3 What is Attachment? Attachment adalah: "lasting psychological connectedness between human beings" (Bowlby, 1969, p. 194).Atau:“Ikatan emosional antar manusia”
4 What is Attachment?Menurut Bowlby, ikatan emosional sejak dini antara bayi dengan pengasuhnya mempunyai efek yang berpengaruh sepanjang hidup.Attachment juga membuat bayi senantiasa dekat ke ibunya, sehingga meningkatkan kemampuan hidup si bayi.
5 Characteristics of Attachment Safe Haven: When the child feel threatened or afraid, he or she can return to the caregiver for comfort and soothing.Secure Base: The caregiver provides a secure and dependable base for the child to explore the world.Proximity Maintenance: The child strives to stay near the caregiver, thus keeping the child safe.Separation Distress: When separated from the caregiver, the child will become upset and distressed.
6 Ainsworth’s Strange Situation In her 1970's research, psychologist Mary Ainsworth expanded greatly upon Bowlby's original work.Her groundbreaking "Strange Situation" study revealed the profound effects of attachment on behavior.In the study, researchers observed children between the ages of 12 and 18 months as they responded to a situation in which they were briefly left alone and then reunited with their mothers (Ainsworth, 1978).
7 Ainsworth’s attachment styles Ainsworth described three major styles of attachment:secure attachment,ambivalent-insecure attachment,avoidant-insecure attachment.
8 Characteristics of Secure Attachment Securely attached children exhibit minimal distress when separated from caregivers. Remember, these children feel secure and able to depend on their adult caregivers. When the adult leaves, the child feels assured that the parent or caregiver will return.When frightened, securely attached children will seek comfort from caregivers. These children know their parent or caregiver will provide comfort and reassurance, so they are comfortable seeking them out in times of need.
9 Characteristics of Ambivalent Attachment Ambivalently attached children usually become very distressed when a parent leaves. This attachment style is considered relatively uncommon, affecting an estimated 7-15% of U.S. children.Research suggests that ambivalent attachment is a result of poor maternal availability. These children cannot depend on their mother (or caregiver) to be there when the child is in need.
10 Characteristics of Avoidant Attachment Children with an avoidant attachment tend to avoid parents or caregivers. When offered a choice, these children will show no preference between a caregiver and a complete stranger.Research has suggested that this attachment style might be a result of abusive or neglectful caregivers. Children who are punished for relying on a caregiver will learn to avoid seeking help in the future.
11 Pola Perilaku Anak dan Pengasuh SecureProtes kepergian pengasuh, nyaman lagi ketika pengasuh kembali dan melanjutkan eksplorasinya.Merespon kebutuhan anak dengan tepat, cepat dan konsisten.AvoidantSedikit atau tanpa stress ketika ditinggal, sedikit respon ketika pengasuh kembali. Kualitas permainan rendah.Sedikit respon pada anak. Melarang tangisan dan menekankan kemandirian.Ambi- valentSedih waktu ditinggal tapi hangat pada orang asing. Ketika pengasuh kembali, ambivalen, marah, tapi menolak untuk dekat. Kehadiran pengasuh membuatnya cemas.Respon yang tidak konsisten antara memberi perhatian dan acuh tak acuh.
12 DISKUSI KELOMPOK Apa tipe Attachment anda?? Jika anda adalah secure/avoidant/ambivalent, bagaimana perilaku dan sikap kita dalam menyelesaikan masalah??Dinamika karakteristik apa saja yang ada dalam anggota kelompok??
15 What is Social Exchange theory? This theory explains social change and stability as a process of negotiated exchanges between parties.all human relationships are formed by the use of a subjective cost-benefit analysis and the comparison of alternatives.For example, when a person perceives the costs of a relationship as outweighing the perceived benefits, then the theory predicts that the person will choose to leave the relationship.
16 What is Social Exchange theory? Social Exchange theory explains how we feel about a relationship with another person as depending on our perceptions of:The balance between what we put into the relationship and what we get out of it.The kind of relationship we deserve.The chances of having a better relationship with someone else.