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Chapter 2 Memahami Gaya Organisasional dan Dampaknya terhadap Sistem Informasi. Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Chapter 2 Memahami Gaya Organisasional dan Dampaknya terhadap Sistem Informasi. Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Chapter 2 Memahami Gaya Organisasional dan Dampaknya terhadap Sistem Informasi. Systems Analysis and Design Kendall and Kendall Fifth Edition

2 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-2 Major Topics Organizational environment Nature of systems Context-level data flow diagram Entity-relationship diagram Levels of management Organizational culture

3 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-3 Organizations Organizations are composed of interrelated and interdependent subsystems System and subsystem boundaries and environments impact on information system analysis and design

4 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-4 Organizational Environment Community environment Geographical Demographics (education, income) Economic environment Market factors Competition Political environment State and local government

5 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-5 Open and Closed Systems Systems are described as either Open Kebebasan arus informasi Output from one system becomes input to another Closed with restricted access to information Dibatasi dg banyak rules Information on a need to know basis

6 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-6 Virtual Organizations A virtual organization has parts of the organization in different physical locations Computer networks and communications technology are used to work on projects

7 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-7 Virtual Organization Advantages Advantages of a virtual organization are Reduced costs of physical facilities More rapid response to customer needs Flexibility for employees to care for children or aging parents

8 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. 2-8 Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Istilah yg digunakan utk menggambarkan sistem informasi organisasional yang terintegrasi. Software dapat membantu dalam flow informasi dalam area fungsional ERP yg tersusun dari Material Requirement (MRP) dirancang untuk meningkatkan manufaktur ERP juga mencakup perencanaan operasi dan penjualan, distribusi, pengelolaan rantai persediaan

9 Menggambarkan Sistem dengan Grafis

10 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Context-Level Data Flow Diagram (DFD) Context-level data flow diagram adalah alat penting yang digunakan utk menunjukkan data yg digunakan dan informsaiyang dihasilkan oleh sistem CD menyediakan sebuah overview dari setting atau lingkungan dari sistem : entitas yang memasukkan data dan menerima data/informasi

11 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Context-Level DFD Symbols Entity, berupa orang, kelompok, departemen atau sistem yang bisa memberi masukan atau menerima informasi atau data-data awal Penamaan Entity harus kata benda (noun)

12 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Context-Level DFD Symbols Process, menggambarkan tindakan atau sekelompok tindakan yg dijalankan Context diagram diberi nomor 0

13 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Context-Level DFD Symbols Data flow, aliran data/informasi yang digambarkan dg anak panah Ini menunjukkan data/informasi yang menuju atau dari proses Penamaan Data flow harus kata benda

14 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Summary Symbol

15 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Menggambarkan Sistem dgn Grafik, contoh (1) 0 Sistem pemesan an tikel pesawat Penumpang Agen Perjalanan Perusahaan Penerbangan Tiket pesanan Info_tiket Preferensi &infopenerbang an Data_permintaan

16 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc. Menggambarkan Sistem dgn Grafik, contoh (2) Supplier Freight Receiving System Accounts Payable System Purchasing Dept. Packing Slip Purchase Order Discrepancies Receiving Notice Source Process Sink 0

17 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Entity-Relationship Diagrams (E-R Diagrams) Entity-relationship diagrams help the analyst understand the organizational system and the data stored by the organization Digunakan perancang sistem utk membantu pemodelan file & database Symbols are used to represent entities and relationships

18 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Entities There are three types of entities: Fundamental entity, describing a person, place, or thing Associative entity, linking entities Attributive entity, to describe attributes and repeating groups

19 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Fundamental Entity Describes a person, place, or thing Symbol is a rectangle

20 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Associative Entity Joins two entities Can only exist between two entities Symbol is a diamond inside a rectangle Also called a Gerund Junction Intersection Concatenated entity

21 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Attributive Entity Describes attributes and repeating groups Symbol is an oval in a rectangle

22 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Relationships Relationships show how the entities are connected There are three types of relationships: One to one One to many Many to many Relationship lines are labeled

23 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Relationship Notation One is indicated by a short vertical line Many is indicated by a crows foot

24 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Entity Relationship Example O Konser Pelanggan Melakukan booking Melakukan reservasi

25 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Pegawai Sistem Analis Mesin PenjualPelanggan Pemeliharaan Jadwal Proyek Kantor

26 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Attributes Data attributes may be added to the diagram

27 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Creating Entity-Relationship Diagrams Steps menggambar E-R diagrams List daftar entitas dalam organisasi Pilih entitas kunci utk memperkecil scope problem thp dimensi yang ditangani Mengidentifikasi entitas utama seperti apa Konfirmasi hasil-2 tahhap 1 s.d 3 melalui metode pengumpulan data (investigasi, wawancara, kuesioner, observasi, dll)

28 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Managerial Control The three levels of managerial control are Operations management Make decisions using predetermined rules Middle management Strategic management

29 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Operations Management Make decisions using predetermined rules that have predictable outcomes Work is clear-cut High degree of certainty in decision making Oversee the operating details of the organization Dependent on internal information

30 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Middle Management Make short-term planning and control decisions about resources and organizational objectives Experience very little certainty in their decision making Partly operational and partly strategic Dependent on internal information, both historical and prediction oriented

31 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Strategic Management Look outward from the organization to the future Make decisions that will guide middle and operations managers Work in highly uncertain decision- making environment Define the organization as a whole Dependent on external information

32 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Managerial Levels Each of the three levels of management have Different organization structure Leadership style Technological considerations Organization culture Human interaction All carry implications for the analysis and design of information systems

33 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Organizational Culture Organizations have cultures and subcultures Learn from verbal and nonverbal symbolism

34 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Verbal Symbolism Using language to convey Myths Metaphors Visions Humor

35 Kendall & Kendall Copyright © 2002 by Prentice Hall, Inc Nonverbal Symbolism Shared artifacts Trophies, etc. Rites and rituals Promotions Birthdays, etc. Clothing worn Office placement and decorations


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