Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Dari Informasi ke Knowledge Management H. Himawan.

Presentasi serupa

Presentasi berjudul: "Dari Informasi ke Knowledge Management H. Himawan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Dari Informasi ke Knowledge Management H. Himawan

2 Susah, Lambat , Perlu biaya dan tidak tentu
Taksonomi Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge Faktor Tacit Explicit Kemampuan di transfer Susah, Lambat , Perlu biaya dan tidak tentu Lebih mudah Ciri, Jenis Knowing How Knowing About Subyektif Obyektif Prosedural Deklaratif Dinyatakan dengan Aplikasi Komunikasi An understanding of the concept of knowledge and KM taxonomies is important because theoretical developments in the KM area are influenced by the distinction among the different types of knowledge. Tacit knowledge is, difficult to articulate, developed from direct experience and action, and usually shared through highly interactive conversation, story-telling and shared experience. Explicit knowledge, in contrast, can be more precisely and formally articulated. Therefore, it can be more easily codified, documented, transferred or shared.

3 Proses KM A) Sosialisasi, Eksternalisasi, Kombinasi, dan Internalisasi. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) B) Knowledge Generation (Creation and Acquisition), Knowledge Codification (Storing), Knowledge Transfer (Sharing), and Knowledge Application (Use). Davenport and Prusak (1998), Alavi and Leidner (2001) C) Production + Integration + Application Effective KM requires an organization to identify, generate, acquire, diffuse, and capture the benefits of knowledge that provide a strategic advantage to that organization. Nevertheless, a comprehensive survey of the KM literature shows the various KM framework, process, and activities. Upon closer inspection, however, the differences are not that great. Although the terms used differ, but there are some overlap in the different types of steps involved in a KM cycle.

4 Problematika KM KM sebagai sebuah Projek KM sebagai sebuah Proses
Memerlukan metodologi yang sistemik dan terpadu dengan siklus hidup tertentu; KM sebagai sebuah Proses Tingkatan Organisasi, struktur, kultur,dan manajemen harus beorientasi ke Knowledge ;maka Bagaimana menyiapkan struktur? Bagaimana mengubah manajemen dari AS-IS ke TO-BE? Bagaimana memilih dan menerapkan perangkat yang diperlukan dalam KMS? By these reasons : 1- the importance of resources and capabilities in sustainable competitive advantages of the firms 2- Knowledge as an important resource (maybe most important) 3- the emergency to have a capability of managing the knowledge in the firms 4- the interdisciplinary nature of Knowledge We can talk about the KM as two way: KM as a Project or Process

5 Berbagai sumber Knowledge
Source E T Pengetahuan karyawan, ketrampilan, dan Kompetensi Pengalaman ( baik individu maupun kelompokl ) Ketrampilan kelompok Pertukaran knowledge secara informal Nilai Norma Keyakinan ü ü ü E - Explicit/Codificable T- Tacit/Needs Explication

6 Berbagai sumber Knowledge
Source E T Pengetahuan berbasis tugas Knowledge yg menyatu dalam sistem fisik Modal manusia Knowledge yg berhubungan dg struktur internal Knowledge yg berhubungan dg struktur eksternal Modal pelanggan Pengalaman karyawan Relasi dg pelanggan ü ü ü E - Explicit/Codificable T- Tacit/Needs Explication

7 Tahapan Penggunaan Pengetahuan
Akuisisi Penggunaan bersama (sharing) Penggunaan (utilization)

8 4 tahap peningkatan knowledge
Desirable Care-Why Know-Why Knowledge Stage Knowledge management system supported Know-How - by James Brian Quinn Current State of Most Companies Know-What Initial Level of Knowledge Leveragibility Desirable

9 Care-why. Kreatifitas yang didorong motivasi dari diri sendiri
Care-why. Kreatifitas yang didorong motivasi dari diri sendiri. Tidak didukung knowledge management. Know-why. Memahami hubungan sebab-akibat. Know-how. Tahu bagaimana melakukan sesuatu. Kemampuan menterjemahkan pengetahuan yang ada di buku menjadi suatu hasil. Know-what. Pengetahuan kognitif.

10 Contoh Know-What tanpa Know-How
Saya tahu cara kerja mobil.

11 Contoh Know-How tanpa Know-Why
Tukang reparasi radio Tukang pijat refleksi

12 BERBAGI PENGETAHUAN (Knowledge Sharing) dan PENGGUNAAN PENGETAHUAN (Knowledge Utilisation)
Perbedaan aset informasi dan pengetahuan. Pengetahuan umumnya dibangun melalui kerjasama penyelesaian masalah, percakapan dan kerja kelompok.

13 S E C TACIT EKSPLISIT TASIT I EKSPLISIT Eksternalisasi Sosialisasi

14 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak SOSIALISASI
Obrolan antar pemrogram, atau antara analis sistem dengan klien: “Saya tidak tahu persis sistem apa yang kami inginkan. Tetapi, sistem ini harus mendukung kerjasama tim di tempat yang berjauhan.”

15 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak EKSTERNALISASI
Pembuatan dokumen oleh analis sistem setelah melakukan wawancara dengan klien.

16 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak KOMBINASI
Kerjasama dan pertukaran informasi antara analis sistem, pemrogram, dan klien selama proses pengembangan sistem

17 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak INTERNALISASI
Keterlibatan tiap orang dalam proyek, akan meningkatkan ketrampilan dan pengetahuan tasit.

18 Aset-aset Intangible lainnya
Merek yang populer (Nike) Visi yang menggerakkan industri Paten (CD Philips) dan terobosan baru (Walkman Sony) Kesetiaan pelanggan (Harley Davidson) Ide inovatif (Program afiliasi dari Amazon) Anticipated future products (Microsoft vs Lotus) Prestasi masa lalu (BCA saat dijual, Apple saat diambang kebangkrutan) Ground-breaking strategies (BCA ketika membuka cabang dan ATM di mana-mana)

19 A survey in 1998 in US/UK 88% of managers use gut feeling over 75% of time for making business decision 93% of them are under pressure to make effective decisions with short timespans. 62% of them do not receive right information to make decision, yet 99% have access to desktop computer. 100% of sales and marketing managers have to reply on other people for information. Only 25% of them believe that the information is up-to-date. Company directors are intolerant of decisions made by managers based on gut feeling, insisting that decisions should be made only on hard facts.

20 Democratization and business value
Influenced by three key factors :- level of democratization within the organisation : the ratio of business intelligence enabled used out of the total number of desktops. level of empowerment : the number of users entitled to perform ad hoc requests for data versus the number of total users. level of cultural propensity : the number of different departments that are involved in the deployment of the solution times the capacity to get access to other departments’ information. The greater these levels, the bigger the value of an organisation‘s business intelligence.

21 Information value chain
Usage Within the Enterprise Outside of the Enterprise Information Merchandising Business Extension Crossing Boundaries First Return on Information Data Liability

22 Information value chain
Data liability zone: the number of users is limited to the IT staff, for maintenance purposes only. First return of Information zone: business users can now access data about their own departmental activity. However, they still do not have access to the information about information which is part of another system in another division of the company. The enterprise Intelligence zone: company opens a department‘s business intelligence to other departments or divisions. This requires a culture of information sharing. Ultimately, it will reach a state of Information Democracy where a collective intelligence is being built through open communication and willingness to share data. The Extended Enterprise zone: the first extension of data access beyound the organisation‘s four wall to an external constitutent (such as suppliers, customers, or partners). Towards Information Embassy. Information Merchandising zone: Selling data to new types of customers via Intelligent Extranets

23 A simplified model for information empowerment
OLTP Such as ERP/ legacy system ETL Extraction/ Transformation/ Loading Data Marts OLAP Business Intelligence/ ad hoc query/analysis Data mining Trend/pattern prediction

24 From Information Democratization to Information Embassy
Empowerment of your suppliers and customers like your employees use of Extranet deployment to create 3 new applications areas Supply chain extranet CRM extranet Information brokerage extranet

25 Information Embassy by e-business Intelligence ExtraNets
Empower your customers, suppliers and partners, hust as empower your employees Motivation from e-commerce to e-business lots of information to share a needs for transparency : enables customers to access and analyze the data through browsers a requirement for performance : your suppliers need to have instant access to information that only their customer own a key enabler for competitiveness traditional paper reports arrive an important delay costly to print static

26 Benefit of Information Embassy
Create competitive advantage thtrough differentiation from competitors Help your customer save money Improve customer satisfaction Build customer loyalty and “lock-in” improving your own lot : force good, consistent information Reduce costs for generation paper and electronic reports and supplying them to customers Generate a new revenue stream

27 Challenges of Information Embassy
Worry that customers can use newly available information to their advantages (short term effect) how much functionality to offer basic reporting is mandatory ad hoc query/multi-dimensional analysis does not suffering from degraded response times

28 Ingredients for success
Make it a partnership an opportunity for the customer to contribute to the quality of information relevant to both parties. Extranet welcome the opportunity to promptly correct errors and omissions. make it functional, make it secure ensure that customers see only their own personal data. Balance the desirability for a speedy deployment with the need to assess and select appropriate software tools and infrastructure built to last. think creatively , be inclusive Building an information embassy involves many of the same fundamental processes as an internal e-business intelligence system. Think about what information may be of value to which customers. Build it to scale.

29 Enterprise Value-Chain
One typical form of Information embassy : Supply chain ExtraNets SCE : connects an organization with its supply chain partners. The goal is to provide access to information that allow materials to flow smoothly and efficiently along an organization business ecosystem. Planning and R & D Procurement Manufacturing Order Fulfillment Service and Support Enterprise Value-Chain

30 Various implementation strategies
ERP E-Buy E-Sell

31 Various implementation strategies
ERP E-Sell E-Buy ERP E-Sell E-Buy Third Party

32 Various implementation strategies
ERP E-Sell E-Buy ERP E-Sell E-Buy ERP E-Sell E-Buy ERP E-Sell E-Buy

33 Various implementation strategies

34 Various implementation strategies : BI approach
ERP E-Buy E-Sell suppliers customers Data marts Extranet Extranet OLAP

35 Digital or e-marketplace
Sellers Buyers Hub

36 Digital or e-marketplace
It takes the notion of an extranet one step further, by seeking to tie together the supply chain of a large number of companies within an industry. Propose to improve the tradition supply chain with economic of scale and array of choices that a single company cannot match. The e-marketplace generate huge qualities of data that is valuable to all stakeholders. Therefore supply chain extranet can be built on top of e-marketplace.

37 References Knowledge Creating Company : how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, Oxford University Press, 1995. Knowledge Management Toolkit: Practical techniques for building a Knowledge Management System by Amrit Tiwana, Prentice Hall, 2000. Turning Information into Knowledge into Profit : e-Business Intelligence by Bernard Liautaud, et al. McGraw Hill Press, 2001. E-business and ERP: Transforming the Enterprise by Grant Norris, James R. Hurley, et al. Wiley Press, 2000.

38 Thank you for listening

Download ppt "Dari Informasi ke Knowledge Management H. Himawan."

Presentasi serupa

Iklan oleh Google