Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Page 1 H. Himawan Page 2 Taksonomi Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge FaktorTacitExplicit Kemampuan di transfer Susah, Lambat, Perlu biaya.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Page 1 H. Himawan Page 2 Taksonomi Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge FaktorTacitExplicit Kemampuan di transfer Susah, Lambat, Perlu biaya."— Transcript presentasi:

1

2 Page 1 H. Himawan

3 Page 2 Taksonomi Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge FaktorTacitExplicit Kemampuan di transfer Susah, Lambat, Perlu biaya dan tidak tentu Lebih mudah Ciri, Jenis Knowing How Knowing About SubyektifObyektif ProseduralDeklaratif Dinyatakan dengan AplikasiKomunikasi

4 Page 3 Proses KM A) Sosialisasi, Eksternalisasi, Kombinasi, dan Internalisasi. Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) B) Knowledge Generation (Creation and Acquisition), Knowledge Codification (Storing), Knowledge Transfer (Sharing), and Knowledge Application (Use). Davenport and Prusak (1998), Alavi and Leidner (2001) C) Production + Integration + Application

5 Page 4 Problematika KM KM sebagai sebuah Projek –Memerlukan metodologi yang sistemik dan terpadu dengan siklus hidup tertentu; KM sebagai sebuah Proses –Tingkatan Organisasi, struktur, kultur,dan manajemen harus beorientasi ke Knowledge ;maka –Bagaimana menyiapkan struktur? –Bagaimana mengubah manajemen dari AS-IS ke TO-BE? –Bagaimana memilih dan menerapkan perangkat yang diperlukan dalam KMS?

6 Page 5 Berbagai sumber Knowledge SourceET Pengetahuan karyawan, ketrampilan, dan Kompetensi Pengalaman ( baik individu maupun kelompokl ) Ketrampilan kelompok Pertukaran knowledge secara informal Nilai Norma Keyakinan E - Explicit/CodificableT- Tacit/Needs Explication

7 Page 6 Berbagai sumber Knowledge SourceET Pengetahuan berbasis tugas Knowledge yg menyatu dalam sistem fisik Modal manusia Knowledge yg berhubungan dg struktur internal Knowledge yg berhubungan dg struktur eksternal Modal pelanggan Pengalaman karyawan Relasi dg pelanggan E - Explicit/CodificableT- Tacit/Needs Explication

8 Page 7 Tahapan Penggunaan Pengetahuan Akuisisi Penggunaan bersama (sharing) Penggunaan (utilization)

9 Page 8 Desirable Initial Level of Knowledge LeveragibilityDesirable Knowledge Stage Know-WhatKnow-HowKnow-WhyCare-Why Current State of Most Companies Knowledge management system supported 4 tahap peningkatan knowledge - by James Brian Quinn

10 Page 9 Care-why. Kreatifitas yang didorong motivasi dari diri sendiri. Tidak didukung knowledge management. Know-why. Memahami hubungan sebab- akibat. Know-how. Tahu bagaimana melakukan sesuatu. Kemampuan menterjemahkan pengetahuan yang ada di buku menjadi suatu hasil. Know-what. Pengetahuan kognitif.

11 Page 10 Contoh Know-What tanpa Know-How Saya tahu cara kerja mobil.

12 Page 11 Contoh Know-How tanpa Know-Why Tukang reparasi radio Tukang pijat refleksi

13 Page 12 BERBAGI PENGETAHUAN (Knowledge Sharing) dan PENGGUNAAN PENGETAHUAN (Knowledge Utilisation) Perbedaan aset informasi dan pengetahuan. Pengetahuan umumnya dibangun melalui kerjasama penyelesaian masalah, percakapan dan kerja kelompok.

14 Page 13 Sosialisasi Eksternalisasi Internalisasi Kombinasi NGOBROL TASIT TACIT EKSPLISIT

15 Page 14 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak SOSIALISASI Obrolan antar pemrogram, atau antara analis sistem dengan klien: “Saya tidak tahu persis sistem apa yang kami inginkan. Tetapi, sistem ini harus mendukung kerjasama tim di tempat yang berjauhan.”

16 Page 15 Pembuatan dokumen oleh analis sistem setelah melakukan wawancara dengan klien. Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak EKSTERNALISASI

17 Page 16 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak KOMBINASI Kerjasama dan pertukaran informasi antara analis sistem, pemrogram, dan klien selama proses pengembangan sistem

18 Page 17 Contoh SECI pada Pengembangan Piranti Lunak INTERNALISASI Keterlibatan tiap orang dalam proyek, akan meningkatkan ketrampilan dan pengetahuan tasit.

19 Page 18 Aset-aset Intangible lainnya Merek yang populer (Nike) Visi yang menggerakkan industri Paten (CD Philips) dan terobosan baru (Walkman Sony) Kesetiaan pelanggan (Harley Davidson) Ide inovatif (Program afiliasi dari Amazon) Anticipated future products (Microsoft vs Lotus) Prestasi masa lalu (BCA saat dijual, Apple saat diambang kebangkrutan) Ground-breaking strategies (BCA ketika membuka cabang dan ATM di mana-mana)

20 Page 19 A survey in 1998 in US/UK 88% of managers use gut feeling over 75% of time for making business decision 93% of them are under pressure to make effective decisions with short timespans. 62% of them do not receive right information to make decision, yet 99% have access to desktop computer. 100% of sales and marketing managers have to reply on other people for information. Only 25% of them believe that the information is up-to-date. Company directors are intolerant of decisions made by managers based on gut feeling, insisting that decisions should be made only on hard facts.

21 Page 20 Democratization and business value Influenced by three key factors :- level of democratization within the organisation : the ratio of business intelligence enabled used out of the total number of desktops. level of empowerment : the number of users entitled to perform ad hoc requests for data versus the number of total users. level of cultural propensity : the number of different departments that are involved in the deployment of the solution times the capacity to get access to other departments’ information. The greater these levels, the bigger the value of an organisation‘s business intelligence.

22 Page 21 Value Usage Data Liability First Return on Information Crossing Boundaries Business Extension Information Merchandising Within the EnterpriseOutside of the Enterprise Information value chain

23 Page 22 Information value chain Data liability zone: the number of users is limited to the IT staff, for maintenance purposes only. First return of Information zone: business users can now access data about their own departmental activity. However, they still do not have access to the information about information which is part of another system in another division of the company. The enterprise Intelligence zone: company opens a department‘s business intelligence to other departments or divisions. This requires a culture of information sharing. Ultimately, it will reach a state of Information Democracy where a collective intelligence is being built through open communication and willingness to share data. The Extended Enterprise zone: the first extension of data access beyound the organisation‘s four wall to an external constitutent (such as suppliers, customers, or partners). Towards Information Embassy. Information Merchandising zone: Selling data to new types of customers via Intelligent Extranets

24 Page 23 A simplified model for information empowerment OLTP Such as ERP/ legacy system ETL Extraction/ Transformation/ Loading Data Marts OLAP Business Intelligence/ ad hoc query/analysis Data mining Trend/pattern prediction

25 Page 24 From Information Democratization to Information Embassy Empowerment of your suppliers and customers like your employees use of Extranet deployment to create 3 new applications areas Supply chain extranet CRM extranet Information brokerage extranet

26 Page 25 Information Embassy by e-business Intelligence ExtraNets Empower your customers, suppliers and partners, hust as empower your employees Motivation from e-commerce to e-business lots of information to share a needs for transparency : enables customers to access and analyze the data through browsers a requirement for performance : your suppliers need to have instant access to information that only their customer own a key enabler for competitiveness traditional paper reports arrive an important delay costly to print static

27 Page 26 Benefit of Information Embassy Create competitive advantage thtrough differentiation from competitors Help your customer save money Improve customer satisfaction Build customer loyalty and “lock-in” improving your own lot : force good, consistent information Reduce costs for generation paper and electronic reports and supplying them to customers Generate a new revenue stream

28 Page 27 Challenges of Information Embassy Worry that customers can use newly available information to their advantages (short term effect) how much functionality to offer basic reporting is mandatory ad hoc query/multi-dimensional analysis does not suffering from degraded response times

29 Page 28 Ingredients for success Make it a partnership an opportunity for the customer to contribute to the quality of information relevant to both parties. Extranet welcome the opportunity to promptly correct errors and omissions. make it functional, make it secure ensure that customers see only their own personal data. Balance the desirability for a speedy deployment with the need to assess and select appropriate software tools and infrastructure built to last. think creatively, be inclusive Building an information embassy involves many of the same fundamental processes as an internal e-business intelligence system. Think about what information may be of value to which customers. Build it to scale.

30 Page 29 Planning and R & D ProcurementManufacturing OrderFulfillment Service and Support Enterprise Value-Chain One typical form of Information embassy : Supply chain ExtraNets SCE : connects an organization with its supply chain partners. The goal is to provide access to information that allow materials to flow smoothly and efficiently along an organization business ecosystem.

31 Page 30 ERP E-BuyE-Sell Various implementation strategies

32 Page 31 ERP E-SellE-Buy ERP E-SellE-Buy ERP E-SellE-Buy Various implementation strategies

33 Page 32 ERP E-SellE-Buy ERP E-SellE-Buy ERP E-Sell E-Buy ERP E-SellE-Buy Various implementation strategies

34 Page 33 ERP Various implementation strategies

35 Page 34 Various implementation strategies : BI approach ERP E-BuyE-Sell suppliers customers Data marts OLAP Extranet

36 Page 35 Hub Sellers Buyers Digital or e-marketplace

37 Page 36 Digital or e-marketplace It takes the notion of an extranet one step further, by seeking to tie together the supply chain of a large number of companies within an industry. Propose to improve the tradition supply chain with economic of scale and array of choices that a single company cannot match. The e-marketplace generate huge qualities of data that is valuable to all stakeholders. Therefore supply chain extranet can be built on top of e- marketplace.

38 Page 37 References Knowledge Creating Company : how Japanese companies create the dynamics of innovation by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hirotaka Takeuchi, Oxford University Press, Knowledge Management Toolkit: Practical techniques for building a Knowledge Management System by Amrit Tiwana, Prentice Hall, Turning Information into Knowledge into Profit : e-Business Intelligence by Bernard Liautaud, et al. McGraw Hill Press, E-business and ERP: Transforming the Enterprise by Grant Norris, James R. Hurley, et al. Wiley Press, 2000.

39 Page 38 Thank you for listening


Download ppt "Page 1 H. Himawan Page 2 Taksonomi Knowledge Tacit Knowledge Explicit Knowledge FaktorTacitExplicit Kemampuan di transfer Susah, Lambat, Perlu biaya."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google