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1 Pertemuan 7 Name and Address Conversion Matakuliah: H0483 / Network Programming Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0.

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Presentasi berjudul: "1 Pertemuan 7 Name and Address Conversion Matakuliah: H0483 / Network Programming Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0."— Transcript presentasi:

1 1 Pertemuan 7 Name and Address Conversion Matakuliah: H0483 / Network Programming Tahun: 2005 Versi: 1.0

2 2 Learning Outcomes Pada akhir pertemuan ini, diharapkan mahasiswa akan mampu : Menghasilkan program dgn menggunakan fungsi : "Name and Address Conversions "

3 3 Outline Materi Domain Name System Gethostbyname function Gethostbyaddr function Uname function Gethostname function Getservbyname function

4 4 ELEMENTARY NAME AND ADDRESS CONVERSION Domain name system (DNS) tujuannya untuk memetakkan antara hostname dan IP address. Nama host lebih mudah diingat dibandingkan alamat (dalam numerik). Nama host bisa simple name contoh: solaris atau dalam Fully qualified domain name (FQDN) contoh: solaris.kohala.com Domain name berbentuk hirarki sehingga nama menjadi unik, namun mudah untuk diingat.

5 5 ELEMENTARY NAME AND ADDRESS CONVERSION

6 6 Host Name Structure Setiap nama host terdiri dari urutan label- label yang dipisahkan oleh titik. –Setiap label bisa sampai 63 characters –Total name bisa sampai 255 characters. Contoh: –whitehouse.gov –barney.the.purple.dinosaur.com –monica.cs.rpi.edu

7 7 Domain Name Nama domain suatu host adalah urutan label-label yang dimulai dari leaf (daun) dari suatu naming tree sampai ke top (root). Sebuah domain adalah sebuah sub-tree dari naming tree. Contoh top level domain : edu, gov, com, id, net, org, dll

8 8 DNS Organization The organization that owns a domain name is responsible for running a DNS server that can provide the mapping between hostnames within the domain to IP addresses.

9 9 DNS Distributed Database There is one primary server for a domain, and typically a number of secondary servers containing replicated databases

10 10 DNS Clients A DNS client is called a resolver A call to gethostbyname()is handled by a resolver (typically part of the client). Most Unix workstations have the file /etc/resolv.conf that contains the local domain and the addresses of DNS servers for that domain. Contoh isi dari /etc/resolv.conf –domain rpi.edu – –

11 11 DNS Server Servers handle requests for their domain directly. Servers handle requests for other domains by contacting remote DNS server(s). Servers cache external mappings

12 12 Server - Server Communication if a server is asked to provide the mapping for a host outside it’s domain (and the mapping is not in the server cache): –The server finds a nameserver for the target domain. –The server asks the nameserver to provide the host name to IP translation. To find the right nameserver, use DNS!

13 13 DNS DataBase DNS databases contain more than just hostname-to-address records: –Name server recordsNS –Hostname aliases CNAME –Mail ExchangersMX –Host InformationHINFO

14 14 The Root DNS Server The root server needs to know the address of 1st (and many 2nd) level domain nameservers

15 15 DNS Library Function gethostbyname gethostbyaddr gethostbyname2

16 16 gethostbyname struct hostent *gethostbyname( const char *hostname); struct hostent is defined in netdb.h: #include

17 17 struct hostent struct hostent { char *h_name; char **h_aliases; int h_addrtype; int h_length; char **h_addr_list; };

18 18 Which Address ? On success, gethostbyname returns the address of a hostent that has been created. –– has an array of ptrs to IP addresses –– Usually use the first one: #define h_addr h_addr_list[0]

19 19 gethostbyname and errors On error gethostbyname return null. Gethostbyname sets the global variable h_errno to indicate the exact error: ––HOST_NOT_FOUND ––TRY_AGAIN ––NO_RECOVERY ––NO_DATA ––NO_ADDRESS

20 20 Getting at the address char **h_addr_list; h = gethostbyname("joe.com"); memcpy(&sockaddr.sin_addr, h->h_addr_list[0], sizeof(struct in_addr)); All the IP addresses returned via the hostent are in network byte order

21 21 gethostbyaddr struct hostent *gethostbyaddr( const char *addr size_t len, int family);

22 22 Fungsi-fungsi lain uname : get hostname of local host getservbyname : get port number for a named service getservbyaddr : get name for service associated with a port number


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