Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

PENGENALAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Materi 12: Internet, Perkembangan Internet.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "PENGENALAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Materi 12: Internet, Perkembangan Internet."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PENGENALAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Materi 12: Internet, Perkembangan Internet

2 R EVOLUSI I NTERNET a. Kronologi b. Pakar Pelopor c. Pengetahuan Dasar d. Internet & Masyarakat e. Penggunaan Internet

3 A. K RONOLOGI :P ERIODE A WAL 1957, USSR meluncurkan Sputnik, satelit bumi buatan pertama. USA mendirikan Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) dalam DoD. Jul-61, First Paper on Packet Switching Theory, Leonard Kleinrock, "Information Flow in Large Communication Nets.” 1962, RAND Paul Baran, RAND Corporation (agen pemerintah) diberi kekuasaan oleh USAF untuk studi pengelolaan command and control pada misil dan bomber, setelah serangan nuklir. Tulisan yang dihasilkannya packet switched network.

4 Agu-62, First Paper on Internet Concept by J.C.R. Licklider & Welden Clark, "On-Line Man Computer Communication". 1964, Communication Nets by Leonard Kleinrock provides the network design and queuing theory necessary to build packet networks. [buku] Mar-64 First Paper on Secure Packetized Voice, Paul Baran, "On Distributed Communications Networks", IEEE Transactions on Systems. Okt-65, First Actual Network Experiment, incoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32, Lawrence Roberts, MIT Lincoln Labs

5 Okt-66, First Paper on Network Experiments, Thomas Marill & Lawrence Roberts, "Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers", Fall AFIPS Conf. Okt-67, Original ARPANET Design Paper, Lawrence Roberts, " Multiple Computer Networks and intercomputer Communication ", ACM Gatlinberg onf. Agu-68, Request For Proposals released for RPANET by Lawrence Roberts, ARPA. The RFP mandated the main packet switching design elements for the ARPANET. Des-68, BBN (Bolt-Beranek-Newman) build the ARPANET Interface Message Processors (IMP’s) Page 5

6 P ERIODE L ANJUT Oct-72, First APRANET Public Demonstration at ICCC in Washington organized by Robert Kahn of BBN May-73, First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC designed by Robert Metcalfe May-74, First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper by Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf Jul-75, ARPANET Transferred to DCA, the Defense Communications Agency. Oct-77, First TCP Operation over ARPANET, Packet Radio Net, and SATNET (the satellite network) Nov-77, Complete Specification ( RFC 733) released by two pioneers, Dave Crocker and John Vittal.

7 Mar-78, TCP Split into TCP and IP, where TCP was the endto-end process and IP was the network routing process by Vint Cerf, Jon Postel, and Danny Cohen. Nov-83, Domain Name System (DNS) Designed by Jon Postel, Paul Mockapetris, and Craig Partridge to support the addressing space, creating.edu,.gov,.com,.mil,.org,.net, &.int. 1986, First Interop Conference organized by Dan Lynch. 1989, Internet opened to commercial mail through MCI Mail 1991, NSF Opens Internet to commercial use Finally the Internet gets Quality of Service (QOS) with guaranteed rate service for voice and video

8 P ELOPOR INTERNET  Leonard Kleinrock o Packet Switching Theory, paper, 1961 o Communication Nets, book, 1964 o Network Measurement Center at UCLA, ARPANET measurement, 1968  J.C.R. Licklider o On-Line Man Computer Communication (internet concept), paper, 1962 o ARPA Computer Program, 1962 o First ARPA IPTO Director, 1962

9  Lawrence Roberts o First Actual Network Experiment, Lincoln Labs TX-2 tied to SDC's Q32 [MIT], 1965 o ARPA Communications Program, 1966 o ARPA IPTO Chief Scientist and begins the design of the APRANET, 1966 o Original ARPANET Design Paper, 1967 o Request For Proposals released for ARPANET, 1968 o Fourth Director of ARPA IPTO, 1969 o Packet Satellite Technique, 1971 o First Management Program, 1972

10  Steve Crocker o Request For Comments (RFC) #1, Host Software tulisan Steve Crocker mencakupHost-to-Host protocol, the first output of the Network Working Group.  Ray Tomlinson o First basic Programs, SNGMSG and READMAIL.  Jon Postel o FTP Protocol Specification ( RFC 354) o Domain Name System.  Robert Metcalfe o First Ethernet Operation at Xerox PARC  Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf o First Internetworking Protocol, TCP outlined in a paper

11 P ENGERTIAN : [C OMPUTER ] N ETWORK  (terminal, komputer, server, sistem-lain) : yang saling terhubung sehingga mempermudah aliran data dan saling memakai resources.  Kategori jaringan komputer : LAN (local area network) / MAN (metropolitan AN) / WAN (wide AN) / VLAN (virtual LAN)/ VPN (virtual private network) / SAN (Storage AN, dedicated LAN/WAN untuk mass data storage and retrieval /System AN, high- performance & high-speed LAN dengan konfigurasi cluster) / CAN (Cluster / Controller AN) Internet / Intranet / Extranet

12 LAN (local area network): network yang memakai bersama sebuah atau/beberapa server disatu lokasi[kantor/gedung] yang membangun inter-office system MAN > LAN < WAN memakai dedicated / high performance hardware. WAN (wide area network)  LANs yang saling terhubung dalam area luas  Internet = WAN, extranet = WAN.  perangkat beragam & mahal dibanding LAN. Teknologi  pengembangan WAN: SONET, frame relay, dan ATM.

13 P ENGERTIAN : I NTERNET Sistem informasi global yang:  Secara logikal saling terhubung oleh sebuah ruang adres unik global berbasis Internet rotocol (IP) atau ekstensi-nya;  mampu menunjang komunikasi berbasis Transmission Control Protocol/Internet. Protocol (TCP/IP) atau ekstensi-nya, dan/atau protokol lain yang IP-compatible;  dan dapat diakses, publicly atau privately.

14  (jaringan komputer) di mana situs-situs akademik, pemerintah, komersil, dan organisasi lain dapat melakukan: komunikasi langsung ( , chat) konferensi online (Usenet News, discussion lists) akses sumber informasi terdistribusi (World Wide Web, Gopher) remote login dan file transfer (telnet, ftp), dan lainnya.

15  Berbasis sekumpulan protocols baku, komputer yang tersambung memiliki domain name system (DNS) dan adres IP sendiri.

16 P ENGERTIAN : I NTRANET  LAN yang diimplementasi teknologi WWW; atau  Private Internet: o Private network enterprise, LAN saling terhubung & bisa terhubung pada WAN / internet melalui gateway. o Para pegawai dapat memakai bersama informasi dan fasilitas komputasi, juga memfasilitasi working groups dan teleconferences. o Implementasi TCP/IP, HTTP, dan IP lainnya. o Pemakai dapat mengakses [Global / Public] Internet melalui firewall servers yang menyaring informasi yang mengancam company security.

17 P ENGERTIAN : E XTRANET  Private network menggunakan IP & telecommunikasi publik untuk kerjasama bisnis dengan suppliers, vendors, partners, customers, lainnya.  Dapat dipandang sebagai company's intranet yang diperluas untuk melayani pemakai mitra perusahaan.

18  Perlu keamanan dan privasi, menerapkan firewall server management:  user authentication  encryption of messages  use of virtual private networks (VPN) that tunnel through the public network.

19 O PERASIONAL E XTRANET  Bertukar data volume besar dengan Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) / XML  Berbagi katalog produk  Berkolaborasi & bekerjasama dalam berbagai aktifitas bisnis  Mengembangkan program pelatihan bersama  Pelayanan oleh satu perusahaan bagi sekelompok perusahaan lain, misal online banking yang dikelola sebuah bank untuk bank-bank lain yang berafiliasi  Berbagi berita yang menarik antar perusahaan

20 D AMPAK I NTERNET DALAM M ASYARAKAT :  Akses sangat mudah, perolehan info relatif murah & banyak.  Integrasi informasi, komunikasi, dan hiburan [+audio, video, multimedia] makin mempermudah penyampaian segala jenis pengajaran.  Kebudayaan yang baik sangat mudah berpengaruh bila tanpa filter, pengaruh info negatif pada generasi muda > TV/radio.  Agar info positif > negatif, peranan artist, scientist, & engineer sangat penting.

21  Komunitas Global o Komunikasi tak dibatasi wilayah / kebangsaan / waktu o Segala jenis data/info tersedia di berbagai jenis situs o Berbagi kerja dan berkolaborasi mudah ilakukan oleh setiap individu dalam satu atau berbeda instansi / organisasi dalam satu atau berbeda bidang/minat.

22  Tersedia o Shareware, Public Domain, Freely Copyable software programs yang dapay di-download o Libraries, stores, and news groups untuk mencari tools atau informasi lainnya.

23 P ENGGUNAAN I NTERNET : P ENGADRESAN  Domain : kategori hirarki organisasi abstrak ke mana sebuah komputer/ situs / jaringan terdaftar, di mana top level: com: perusahaan komersil edu : institusi pendidian gov : situs pemerintah net : infrastruktur jaringan org : organisasi non-komersil us : situs di USA id : situs di Indonesia  Di bawah domain dapat tercantum banyak sub

24 F ASILITAS Forum ~ electronic public meeting place untuk diskusi terbuka: a. Message-based Communications, one-to-many Electronic mail, one-to-one atau one-to-many Newsgroup, electronic bulletin board system created originally by the Unix community, misal Usenet News yang membahas banyak topik secara herarki [comp =komputer, rec rekreasi, soc = sosial, sci = sains, dll. Bulletin Board System (BBS), a computer + associated software, typically providing electronic messaging services, archives of files, and any other services or activities of interest to the BBS’s operator

25 b. Real-Time Communications ~ komunikasi di mana delay (net-lag) yang terjadi seminim mungkin, berbasis teks di mana tiap user memiliki special regions pada monitor [wilayah pengiriman dan penerimaan]  Internet Relay Chat (IRC, WebChat), text- based mechanism communication with multiple participants.  Multicasting, technical term that means that you can send pieces of data (packets), to multiple sites simultaneously.  MUD [Multi-User Dungeon], an interactive game vironment where both real other players and virtual other players exist and with whom you can communicate to share ideas, solve puzzles, etc.

26  MUD, Dungeon ~ dungeon-like environment where evil goblins, demons, and other bad-guys are wandering around ready to kill  Audio Video Conferencing, [teachers - students, doctors -patients, artists - audience] contoh CUSeeMe [Macintosh and Windows users with an Internet connection and a desktop camera to see, hear and speak with other CU-SeeMe users across the world; this program was developed at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York, USA and is freely available.]

27  Archive [Webster's] a) a place where public records, documents, etc. are kept b) a place where material having documentary interest, as private papers, institutional records, memorabilia, or photographs, is kept.  Internet’s Archives are pretty much ~ exact same thing.

28  Searching memakai search engine a program usually living on a remote computer that spends its time downloading information from other computers and building an index of what lives where [nickname = Web Crawler].

29 C ONTOH SEARCH ENGINE  Yahoo - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities  DejaNews - USENET (news groups) search engine  WebCrawler -  Lycos -  AltaVista - WWW and USENET search engine  Magellan - Index of reviewed and rated Internet sites, with search capabilities  Google - Index of WWW sites, with search capabilities

30 W ORLD W IDE W EB ~ W EB  ~ subset of the computers di Internet  visualisasi Web sebagai rak giant magazine stand with a vast web of strings connecting various words pictures and ideas.  organisasi Web tidak hirarkis, Web is broken up into a large set of pages (Web Pages), informasi dihubungkan dengan hypertext links.  klik pada highlighted word / picture to call up a page of related information

31 C ARA A KSES INTERNET : Akses Internet ~ receiving, downloading, and viewing files, menggunakan same tools (SW&HW) needed to create files and make them available on the Internet; memerlukan dukungan:  Internet Service Providers  HW + SW + modem  Web browser  SW anti virus  Perangkat akses multimedia: sound card + speakers, CD-ROM player, midi equip., video equip., printer

32  Tahapan Pengembangan Situs  Pembuatan & pendaftaran  Kreasi isi : Getting help [lewat: Forum, BBS, Chat, dll.] Format file: public domain, proprietary, dll. Kreasi dokumen text & hyper text Kreasi citra grafik & animasi [format: bitmap, vector, video] Kreasi digital audio, suara & musik Publikasi Issues & Chalenges  Security, viruses, standard disclaimer & copyrights & intellectual property (copyright, trademark, privacy, advicing), cryptography, netiquette.


Download ppt "PENGENALAN TEKNOLOGI INFORMASI Materi 12: Internet, Perkembangan Internet."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google