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BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH ENTISOLS.

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Presentasi berjudul: "BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH ENTISOLS."— Transcript presentasi:

1 BAHAN KAJIAN MK. DASAR ILMU TANAH TANAH ENTISOLS

2 TANAH ENTISOL Entisol adalah tanah-tanah dengan regolit dalam atau bumi tidak dengan horison, kecuali mungkin lapis bajak. Beberapa Entisol, mempunyai horison plaggen, agrik atau horizon E (albik); beberapa mempunyai batuan beku yang keras dekat permukaan Entisol dicirikan oleh bahan mineral tanah yang belum membentuk horison pedogenik yang nyata. Tanah-tanah ini dicirikan oleh kenampakan yang kurang muda dan tanpa horison genetik alamiah, atau juga mereka hanya mempunyai horison-horison permulaan. Diunduh dari: geoyogi.files.wordpress.com/.../nama-dan-jenis-ta... ………….. 13/3/2013

3 TANAH ENTISOLS Ikhtisar: 1.Vegetasi: Tidak spesifik, tanah kosong 2.Iklim: Pergelik hingga hypothermik 3.Rezim lengas tanah: Kering hingga Aquik 4.Sifat tanah yang penting: featureless soil bodies 5.Horison Penciri: secara tipikal tidak ada, Albik 6.Epipedon: Okhrik 7.Karakteristik: Sedikit sekali atau tidak ada bukti-bukti perkembangan tanah. Entisols: Tanah-tanah yg baru berkembang 1.Land surfaces that are very young (alluvium, colluvium, mudflows) 2.Batuan keras ekstrim 3.Bahan induk berpasir 4.Material bongkaran (mis. Lahan galian tambang, tanah sangat padat, material toksik) 5.Transisi antara ‘tanah' dan ‘bukan-tanah'

4 TANAH ENTISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN Climate: Entisols dapat ditemukan pada berbagai kondisi iklim. Misalnya, iklim arid atau pergelik dapat membatasi intensitas perkembangan tanah untuk membentuk ordo tanah lainnya. Kejenuhan profil tanah atau bahkan penggenangan dalam waktu lama menghambat perkembangan tanah dan tanah-tanah termasuk mke dalam Ordo Entisol. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

5 TANAH ENTISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN Vegetasi Harsh environments may limit root and plant growth due to consolidated highly resistant bedrock, infertility or toxicity of initial material, submergence, or high erosion rates. Kalau dilakaukan pemupukan dnegan baik dan suplai air dikendalikan, beberapa Entisols dapat dipakai untuk pertanian (lahan gembalaan, kandang ternak). Akan tetapi faktor pembatasnya adalah solum yang tipis, tekstur liat, atau neraca lengas-tanah yang defisit air. Beberapa Entisols dikelola secara intensif, misalnya, Entisols pada aluvium sungai. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

6 TANAH ENTISOLS KONDISI LINGKUNGAN Relief: Entisols may be present on very steep slopes on hard bedrock where soil formation is inhibited. Mass movement may remove material from such an area as fast or faster than most pedogenic horizons form. Entisols lainnya ditemukan pada relief datar hingga agak miring dengan bahan induk material deposit seperti alluvium atau colluvium. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

7 TANAH ENTISOLS Time: Shortness of time since exposure of initial materials to the active factors of soil formation limits soil development. Fresh lava flows, marine or lacustrine deposits newly exposed by uplift of land or by lake drainage, provide sites for very young soils. Aktivitas manusia dapat mendorong pembentukan Entisols. Deforestation may induce soil erosion where highly eroded, shallow Entisols remain. Misalnya, daerah luas terbentuk karena deforestation dan erosi tanah di southern Europe dan in Southern America. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

8 TANAH ENTISOLS Bahan Induk Tanah: Entisols are on land surfaces that are very young (alluvium, colluvium, mudflows), extremely hard rocks (e.g. Orthents), or disturbed material (e.g. mined land, highly compacted soils, toxic material). They also occur on deep bodies of water and glaciers which are transitions between 'soils' and 'not soils'. Psamments adalah Entisols yang berkembang dari bahan induk berpasir, banyak ditemukan di Alabama and Georgia USA dan digunakan untuk lahan gembalaan ternak. Di area “serpentine barrens”, Entisols dapat berasosiasi dnegan “bedrock outcrops”. Entisols juga dapat berasosiasi dengan “salt flats”.

9 TANAH ENTISOLS PROSES GENESIS The characteristic of Entisols is that there is little or no evidence of soil development. They form a transition between the other soil orders of Soil Taxonomy and non-soil material such as bare rock, deep water or ice at the surface of the earth. Kondisi lingkungan untuk Entisols dianggap menghambat proses genesis atanah, misalnya beberapa faktor lingkungan memperlambat proses pembentukan tanah. For example, submerged or waterlogged soils exclude oxidation and retard weathering. Sparse vegetation results in low litter amounts which retards the accumulation of organic matter in the topsoil. Batuan yang kompak dapat menghambat penetrasi akar sehingga menghambat pertumbuhan tanaman.

10 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013 PROSES GENESIS The impact of most soil forming processes is not great enough to produce soil features recognized as diagnostic for other soil orders. Entisols dapat menjadi 'climax soils' yang merupakan kesetimbangan dengan lingkungannya, tanah-tanah ini dapat terbentuk oleh gaya-gaya degradasi tanah (mis. Erosi tanah) dari ordo tanah lainnya, atau tanah-tanah ini berkembang dari 'non-soil areas'.

11 TANAH ENTISOLS CIRI-CIRI TANAH Entisols ADALAH TANAH-TANAH YANG tidak mempunyai sifat-sifat yang menjadi penciri ordo-ordo lainnya. Tanah-tanah ini mungkin mempunyai epipedon okhrik dan horison penciri albik; mungkin juga mempunyai beberapa fragmen horison penciri yang tidak tersusun dalam suatu pola yang “baku”. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

12 TANAH ENTISOLS KLASIFIKASI TANAH Ada lima subordo dalam ordo Entisols: 1.Aquents: Entisols yang basah (jenuh air) secara permanen atau musiman dipetakan sebagai Aquents. Tanah-tanah ini menunjukkan sifat redoximorfik yang sangat nyata.. 2.Arents: They are better drained than Aquents (lacking their redoximorphic features) and exhibit fragments of diagnostic horizons below the Ap horizon. Arents are deeply disturbed by farming, mining, or construction. 3.Psamments: Tekstur tanah Psamments biasanya pasir-halus-berlempung atau lebih kasar. Tanah-tanah ini mudah tererosi oleh angin kalau kering. 4.Fluvents: Tekstur tanah Fluvents biasanya berlempung dan berliat (lebih halus daripada pasir-halus-berlempung). Tanah-tanah ini ditemukan pada material alluvial yang ber-strata. 5.Orthents: The soil texture of Orthents is loamy and clayey. They are better drained than Aquents with a regular decrease in content of organic matter with depth. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

13 TANAH ENTISOLS KLASIFIKASI TANAH Sub-ordo dibagi-bagi lagi menjadi great-groups berdasarkan beberapa faktor: rataan suhu tanah tahunan dan kisaran ushu tanah, kandungan pasir dan kuarsa, stratifikasi, adanya material sulfidik, dan “low-bearing capacity”. Hydraquents are formed in sediments that have accumulated under water and remained continously submerged. To qualify for a Hydraquent the n- value must be > 0.7. The n-values is used to define the grams of water associated with 1 gram of clay and obtained from the relationship: A = nL + nbH + pR dimana: A: kadar air per 100 g tanah kering; L: persentase liat; H: persentase bahan organik; R: kandungan non-liat; b: ratio retensi air oleh bahan organik dan oleh liat (biasanya ditentukan 3); p: air yang berhubungan dnegan non- liat (biasanya nilainya 0.2). Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

14 TANAH ENTISOLS KLASIFIKASI TANAH Pada banyak subgroups dari ordo Entisol, tanah-tanah dengan kondisi aquik selama periode tertentu dalam kebanyakan tahun, banyak ditemukan adanya deplesi redoks dengan chroma 2 atau kurang (mis. Aquic Cryopsamments). Dalam Entisols lainnya yang jenuh dnegan air, pada satu lapisan atau lebih di dalam 100 cm tanah mineral permukaan, selama 1 bulan atau lebih per tahun selama enam atau lebih dari 10 tahun, maka digunakan istilah 'oxyaquic‘ (mis. Oxyaquic Cryopsamments). Influence of soil temperature is considered on great group and subgroup level using designations such as ustic, xeric, torri, or udic. Accumulation of iron sulfides (FeS 2 ) are found in lagoonal soils or distrubed soils in coal mine spoil. They are classified on great group level (e.g. Sulfquents) and subgroup level (e.g. Sulfic Hydraquents, Sulfic Fluvaquents). Beberapa Entisols menunjukkan karakteristik molik (mis Mollic Cryofluvents, Mollic Ustifluvents).

15 TANAH ENTISOLS KLASIFIKASI TANAH Tanah-tanah dangkal (tipis) dengan kontak-litik di dalam lapisan tanah mineral permukaan 50 cm lazim ditemukan pada Ordo Entisol (mis. Lithic Cryopsamments, Lithic Quarzipsamments, Lithic Xerorthents). Soils which show a fine-earth fraction containing 30 percent or more particles 0.02 to 2.0 mm in diameter of which 5 percent or more is volcanic glass, and [(Al plus 1/2 Fe, percent extracted by ammonium oxalate) times 60] plus the volcanic glass (percent) is 30 or more throughout one or more horizons with a total thickness of 18 cm or more within 75 cm of the mineral soil surface. Tanah-tanah yang mempunyai ciri-ciri seperti di atas disebut 'vitrandic' (mis. Vitrandic Xerofluvents, Vitrandic Cryorthents).

16 TANAH ENTISOLS KLASIFIKASI Entisols yang mempunyai, satu atau lebih horison dengan ketebalan 18 cm atau lebih di dalam 75 cm tanah mineral permukaan, fraksi halus dnegan bobot isi 1.0 g/cm 3 atau kurang, yang diukur pada retensi air 33 kPa, dan persentase aluminum 1/2 besi (oleh ammonium oxalate) totalnya lebih dari 1.0 dikelompokkan sebagai 'andic' (mis. Andic Cryofluvents). Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

17 TANAH ENTISOLS SIFAT PEMBEDA Entisols merupakan transisi antara ordo lainnya dan “bukan-tanah”. “Bukan-tanah” merupakan area yg tidak stabil, karena erosi air (mis. badlands, beaches, riverwash), erosi oleh angin (mis. dunes), area yg tidak dapat ditembus akar (mis. rock outcrops), area yg membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman (mis. salt flats, slickens, area toksik), atau area terlalu dingin untuk mendukung pertumbuhan vegetasi. Many young soils are excluded from Entisols because presence of a mollic epipedon. Because cambic horizons cannot occur in soil materials coarser than very fine sand weathered sandy soils are grouped in the Entisol order.

18 TANAH ENTISOLS Entisols: Tanah-tanah ini mempunyai profil A/C atau A/R, hanya menunjukkan sedikit gejala perkembangan tanah – terutama dalam horison permukaannya, mungkin mempunyai horison Ap. Sub-ordo: 1.Aquents – menunjukkan sifat kebasahan 2.Arents – lapisan olah yang nyata 3.Fluvents – terbentuk pada bahan alluvial 4.Orthents – tekstur berlempung atau berliat 5.Psamments – tekstur berpasir. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

19 TANAH ENTISOLS Entisols adalah tanah-tanah yang menunjukkan sedikit (belum ada) perkembangan horison pedogenik. Entisols ditemukan di daerah bahan induk deposit muda atau di daerah-daerah dimana laju erosi atau deposisi lebih cepat daripada laju perkembangan tanah ; seperti lereng curam, dataran banjir dan dunes. Entisols ditemukan pada beragam kondisi lingkungan. Entisols meliputi sekitar 16% permukaan lahan di bumi yang bebas es. Diunduh dari: ………….. 25/2/2013

20 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Konsep sentral Entisols adalah tanah-tanah yg menunjukkan sedikit (tanpa) bukti perkembangan horison pedogenik. Banyak Entisols mempunyai epipedon okhrik dan beberapa mempunyai epipedon anthropic. Banyak Entisols teksturnya berpasir dan sangat dangkal (tipis).

21 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Konsep sentral Entisols adalah tanah- tanah yg menunjukkan sedikit (tanpa) bukti perkembangan horison pedogenik. Banyak Entisols mempunyai epipedon okhrik dan beberapa mempunyai epipedon anthropic. Banyak Entisols teksturnya berpasir dan sangat dangkal (tipis).

22 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Entisols tidak mempunyai horison penciri. Beberapa Entisols mempunyai lereng curah dan tererosi intensif, dan tanah-tanah lainnya ditemukan di dataran banjir, dataran “glacial outwash” yang menerima material aluvium secara periodik. Aquents Aquents, atau Entisols banyak ditemukan secara luas. They dominate some of the delineations along the southern Atlantic and gulf coasts and on the flood plains along the Mississippi River and along other rivers and streams. Some Aquents are forming, mostly in sandy deposits, in other parts of the country. Most of the soils are forming in recent sediments. They support vegetation that tolerates permanent or periodic wetness. Tanah-tanah ini banyak digunakan sebagai pasture, lahan pertanian, hutan atau wildlife habitat. Arents Arents tidak mempunyai horison penciri karena mereka telah mengalami pencampuran material akibat pengolahan tanah. Tanah-tanah ini sangat penting untuk produksi tanaman irigasi di California. Arents kebanyakan dikelola sebagai lahan pertanian, lahan urban, atau pasture. Sebagian juga digunakan sebagai “wildlife habitat”.

23 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Fluvents Fluvents adalah Entisols yang drainagenya bagus, berasal dari bahan sedimen air di dataran banjir, fans, dan delta di sepanjang sungai dan anak-anak sungainya. Some of the largest areas are on the flood plains along the River. Most Fluvents are frequently flooded, unless they are protected by dams or levees. Stratification of the materials is normal. Kebanyakan Fluvents digunakan sebagai rangeland, hutan, pasture, lahan pertanian, atau wildlife habitat. Orthents They are commonly on recent erosional surfaces. Orthents are used mostly as rangeland, pasture, or wildlife habitat. Psamments Tanah-tanah ini teksturnya berpasir pada semua lapisannya. Tanah-tanah ini merupakan lahan-gembalaan ternak yang produktif, di daerah iklim arid dan semiarid. Some Psamments that are nearly bare are subject to soil blowing and drifting and provide poor support for wheeled vehicles. Psamments are used mostly as rangeland, pasture, or wildlife habitat.

24 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 13/2/2013 Entisols juga ditemukan di delta sungai, dimana lahan baru terbentuk oleh deposisi sedimen dari banjir tahunan. Beberapa tanah pertanian produktif adalah Fluvents yang merupakan Entisols yang terbentuk oleh proses-proses fluvial. The ancient hydraulic societies that emerged along the Tigres, Euphrates, Nile and Indus rivers were supported by the richness of Fluvents. Kriteria utama Ordo Entisol adalah tidak-adanya organisasi material tanah. Tanah-tanah ini menunjukkan sedikit (tidak-ada) perkembangan struktur atau horison dan menyerupai material dalam timbunan pasir segar.

25 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Entisols : Soils that have little or slight development and properties that reflect their parent material (ent root from the word recent). They include soils on steep slopes, flood plains, and sand dunes. They also form on very resistant rock or deep deposits of sand. They occur in many environments. They have an ochric and none diagnostic features. Profil yang tipikal mempunyai urutan horison A, C, atau A, Bw, C (dimana Bw bukan kambik karena terlalu berpasir).

26 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 SUB-ORDO 1.Wassents - Entisols yang tergenang selama lebih dari 21 jam setiap hari 2.Aquents - Entisols dengan muka-air tanah di dekat permukaan dalam waktu yg lama dalam setahun 3.Arents - Entisols that have been disturbed and contain fragments of diagnostic horizons that are not arranged in any discernable order 4.Psamments – Entisols sangat berpasir 5.Fluvents - Entisols aluvial yg lazim ditemukan di dataran banjir 6.Orthents - Entisols yang tidak memenuhi kriteria sub-ordo lainnya.

27 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Typic Udifluvent : SW Wisconsin Sifat dinamis dari landskap fluvial menghasilkan ciri- ciri yang tampak pada tanah-tanah Flvents. Deposisi material sedimen baru secara periodik menghasilkan banyak lapisan-lapisan mineral dan bahan organik dalam profil tanah ini. This upbuilding process limits expression of the soil- forming processes seen in other soil orders. Note the presence of a thick buried A horizon at depth in this profile. Sifat yang menonjol pada Fluvents adalah penurunan secara tidak teratur kandungan bahan organik dengan kedalaman tanah.

28 TANAH ENTISOLS: (Flybow series) (Flybow series) Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Lithic Xerorthent These soils have formed from basalt residuum and are very shallow to bedrock.The 10-cm-thick A horizon represents the extent of soil formation on this steeply sloping landscape position. Tanah-tanah ini penggunaannya sangat terbatas, karena biasanya solumnya sangat tipis. Pemanfaatannya yang lazim adalah sebagai lahan-gembalaan ternak dan “gravel quarries”.

29 The Flybow series consists of very shallow, well drained soils with moderate permeability that formed in material weathered from basalt and greenstone. Tanah-tanah Flybow mempunyai kemiringan 4 – 100 %. Rataan curah hujan tahunan 19 inchi dan rataan suhu tahunan 48oF. KELAS TAKSONOMI: Loamy-skeletal, mixed, superactive, nonacid, mesic Lithic Xerorthents CIRI-CIRI PEDON: A: inchi; dark yellowish brown (10YR 4/4) extremely cobbly loam, dark brown (7.5YR 3/3) moist; weak very fine granular structure; slightly hard, very friable, moderately sticky and moderately plastic; many very fine and fine, few medium roots; many very fine and fine interstitial pores; 40 percent cobbles, 30 percent gravel; slightly acid (pH 6.2); abrupt smooth boundary. (tebalnya inchi). R: 5 inchi; Hancuran basalt dengan material tanah di antara hancuran tersebut, sedikit akar tumbuhan. TANAH ENTISOLS: (Flybow series) (Flybow series) Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013

30 CIRI-CIRI PENTING : 1.Depth to bedrock - 4 to 10 inches Average annual soil temperature : oF. Average summer soil temperature : 65-70oFF. Moisture control section - dry 45 to 90 days in summer 2.Particle-size control section (weighted averages): clay content - 8 to 25 percent rock fragment content - 35 to 75 percent with less than 45 percent stones 3.Horison A Hue - 7.5YR, 10YR atau 2.5Y Value kering: 3 - 5, Value lembab: 3 atau 4 Chroma , kering atau lembab Kandungan bahan organik: kurang dari 1 % Kemasmaan tganah: Netral – Agak masam. TANAH ENTISOLS: (Flybow series) (Flybow series) Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013

31 DRAINAGE & PERMEABILITas: Well drained; medium to very rapid runoff; moderate permeability. USE AND VEGETATION: These soils are used for rangeland, recreation, and wildlife habitat. The natural vegetation is bluebunch wheatgrass, Sandberg bluegrass, cutleaf balsamroot, phlox, biscuitroot, wild onion, penstemon, and eriogonum. CIRI DOMINAN: Horison penciri dan sifat-sifat penting: 1.Epipedon Okhrik: Zone dari permukaan hingga 5 inchi (Horison A ). 2.Particle-size control section: Zone from the surface to 5 inches 3.Lithic contact : pada kedalaman 5 inches (R) 4.Rezim lengas-tanah: Xerik. TANAH ENTISOLS: (Flybow series) (Flybow series) Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013

32 TANAH ENTISOLS: Quincy series Quincy series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Mixed, mesic Xeric Torripsamment This soil formed in fine-grained eolian sand. The C2 horizon contains lenses of very fine sand within the fine sand, reflecting the tendency of wind-blown materials to be sorted in transit. The only soil development expressed in this soil is a 2-cm-thick A horizon. The soil contains very little clay and organic matter, both of which serve as particle binding agents. As a result, the soil is structureless and loose.

33 TANAH ENTISOLS: Quincy series Quincy series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 The Quincy series consists of very deep, excessively drained soils formed in sands on dunes and terraces. Slopes are 0 to 65 percent. The mean annual precipitation is about 10 inches and the mean annual temperature is about 52oF. TAXONOMIC CLASS: Mixed, mesic Xeric Torripsamments TYPICAL PEDON: A--0 to 15 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; single grain; loose; many fine roots; porous; moderately alkaline (pH 8.0); clear wavy boundary. (0 to 20 inches thick) C--15 to 60 inches; grayish brown (10YR 5/2) fine sand, dark brown (10YR 3/3) moist; single grain; loose; common fine and very fine roots; porous; slightly effervescent; moderately alkaline (pH 8.2).

34 TANAH ENTISOLS: Quincy series Quincy series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 SIFAT DAN CIRI: Rataan tahunan suhu tanah 50 – 57oF, dan rataan suhu musim panas 66 – 78oF. Tanah-tanah ini lembab selama musim dingin dan musim semi, tetapi kering selama lebih separuh waktu tersebut suhu tanah lebih 40oF., sekitar hari berturutan. Tanah-tanah ini kering pada kedalaman inchi. Hue 10YR atau 2.5Y. Value kering, lembab dan chroma lembab atau kering. Bahan organik pada horison permukaan (kalau dicampur) kurang dari 1 %.. The 10 to 40 inch particle-size control section ranges from sand to loamy fine sand. Less than 75 percent of the sand is very coarse, coarse, and medium if the clay content is less than 5 percent. If the clay content exceeds 5 percent, more than 75 percent of the sand fraction can be in the very coarse, coarse and medium size classes. The upper 15 inches of these soils is free of lime, except for small particles brought up by insects and animals. The matrix below 15 inches is noncalcareous in some pedons. Reaction in the upper 20 inches is slightly acid to moderately alkaline, and below 20 inches it is neutral to moderately alkaline. Beberapa pedon mempunyai material yang bersifat “unconforming”, termasuk pasir kasar, lempung berpasir halus, lempung berpasir sangat halus, lempung debu, pasir berkerikil, pasir halur berlempung berkerikil, pada ke dalaman di bawah 40 inchi.

35 TANAH ENTISOLS: Quincy series Quincy series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 DRAINAGE & PERMEABILITAS: Excessively drained; very slow to moderate runoff; very rapid or rapid permeability. Substratum phases range from moderate to slow permeability. PENGGUNAAN & VEGETASI: Tanah-tanah ini digunakan untuk penggembalaan ternak, dan lahan pertanian irigasi. Kawasan irigasi ditanami dnegan kentang, hijauan hay, pasture, biji-bijian, anggur, dan pohon buah- buahan. Vegetasi alamiahnya berupa rerumputan, thickspike wheatgrass, Indian ricegrass, rabbitbrush, horsebrush, fourwing saltbush, Antelope bitterbrush, dan semak- belukar.

36 TANAH ENTISOLS: Quincy series Quincy series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 SERIES ESTABLISHED: Grant County, Washington, Horison Penciri dan sifat-sifat penting pada pedon ini adalah: 1.Epipedon Okhrik 2.Particle-size control section - from 10 to 40 inches that is sandy throughout 3.Those pedons with bedrock or duripans between 40 and 60 inches previously included within the Quincy series concept, will no longer be considered with the series concept 4.Rezim lengas-tanah Aridik mendekati XERIK.

37 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 13/2/2013 Typic Udipsamment This soil occurs in glacial outwash on outwash plains in northern Michigan. Horison B mempunyai sedikit akumulasi sesquioksida illuvial dan selimut tipis bahan organik iluvial, tetapi tidak cukup banyak untuk memenuhi kualifikasi sebagai Spodosol. Tekstur pasir menyebabkan horison Bw tidak memenuhi kualifikasi sebagai horison penciri KAMBIK dalam sistem Soil Taxonomy.

38 TANAH ENTISOLS: Garbutt series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Typic Torriorthent Bahan induk tanah ini adalah bahan aluvium berbedu yang berasal dari sedimen lacustrine berkapur, dan hanya mengalami sedikit alterasi oleh proses –proses pemebentukan tganah. Horizon formation is limited to the light-colored A horizon, where a slight accumulation of organic matter has aided the development of some soil structure. Kondisi iklim arid, telah membatasi proses pencucian dan sejumlah besar CaCO3 masih ada di horison bagian atas.

39 TANAH ENTISOLS: Garbutt series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 The Garbutt series consists of very deep, well drained soils on fan terraces, basalt plains, and alluvial fans. Tanah-tanah ini berkembang dari bahan induk loess dan bahan aluvium berdebu. Permeabilitasnya moderat. Kemiringannya 0 – 12%. Rataan curah hujan tahunan sekitar 8 inches dan rataan suhu tahunan sekitar 51o F. KELAS TAKSONOMI Coarse-silty, mixed, superactive, calcareous, mesic Typic Torriorthents Torriorthents.

40 TANAH ENTISOLS: Garbutt series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 TYPICAL PEDON: Garbutt silt loam - rangeland, on a 1 percent slope at 2,400 feet elevation. A: inchi; lempung debu, kelabu kecoklatan terang (10YR 6/2), coklat gelap (10YR 4/3) lembab; struktur pipih, kuat, medium; agar keras, gembur; strongly effervescent; agak alkalis; batas horison abrupt smooth. (tebalnya inchi) C1--5 to 27 inches; light gray (10YR 7/2) very fine sandy loam, dark brown (10YR 4/3) moist; massive; soft, very friable; violently effervescent; moderately alkaline; abrupt smooth boundary. (16 to 30 inches thick) C2: inchi; lempung berpasir sangat halus, kelabu terang (10YR 7/1), coklat kelabu (10YR 5/2) lembab; massif; keras, tegung; violently effervescent; agak alkalis; batas horison clear-smooth. (tebalnya inchi). C3: inchi; Lempung berpasir sangat halus, kelabu-terang (10YR 7/2), coklat kelabu-gelap (10YR 4/2) lembab; masif; keras, teguh; violently effervescent; agak alkalis.

41 TANAH ENTISOLS: Garbutt series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 SIFAT DAN CIRI: Rataan tahaunan suhu tanah: 47 to 54 o F Seksi kontrol persen liat: Texture - very fine sandy loam or silt loam Reaction - mildly to strongly alkaline Mineralogy - mixed with 1 or more layers having 20 to 50% volcanic glass in the sand and silt fraction. Horison A Hue : 10YR atau 2.5Y Value : kering, lembab Chroma- 2 – 4. Horison C Value : kering, 4 -6 lembab Chroma: Calcium carbonate : % CaCO3.

42 TANAH ENTISOLS: Garbutt series Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 DRAINAGE & PERMEABILITas: Well drained; slow or medium runoff; moderate permeability. PENGGUNAAN & VEGETASI: Irrigated areas are used for production of beans, corn, alfalfa, sugar beets, small grains, hay and pasture. Potential vegetation in the natural plant community is winterfat, bud sagebrush, shadscale, bottlebrush squirreltail, Sandberg bluegrass, and Indian ricegrass. CIRI DOMINAN: Horison penciri dan sifat-sifat penting: Epipedon Okhrik: inchi (Horison A) Seksi kontrol ukuran partikel: inchi.

43 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Typic Udipsamment (Mixed, mesic) Profil ini difoto di lokasi Buncombe County, North Carolina. Tanah berasal dari bahan aluvium muda pada lereng hampir datar. Material aluvium pasir halus berlempung atau lebih- kasar biasanya berdekatan dengan aliran sungai. Kebanyakan area telah dibuka dari hutan alamiahnya dan digarap untuk tanaman pertanian dan pasture. This profile has a 45 cm A horizon over a single grain C horizon. All horizons are slightly acid, loamy fine sand or coarser texture. More than 10 percent of the sand is feldspar, mica, and other weatherable minerals. Ada horison A terkubur pada kedalaman 160 cm, tetapi terlalu dalam untuk mempengaruhi klasifikasi profil ini.

44 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Typic Torrifluvent (Coarse-loamy, mixed, superactive, calcareous, thermic) Profil tanah ini difoto di lokasi Graham County, Arizona. Tanah ini berasal dari bahan induk aluvium berstrata di dataran banjir dan kipas aluvial yg agak miring. Profil tanah ini merupakan lahan irigasi dan mempunyai horison AP 10 inchi. (Pit ini kedalamannya 4.5 feet) Most of the profile is silt loam in texture with some slightly darker colored layers indicative of slightly more organic carbon indicative of fluvial depositions. There are no indications of B horizon formation and below the Ap horizon is a sequence of C horizons. Keseluruhan profil tanah bersifat berkapur dengan nilai pH = 8. Ada akumulasi tidak-teratur bahan putih, tepung CaCO3 menyelimuti liang-liang akar di horison C. Banyak dari tanah-tanah ini telah “diratakan” untuk memudahkan irigasi kapas, alfalfa dan tanaman lainnya crops.

45 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Ustoxic Quartzipsamment (Nonacid isohyperthermic) Profil tanah ini difoto di lokasi Zambia, Africa. Tanah ini berasal dari material pasir eolian pada bagian bawah lereng yang hampir datar hingga berombak. Kandungan liatnya meningkat secara bertahap dengan kedalaman tanah hingga 167 cm, tetapi tidak melebihi 12%. Kandungan debu kurang dari 2% pada kebanyhakan kedalmaan tanah. Sand content is greater than 87% throughout the profile and is 93% quartz. The profile is in an ustic soil moisture regime, silt content plus 2x the clay content exceeds 5% and the apparent CEC7 value is less than 16 cmols Kg-1 clay placing the soil in the Ustoxic subgroup. The silt plus clay content requirement for the Ustoxic subgroup is the same as for coated families thus negating a coated family identification. pH value in one part of the control section (25-50 cm) is greater than 5.0 in 0.01M CaCl2 (1:2) placing the profile in a nonacid family. Kebanyakan area masih berupa hutan, tetapi menghadapi ancaman erosi angin yang serius. Tanah-tanah ini dianggap tidak sesuai untuk produksi tanaman pertanian.

46 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Spodic Quartzipsamment (coated, thermic) Profil tanah ini difoto di lokasi Brunswick county North Carolina. Tanah ini berasal dari sedimen berpasir dataran pantai Atlantik. Spodosols frequently develop on these sandy materials but at this site only intermittent bodies of organic and aluminum cemented spodic material have formed between 40 and 70 cm. These spodic bodies do not form a spodic horizon thus the soil is not a Spodosol and classifies as a Quartzipsamment but with the presence of more than 25 percent spodic bodies in that layer classifies as a Spodic subgroup. Tanah-tanah ini secara alami berupa hutan pinus dan campuran vegetasi kayu keras, jarang yang dibudidayakan.

47 TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Typic Udorthent (Loamy, carbonatic, thermic, shallow) Profil tanah ini difoto di Kemper County, Mississippi. Tanah berkembang dari bahan induk kapur dan batu-kapur lunak pada lereng 3 %. The entire profile is moderately alkaline in reaction. The silty clay loam ochric epipedon seen in this profile is 18 cm thick over a friable silty clay loam C horizon. Horison Cr ditemupak pada kedalaman 33 cm dimana “kapur” sangat teguh. Kebanyakan tanah-tanah ini digunakan untuk produksi hijauan pakan (hay) dan pasture.

48 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: geoyogi.files.wordpress.com/.../nama-dan-jenis-ta... ………… 13/2/2013 Pengelolaan : Tanah entisol dapat digunakan apabila dikembangkan metode baru, misalnya sistem drainase untuk mengairi tanah ketika kadar asamnya mulai rendah, dapat ditambah dengan pemupukan dengan hasil yang optimal. Pada tanah entisol tidak terdapat hewan-hewan seperti cacing, karena keadaanya yang kurang subur, dan komposisi mineralnya adalah terdapatnya mineral kuarsa dan oksida besi.

49 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: agrisci.ugm.ac.id/vol10_2/7_yani_entisol.pdf ………… 13/2/2013 Ilmu Pertanian Vol. 10 No. 2, 2003 : SIFAT KIMIA ENTISOL PADA SISTEM PERTANIAN ORGANIK Sri Nuryani H Utami dan Suci Handayani Penelitian ini mengungkap seberapa perubahan yang terjadi atas sifat fisik dan kimia tanah yang telah melakukan sistem pertanian organik selama beberapa kali. Penelitian menggunakan metode sampling pada lahan milik petani yang telah diteliti melakukan perlakuan sistem pertanian organik dan non organik. Dua contoh tanah di ambil dari 2 loka yang berbeda untuk mewakili tanah sistem pertanian organik dan 4 contoh tanah diambil dari 4 lokasi yang berbeda mewakili sistem pertanian non organik. Pengambilan contoh tanah dilakukan pada kedalaman lapis olah 20 cm. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perbedaan yang nyata terhadap sifat kimia tanah (KPK, pH H2O, P tersedia, K tersedia, N total, kandungan karbon, asam humat dan fulfat) antara tanah dengan sistem pertanian organik dan non organik yang menunjukkan nilai lebih baik pada sistem pertanian organik.

50 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: images.soemarno.multiply.multiplycontent.com/.../...………… 13/2/2013 PENGARUH DOSIS DAN FREKUENSI PUPUK CAIR TERHADAP SERAPAN N DAN PERTUMBUHAN SAWI (Brassica juncea L.) PADA ENTISOL Budi Prasetya, Syahrul Kurniawan, dan Febrianingsih M. Agritek 2009, 17(5): Entisol merupakan salah satu jenis tanah yang kandungan bahan organik rendah dan teksturnya didominasi oleh pasir. Tanah dengan karakter tersebut umumnya mempunyai permasalahan dalam penyedian unsur hara bagi tanaman khususnya unsur nitrogen karena pencucian. Upaya pengelolaan yang dapat dilakukan untuk meningkatkan nitrogen dalam tanah yaitu dengan pemberian pupuk anorganik (urea dan ZA) dan pemberian pupuk organik misalnya pupuk cair dari air kelapa dan kotoran ayam. Tujuan penelitian ini meliputi: pertama mempelajari pengaruh pemberian dosis pupuk cair pada pertumbuhan tanaman sawi, kedua mempelajari pengaruh serapan N dan pertumbuhan tanaman sawi, ketiga mempelajari pengaruh frekuensi pemberian pupuk cair pada pertumbuhan tanaman sawi. Hipotesis penelitian ini meliputi: pertama, semakin meningkat pemberian dosis pupuk cair mampu meningkatkan pertumbuhan tanaman sawi, kedua, semakin besar serapan N tanaman maka makin tinggi pertumbuhan tanaman sawi, dan ketiga semakin tinggi frekuensi pemberian pupuk cair maka pertumbuhan tanaman sawi semakin tinggi.

51 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 13/2/2013 Nature and Properties of Some Cultivated Entisols Under Peach Orchards Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis Volume 35, Issue 11-12, 2004 Entisols have developed from Quaternary deposits in northwestern Turkey under xeric moisture and thermic temperature regimes. The morphological features and physico- chemical properties of ten soil profiles representing the major Entisols under Mediterranean climate in northwestern Turkey were studied. These soils show a similar variation in morphological, physical, and chemical properties as a result of similar parent material, topography, climate, and vegetation. Entisols were developed in the 700 mm precipitation zone. These soils occur in nearly flat areas and are characterized by being dry in summers and moist in winter months. It is believed that present agricultural practices are degrading Entisols in this area.

52 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Mineralogical characteristics of the clay fraction of Entisols. Recio, P.; García-González, M. T.; García Vicente, J. Agrobiología 1980 Vol. 39 No. 11/12 pp The morphological, chemical and mineralogical characteristics of two vertic xerofluvents from la Sagra, Toledo, Spain, developed from tertiary sediments, are described. The sand fraction of both profiles consisted predominantly of quartz, with small amounts of felspars, calcite and micas; gypsum was present in one profile. Fraksi liat didominasi oleh illite, di-iringi oleh kaolinit, vermikulit dan khlorit. Oksida-oksida amorf, terutama besi, jumlahnya berlebihan.

53 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Humus formation in Entisols from horticultural waste. Singh, L.; Nigėm, R.; De, S. K. Pochvovedenie 1990 No. 9 pp Humus formation in Entisols was studied in a pot experiment for 30 and 60 days using apple peel, mango peel and banana peel at three moisture levels: unsaturated (20%), saturated (40%) and over-saturated (70%) water holding capacity. More α- and β-humic acids were obtained from apple peel than banana or mango peels at saturated and unsaturated moisture levels, resp. Setelah 60 hari, humifikasi lebih baik pada dosis aplikasi 2.5 g/100 g tanah daripada dosis 0.5 g/100 g tanah.

54 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Developments in Soil Salinity Assessment and Reclamation. 2013, pp Exploring Soil Salinity Management in Entisols Using Trickle Irrigation System M. Nurul Alam AkhandM. Nurul Alam Akhand, Basel Al Araj Entisols are common soils in the arid regions and have the potential for irrigated agriculture. Irrigation management is one of the practices that can assist in achieving such a goal. In fact, irrigation methods along with better scheduling can manage the wetting-front movement and salt accumulation in the root zone. Micro-irrigation methods are usually desirable under water scarcity/salinity situations to facilitate water conservation and managing soil salinity. Pola emitter segitiga meminimumkan perkembangan salinitas tanah dibandingkan dengan perkembangan salinitas pada pola tipe-square, melalui proses overlapping bidang pembasahan dan pencuciannya lebih lanjut. Emitter yg lebih rapat juga menghasilkan “overlaps” bidang pembasahan, dan membantu mengurangi akumulasi garam. Temuan hasil penelitian ini membantu merumuskan praktek manajemen irigasi yang paling sesuai untuk membudidayakan berbagai jenis tanaman pada lingkungan saline.

55 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: staffcv.uofk.edu/agriculture/Soil/mamustafa/.../paper%2072.pdf ………… 13/2/2013 Sudani Des. Res. 3(1).' 496], 20H Assessment and Mapping of Wind Erodibility of Aridisols and Entisols in the Nile State, Sudan. Abdelmonim Ahmed Hassan and Mukhtar Ahmed Nlustafa The mean NEP (non erodible particle) values ranged from 4.3 to 98.1% with an overall mean coefficient of variation of replicate determinations equal to The equivalent WE ranged from Ü to ton/ha. The results showed a highly significant (P 0.001) power increase of NEP with increase 0f clay (C). CaCO3 and organic matter (OM)` and decrease with increase of sand and sand plus silt expressed, successively, as ratios of clay, clay plus OM and clay plus CaC03. The reverse trends were obtained for the relations of WE and the various soil properties and their ratios. Multiple regressions relationships of NEP or WE with sand, CaCO3, and OM gave coefficients of determinations equal to 65 and 69%, respectively. Thus, it was recommended that clay or (Si+S)f'(C+CaCO3) should be used for predicting NEP and the standard table should be used to get the equivalent WE. A table for wind erodibility groups was developed.

56 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 ALVA, A.K., PARAMASIVAM, S., WHEATON, T.A., SYVERTSEN, J.P., TUCKER, D.H. OPTIMAL CITRUS PRODUCTION AND WATER QUALITY IN SANDY ENTISOLS. INTERNATIONAL SOCIETY OF CITRICULTURE PROCEEDINGS, Orlando, FL, p Groundwater nitrate-N (NO3-N) levels above10 mg L-1 have been found in some parts of the central Florida citrus production region where soils with >95% sand have no confining soil horizons (Entisols). Mature Hamlin orange tree on Cleopatra Mandarin rootstock were growing on a well drained Tavares fine sand (hyperthermic, uncoated Typic Quartzipsamments) in Highland County, Florida. Nitrogen rates from 112 to 280 kg ha-1 yr-1 were applied as eithe fertigation (FRT; 15 appl yr-1), water soluble granular (WSG; 4 appl yr-1), a combination of 50% FRT and 50% WSG ( appl yr-1), or controlled- release fertilizer (CRF; 1 appl yr-1). Tensiometers (15 and 30 cm depth) were used to schedule irrigation to minimize leaching. Leaching was estimated from tensiometers located below the rooting depth where leached NO3-N was sampled using suction lysimeters. Within an N rate, mean fruit yield, over 6 years, was greater with FRT or WSG forms of N than that with either WSG+FRT or CRF sources. Optimum fruit yield was obtained at about 250 kg N ha-1 where the spring flush N concentration was within the range of 2.5 to 2.7%. Most of the water and nutrient leaching occurred during May through September. Using careful scheduling of irrigation and nutrient application, leaching of NO3-N accounted 22 to 34 kg ha-1 yr-1 and the NO3- concentration in the leachate remained below the 10 mg L-1 limit.

57 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Grain Yield Response of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) to Tied Ridges and Planting Methods on Entisols and Vertisols of Alemaya Area, Eastern Ethiopian Highlands Heluf Gebrekidan Jour. of Agric. and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics. Vol 104, No 2 (2003) Flat bed planting produced the lowest grain yields on all sets of experiments except under the unfertilized condition of Entisols in which open end planting on ridges produced the lowest sorghum yield. Within the tied ridges, closed end performed better than open end in all except the Vertisols without N and P fertilizers. Compared with the traditional (flat bed) planting method, the highest yield increment of 1361 kg/ha (34.5%) due to tied ridges was obtained on the Entisols with NP followed by 1255 kg/ha (48.5%), indicating that the yield response to water conservation treatments was higher under fertilized than under unfertilized conditions. Fertilization increased the yield of sorghum by as high as 1576 kg/ha (69.5%) on Vertisols and by 1468 kg/ha (38.3%) on Entisols both from planting in the furrows of closed end tied ridges. The study also revealed that the yield response was higher in seasons with low or poorly distributed rains and on shallow and coarse textured soils.T he results indicate that in areas with low and erratic rainfall such as the Alemaya area, soil and water conservation is indispensable for increasing crop yield.

58 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 2009, Volume : 57, Issue : 1. p Assessment of Field Indicators of Soil Quality following Long-term Cultivation of Pulses on Entisols in Indo Gangetic Plain Ganeshamurthy A.N., Srinivasarao Pulse crops, in addition to enriching the soil with nitrogen, have the ability to improve the soil quality. To understand the impact of continuous cultivation of pulses on soil health, eleven field indicators of soil quality were assessed in three systems viz., continuous pulse crops, farmer's practice of random non-pulse crop rotations and uncultivated barren lands on Entisols in Indo Gangetic plain. The measured soil quality indicators allowed us to infer an unambiguous quality improvement in plots cultivating pulses continuously compared to farmer's fields, which had non-pulse crops for the past 15 years. The barren land showed the lowest values. Indikator lapangan dalam penelitian ini dapai dipakai oleh petani untuk menilai kualitas tanahnya dan melakukan tindakan koreksi, tetapi tidak dapat dipakai untuk membandingkan tanah-tanah yang sifat alamiahnya berbeda.

59 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 13/2/2013 Soil changes following long-term cultivation of pulses Ganeshamurthy AN Journal of Agricultural Science. [2009, 147(6): ] Studies were conducted on Entisols to understand the effects of continuous pulse cultivation on soil chemical, physical and biological properties by comparing with continuous non-pulse crops and uncultivated soils. Soils of a Typic Ustochrept, developed from the same parent material, from 16-year-old pulse cultivation fields, non-pulse crop fields and uncultivated fallow fields in a location with uniform topography were analysed using a polyphasic approach combining traditional soil physical and chemical analysis, culture-dependent and independent microbiological analysis and enzymatic analysis. Among the soil physical properties, only soil aggregate stability and soil compaction showed significant improvement in soils under pulses than non-pulse crops. Compared to uncultivated fallows, the soil pH after pulse cultivation was about 1 unit lower while non-pulse crop cultivation reduced it by 0·36. The chemical and biological variables that contribute most to the discrimination of the pulses effect and non-pulse crops effect on soil quality are organic carbon (C), microbial biomass C, nitrogen (N) and biomass ninhydrin-N, and secondary variables related to N cycle:nitrate (NO3–N), organic and total soluble N. The enzyme activities were significantly higher in soils after pulse cultivation than after non-pulse crops or uncultivated fallow. The soil quality of pulse cultivation fields seems to be markedly different to that of non-pulse crop fields and uncultivated fallows in terms of all the variables studied.NO3

60 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 13/2/2013 Micronutrient distribution and their association with soil properties in Entisols of Punjab SHARMA B. D. ; AGGARWAL V. K. ; MUKHOPADHYAY S. S. ; ARORA Harsh Indian journal of agricultural science. 2002, vol. 72, n o 6, pp An investigation was carried out during 2000 to study surface and profile distribution of total and diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable zinc, copper, manganese and iron in Entisols of Punjab. The soils were developed on sand-dunes, floodplains and Siwalik hills region. They showed gradual increase in the fineness of soil texture from sanddune to the mountain region and were associated with aridic, ustic and udic moisture regime. The soils were stratified, near neutral to alkaline (pH 6.5 to 9.0) and calcareous. In general, total and DTPA-extractable micronutrients were higher in surface horizons and decreased in subsurface horizons. Soil taxonomic units had a influence on the spatial distribution for total and available content of micronutrient in these soils. The total content varied from 15 to 76 mg/kg for zinc, from 1 to 31 mg/kg for copper, from 100 to mg/kg for manganese and from 0.80 to 3.70% for iron. The DTPA-extractable content varied mg/kg for zinc, mg/kg for copper, mg/kg for manganese and mg/ kg for iron. Both total and available micronutrients were higher in the fine- textured soils of Orthents and Fluvents than the coarse-textured soils of Psamments. The total content ofmicronutrients increased with increase in clay content and cation-exchange capacity (CEC), whereas DTPA- extractable micronutrient increased with increase in organic carbon content and CFC, and decreased with increasing pH and sand content. The total reserve of Zn and Cu showed an influence on availability of these respective micronutrients. Zinc deficiencies were wide spread (47%), followed by Fe (34%) in the cultivated Entisols. These results indicated that zinc is likely to constrain crop production, followed by Fe in Entisols of the Punjab region.

61 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Genesis and classification of Entisols in Mediterranean climate in Northwest of Turkey Gokhan Ozsoy and Ertugrul Aksoy Journal of Food, Agriculture & Environment Vol.9 (3&4): The soils are neogene aged AC horizon and have parent material mostly cemented with lime. Four of them were formed on steep slopes where soil erosion is in crucial stage and classified as Orthents. They were weakly developed, commonly on such steep slopes, subject to erosion and were usually very shallow and rocky soils and had moisture limitations due to the Mediterranean climate. The other two profiles were from young river terraces and classified as Fluvents due to their morphological, chemical and physical characteristics. They we re very deep soils with flat topography and very fertile soils for agricultural use but they had some physical limitations because of inaccurate and intensive cultivation. The main limiting factors regarding soil productivity for the studied soils were soil shallowness, summer drought, low organic matter content and high contents of CaCO3 and clay. Problem related to salinity and alkalinity was not found in the studied soils. The soil profiles were classified up to subgroup level as Typic Xerorthent, Lithic Xerorthent and Typic Xerofluvent according to the Soil Taxonomy and Eutric Leptosol, Calcaric Regosol and Calcaric Fluvisol soil units according to the FAO/Unesco Soil Map of the World legend classification system

62 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science. 2006, Volume : 54, Issue : 2 p Different Forms of Sulphur and their Relationship with Properties of Entisols of Jaipur District (Rajasthan) under Mustard Cultivation Jat J.R., Yadav B.L. The total S content in mustard growing soils of Jaipur district ranged from to mgkg −1 with a mean value of mgkg −1. The mean values of organic-S, S0 4 -S and non- sulphate-S were 36.39, and mg kg −1, respectively. All the forms of sulphur gave significant positive correlation with organic carbon indicating sulphur as the integral part of soil organic matter. Correlation studies between silt, clay and forms of sulphur indicate that appreciable quantity of sulphur was adsorbed on finer fractions of soils. Significant negative correlation was observed with sand but had non-significant correlation with pH of soils except S0 4 -S, The step-down multiple regression equations revealed that organic carbon had greater impact on different forms of sulphur followed by soil texture. Sekitar 33.75% tanah-tanah yang diteliti mengalami defisien sulfur tersedia.

63 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Soil Erosion Management Practices in the Prefecture of Kilkis, Northern Greece A. Haroulis, Th. Karyotis, M. Toulios and Th. Mitsimponas 12th ISCO Conference. Beijing 2002 These soils cover mainly hilly areas, have been classified as Entisols, Inceptisols or Alfisols, and are usually cultivated by wheat, maize, cotton, tobacco and sugar beets. Pronounced differences on soil depth, texture, water holding capacity, and nutrients have been recorded. Available phosphorus was very low in the subsurface layers, whilst potassium ranges in the ploughing layers and magnesium was in normal levels. Nutrient loss is quite severe and nitrogen leaching seems to play a dominant role in the decline of the crop yield, hence on farmers income. Attention should be paid in the water shortage during the dry season, which affect land cover and erosion risk is increased during the rainy season. In particular, it can be argued that in this semi-arid region the following measures and practices may be adopted such as: the policy of subsidies which encourage farmers for rotation or set aside of marginal areas, incentives for reforestration, minimum ploughing and/or ploughing along contour-lines, rational irrigation by means of the extension of drip irrigation systems may be applied, avoidance the burning of plant residues after harvesting and in general adoption of a sustainable land use planning may be introduced.

64 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: ………… 14/2/2013 Journal American Society of Sugarcane Technologists, Vol.22, 2002 EFFECT OF Si-RICH SLAG AND LIME ON P LEACHING IN SANDY SOILS V.V. Matichenkov, E.A. Bocharnikova, B. Ande, P. Ande, D. V. Calvert Phosphorus (P) contamination of natural surface and subsurface waters draining from agricultural soils is a persistent environmental and economic problem in Florida. A silicon (Si) soil amendment (Si-rich slag) and lime (CaCO3) were compared to determine their effects on P leaching from cultivated Spodosols, Entisols and Alfisols in soil columns and in greenhouse experiments with Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluigge) grown under various levels of P fertilization. The Si slag reduced P leaching considerably more than lime in all soils investigated. Lime transformed plant-available P into plant-unavailable forms, while Si slag maintained P in a plant- available form. In greenhouse experiments, plant growth responses were greater from Si slag- treated soil than from P fertilization. The Si slag improved P availability and had a positive effect on the development of the Bahiagrass root system. Application of Si slag to sandy soils could help reduce P leaching and the potential pollution of natural waters.

65 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Inorganic phosphorus forms in some entisols and aridisols of Egypt Sabry M. Shaheen a, Christos D. Tsadilas b,, Stamatis Stamatiadis Geoderma 142 (2007) 217–225 Among the P availability indices determined,Olsen-P concentration was highest in fluvial soils, Chang and Jackson-P in lacustrine and calcareous soils, while Mehlich1-P inmarine, fluvio-sandy and sandy soils. Ammonium oxalate-P was not detected in all soils. The dominant P fraction was HCl–Pmaking up 68, 66, 58, 52, and 30% of the fractionated P in fluvial, marine, lacustrine, calcareous, and sandy & fluvio-sandy soils, respectively. Citrate bicarbonate dithionate-P (CBD–P) was not found in all the studied samples. The relative abundance of P fractions was in the order: HCl–PNresidual-PNNaOH–PNNaHCO3– PNCB–PNCBD–P. The extracted fractions, except NaHCO3–P, correlated with CBD, ammonium oxalate and total Fe, Al, Mn, and Si as well as with clay content, cation exchange capacity, organic matter content, and active calcium carbonate ratio. Mehlich1-P and Soltanpour-P were negatively correlated to these soil properties. Olsen-P correlated with all soil inorganic P fractions. Bray1-P, Chang & Jackson-P and Saounder-P were only correlated to the NaHCO3–P fraction. Multiple regression analysis indicated that most of the examined availability indices were best predicted by NaHCO3–P. Therefore, the Olsen method was more suitable for extracting available P in these soils.

66 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: 14/2/2013 Chemical composition and salinity of leachate in two soils cultivated with onion irrigated with saline water. Pessoa, L. G. M.; Oliveira, E. E. M.; Freire, M. B. G. dos S.; Freire, F. J.; Miranda, M. A.; Santos, R. L. Dos Revista Brasileira de Ciências Agrárias Vol. 5 No. 3 pp Aiming to evaluate leachate chemical composition and salinity from two Fluvic Entisols of Pernambuco-Brazil, cultivated with onions irrigated with saline water, an experiment was carried out in random blocks, in a factorial arrange 2×3×6 (two soil types - silty clay loam and sandy loam -, three levels of electrical conductivity - 200, 700 and µS cm -1 and six levels of sodium adsorption ratio - 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 (mmol c L -1 ) 1/2 ), with four repetitions. After 30, 60 and 90 days of the transplanting the leached from the pots was collected for composition evaluation. Levels of cation, chlorine, electrical conductivity and leachate sodium adsorption ratio, collected at 30, 60 and 90 days after transplanting, with increasing salinity of irrigation water, were observed. Only 90 days after transplanting, the leachate from the soil of silty clay loam texture surpassed the levels of cation and chloride compared to leachate from sandy loam soil. Thus, more saline irrigation water promotes greater lose of elements in the soil because of their removal, which occur more slowly in soils of thinner texture.

67 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNABK210.pdf………… 14/2/2013 Lins, I.D.G., F.R. Cox, and JJ. Nicholaides Il Optimizing phosphorus fertilization rates for soybuns grown on Oxisols and associated Entiol. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 49: Although soils vary considerably In their P sorption characteristics, this factor is often not considered ina soil test Interpretation. One soil property closely related to P sorption is clay content. Residual P studies were conducted for 4 yr on three tropical soils of similar clay mineralogy, two Oxisols of 63 and 27% clay, and a Quartzipsamment of 12% clay. The Mehlich 1 (1:10) extractable P level was described as a function of time, initial soil P level, and P fertilization rate. One crop of soybeans (Glycixe max (L) Merr.] was grown each year and the yield related to extractable P, which, in turn, was related to the initial P soil !oval and P fertilization rate for a period of 1 yr. Based on a soybean price of $0.23/kg and a fertilizer P price of $1.23/kg. rates of P were calculated for each of the three soils that would maximize net returns for various initial levels of extractable P. As these rates differed markedly with clay content, a soil test interpretation was created by multiple regression based upon both Mehlich-1 extractable P concentration and clay percentage to predict a recommended rate of fertiliter phosphorus (R) as follows: R = (soil P) (clay) 2 ­ (soil P)(clay2 ).

68 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: hortsci.ashspublications.org/content/44/1/145.full.pdf………… 14/2/2013 HORTSCIENCE 44(1):145– Response of Young and Maturing Citrus Trees Grown on a Sandy Soil to Irrigation Scheduling, Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate, and Nitrogen Application Method Kelly T. Morgan, T. Adair Wheaton, William S. Castle, and Laurence R. Parsons. Methods of applying N included a dry granular fertilizer (DGF) containing soluble N applied four times annually or a controlled-release fertilizer (CRF) applied once per year and fertigation applied either four (FG04) or 30 (FG30) times annually. Critical N rates for both canopy volume and yield were between 178 and 200 kg. ha–1. The CRF and FG30 treatments produced larger trees and higher yields compared with FG04 and DGF in the young tree study, indicating that younger trees benefitted from frequent split fertilizer applications. As the trees matured and filled their allocated space, the two irrigation rates were continued and N was applied at six rates using either DGF or FG30. For these 8- to 10- year-old trees, critical values of N application rates were 210 and 204 kgÁha–1 for DGF and FG30, respectively.

69 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Diunduh dari: /ojs/index.php/jti/article/.../185 -………… 14/2/2013 Jurnal Tanah dan Iklim No. 19/2001 Dinamika Hara Nitrogen pada Tanah Sawah N.S. Mulyani, M.E. Suryadi, S. Dwiningsih, dan Haryanto. Pergerakan nitrogen dalam air genangan pada tanah Entisols sampai hari ke tujuh, menunjukkan konsentrasi N-amonium lebih tinggi dari pada N-nitrat, selanjutnya konsentrasi N-nitrat lebih besar daripada N-amonium. Pergerakan N dalam tanah Entisols menunjukkan konsentrasi N-amonium sampai hari ke-28 lebih tinggi dari pada N-nitrat. Serapan N dari pupuk oleh tanaman padi, tertinggi pada tanah Inceptisols sebesar 78,0% dan terendah pada tanah Entisols sebesar 17,2%.

70 PENGELOLAAN TANAH ENTISOLS Foto:smno.kampus.ub.janu2013 …….……. dan selanjutnya ……


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