacterium. Pencillin-resistant gonorrhea results from transformation Most frightening, however, is resistance acquired from a small circle of DNA called a plasmid, that can flit from one type of bacterium to another. A single plasmid can provide a slew of different resistances

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31 ONE PHARMACEUTICAL STRATEGY for overcoming resistance capitalizes on the discovery that some bacteria defeat certain antibiotics, such as tetracycline, by pumping out the drugs (a). To combat that ploy, investigators are devising compounds that would jam the pumps (b), thereby freeing the antibiotics to function effectively. In the case of tetracycline, the antibiotic works by interfering with the ribosomes that manufacture bacterial proteins.

32 RESISTANT POPULATION of bacteria will disappear naturally only if susceptible bacteria live in the vicinity. After antibiotic therapy stops (a), resistant bacteria can persist for a while. If susceptible bacteria are nearby, however, they may recolonize the individual (b). In the absence of the drug, the susceptible bugs will have a slight survival advantage because they do not have to expend energy maintaining resistance genes. After a time, then, they may outcompete the resistant microbes (c and d). For this reason, protecting susceptible bacteria needs to be a public health priority.

33 STOP 1.Resistensi bakteri terhadap suatu antibiotika terkait adanya suatu gen. Jelaskan adanya 3 jenis gen yang kalau diekspresikan dapat menjadi dasar mekanisme resistensi bakteri tsb.), Jelaskan (gambar dan uraian). 2.Resistensi mikroba terhadap suatu antibiotika dapat disebabkan karena terjadinya mutasi gen ( yang spontan, adaptasi) atau mikroba memperoleh gen resisten dari mikroba lainnya (terbentuknya turunan baru/strain/mutan secara paraseksual/ parameiotik). Jelaskan bagaimana 3 proses paraseksual tersebut.(gambar dan uraian)

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46 ADVANCE

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49 IMMUNOLOGY

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61 complement

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67 Tolerance and Autoimmune

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