Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN : INTERDISIPLIN.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN : INTERDISIPLIN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN : INTERDISIPLIN

2 INTERDISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

3 KOMPETENSI KAJIAN INTERDISIPLIN 1.Kemampuan menganalisis secara interdisiplin-sistemik permasalahan riil pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan 2.Kemampuan mensintesis secara konseptual interdisiplin- komprehensif untuk menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan 3.Kemampuan mendisain kajian ilmiah interdisiplin untuk menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan 4.Kemampuan menyusun skenario implementasi hasil-hasil kajian ilmiah ke dalam proses formulasi kebijakan dan penerapannya dalam pembangunan 5.Kemampuan melaksanakan kajian-kajian ilmiah secara efektif untuk ikut menjawab permasalahan realita pembangunan, sumberdaya alam dan lingkungan

4 KOMPETENSI PENDUKUNG 1.Kemampuan menyusun pendekatan ilmiah interdisiplin dan sistemik dalam menganalisis problematik realita pembangunan Sumberdaya Alam dan Lingkungan 2.Kemampuan mengimplementasikan dan menerapkan Metode dan Teknik multi-obyektif dan multidimensional dalam analisis masalah pembangunan yang bersifat multi-goals 3.Mampu memahami sistem informasi dan implementasinya dalam proses pengambilan keputusan pembangunan lingkungan 4.Mampu menguasai metode penelitian dan implementasinya dalam kajian-kajian ilmiah yang relevan dengan pembangunan lingkungan 5.Kemampuan mengkomunikasikan hasil-hasil kajian ilmiah kepada khalayak dan komunitas pembangunan

5 Masalah Lingkungan & Pembangunan : Bio-fisik Sosial-EKonomi EKOLOGI-LINGKUNGAN METODE RISET INTERDISIPLIN Ilmu-Ilmu Sosial-Ekonomi Metode1Metode2…… RISET TERAPAN Teori 1Teori2…. SOLUSI MASALAH EKOLOGI EKONOMI SOSIAL PEMBELAJARAN KAJIAN SUMBERDAYA LINGKUNGAN & PEMBANGUNAN

6 PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN DALAM KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah “mode of research” yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, dan / atau theories dari dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu untuk “to solve problems” yang solusinya berada di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu. Contoh Jurnal Internasional: 1.IJMRA: International Journal of Mixed Research Approach 2.JESS: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 3.JIER: Journal Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 4.JIES: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 5.JERAD: Journal of Environmental Research And Development 6.Dll.

7 In a mixed model research, quantitative and qualitative approaches are mixed across at least two of the stages of research.

8 KAJIAN INTERDISIPLIN Pembangunan berkelanjutan tidak dapat terwujud hanya dnegan pembangunan ekonomi, tetapi juga diperlukan lingkungan yang baik, kualitas pendidikan yang bagus, dan keadilan manfaat pembangunan bagi semua warna negara. Banyak permasalahan dalam pembangunan- masyarakat yang tidak dapat diselesaikan secara teknis saja, tetapi juga memerlukan pemahaman yang mendalam dan pertimbangan-pertimbangan “humanity, society and nature”.

9 RISET INTERDISIPLIN Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah suatu mode riset oleh tim atau individual yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspektif, konsep, dan /atau theori, dari dua atau lebih disiplin atau bodies of specialized knowledge, untuk mengembangkan pemahaman yang mendasar atau menyelesaikan masalah yang “penyelesaiannya” di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu.

10 Karakteristik IDR yang baik: 1.flexibility, adaptability, creativity 2.curiosity about, and willingness to learn from, other disciplines 3.an open mind to ideas coming from other disciplines and experiences 4.good communication and listening skills 5.an ability to bridge the gap between theory and practice 6.a good team worker : Kesatuan antara mahasiswa pembimbing dan penguji

11 Multi-metodologi Multimetodologi = mixed methods research, adalah suatu pendekatan penelitian yang mengkombinasikan metode pengumpulan dan analisis data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Istilah 'multimethodology' lebih banyak digunakan dalam “operations research”. Pendekatan ini menjadi populer semenjak tahun 1980-an

12 Mixed-Method Research (MMR) Mengkombinasikan metode-metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif menjadi suatu idea yang bagus. Menggunakan pendekatan multiple ini dapat memperkuat keunggulan masing-masing pendekatan dan mengatasi kelemahannya masing-masing. Pendekatan ini juga dapat menyediakan jawaban yang lebih komprehensif terhadap “research questions”, menerobos keterbatasan suatu pendekatan tunggal.

13 Multi-Method Studies (MMS) Multi-method studies menggunakan berbagai metode pengumpulan data dan analisis data di dalam suatu “single research paradigm”. Misalnya, anda melakukan penelitian kualitatif, dimana anda melakukan observasi sebagai seorang partisipan, dan anda juga melakukan wawancara dengan orang-orang. Atau dalam penelitian kuantitatif anda melakukan survei perilaku siswa, dan anda juga mengumpulkan informasi dari catatan komputer tentang frequensi ‘hits’ dalam penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis web. Dengan kata lain, anda menggunakan metode-metode yang secara luas-kompatibel di dalam suatu paradigm (atau a set of beliefs and values).

14 Proposal penelitian interdisiplin yang baik Specify clearly why an interdisciplinary approach is needed, which type of interdisciplinary approach is envisaged and which disciplines should be involved. Describe how the disciplines involved will be integrated and how this relates to the type of interdisciplinarity involved; demonstrate how the quality of integration will be assured Summarise the interdisciplinary skills of the researchers involved Describe how interdisciplinarity will be reflected in the research questions, research objectives, outputs and outcomes.

15 Bagaimana Eutrofikasi mempengaruhi biomasa dan komposisi spesies algae sistem perairan tawar dan pantai Response of algal biomass to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in aquatic ecosystem. The species composition of algal communities inhabiting the water column to respond to nutrient loading. Coastal marine ecosystems will respond positively to nutrient loading control efforts. Ekosistem Akuatik Dinamika Populasi. BIOLOGI PERAIRAN Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem. Val H Smith. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2003, Volume 10, Number 2, Pages

16 To analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Model analisis multivariate (PCA) sangat bermanfaat Kontaminasi As dan Konsentrasi Na tinggi menjadi kendala bagi pemanfaatannya Dampak kesehatan manusia tidak nyata. Statistik multivariate Dampak kesehatan masyarakat KUALITAS AIR Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data Elangbam J. K. Singh, Abhik Gupta and N. R. Singh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2012

17 Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. Perencanaan Wanawisata lestari? The 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha) could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Sumber air menjadi faktor pembatas penghembangan wanawisata. Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari Valuasi Ekologi- Ekonomi Valuasi Wanawisata Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran Beytollah Mahmoudi, Naghmeh Sharifi, Rahim Maleknia, Reza Ahmadeian and Amin Haghsetan Res. Jour. of Environmental and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, (7):

18 Evaluation of an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing. Students in environmental studies were able to identify and apply ways in which marketing tools can be employed to promote social causes and effect positive environmental behavioral change. Marketing students applied marketing concepts to a real-life situation, while gaining a greater awareness of environmental issues and the role of businesses in environmental stewardship. Environmental Services valuation Perilaku Konsumen Green Marketing Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies Through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach Nila M. Wiese, and Daniel J. Sherman. Journal of Marketing Education April 2011 vol. 33 no

19 The use of food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Using food grains to produce biofuels is already causing food shortages for the poor of the world. Growing crops for biofuel not only ignores the need to reduce fossil energy and land use, but exacerbates the problem of malnourishment worldwide. Agroteknologi tanaman serealia. Ekonomi Pangan dan Ekonomi Energi. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Food Versus Biofuels: Environmental and Economic Costs David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa N. Karpoff and Gillian S. Paul. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p.1-12

20 Pola-pola akumulasi kesejahteraan dan pengaruhnya terhadap deforestasi hutan oleh smallholder The main factors explaining the relationship between the farming systems and deforestation were: 1.years of residence on the lot, 2.distance of the lot to main market and 3.the amount of day labor hired. Ekonomi RUMAHTANGGA Pengelolaan Hutan PERHUTANAN SOSIAL Smallholder Livelihoods, Wealth and Deforestation in the Eastern Amazon. Pablo Pacheco. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p Volume 37

21 Urbanization can increase or decrease species richness, depending on several variables. Some of these variables include: taxonomic group, spatial scale of analysis, and intensity of urbanization. Species richness tends to be reduced in areas with extreme urbanization (i.e., central urban core areas). Biodiversitas Urbanisasi. EKOSISTEM PERKOTAAN Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals Michael L. McKinney. Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:161–176

22 The significance of the irradiance reductions for building radiation climate A taller tree with a longer clear bole on the south produced more favorable ratios of cooling season to heating season insolation reductions than the tree with the short clear bole on the south. Teori Fotosintesis. Neraca Energi Pohon: Ekologi Pohon URBAN ECOLOGY Effects of individual trees on the solar radiation climate of small buildings Gordon M. Heisler. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages

23 Analisis Vegetasi Plant - Soil – water relationship. URBAN HYDROLOGY Urban vegetation impacts on the hydrology of Dayton, Ohio Ralph A. Sanders. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages The specific role of vegetation in lessening urban impacts on runoff The existing tree canopies alone work to lower potential runoff by about 7%. This could be increased to nearly 12% by modestly increasing canopy coverage of the land surface.

24 Ecosystem Services. Landuse changes. Land Conversion Valuasi ekologi- ekonomi Land use change and its effects on the value of ecosystem services along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico Ecological Economics Vol. 82. No.1. Pages G. Mendoza-González, M.L. Martínez, D. Lithgow, O. Pérez-Maqueo, P. Simonin to analyze land use changes and calculate the value of these changes in terms of lost ecosystem services. Land use change may seem economically profitable. However, after losing ecosystem services, the apparent gains from urban development are lost. Land use and policy making should consider ecosystem service losses so that ecosystems are preserved and society benefited..

25 Teori Partisipasi. Perhutanan Sosial. PERANAN GENDER Factors affecting women's participation in forestry in Turkey Ecological Economics Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages Erdoğan Atmiş, İsmet Daşdemir, Wietze Lise, Ömür Yıldıran Studi ini menganalisis partisipasi perempuan dalam kehutanan The estimated game theoretic model on women's participation indicates that the sharing of forest benefits among women in Turkey is considerably harmonious, while there is scope for improving the Forest Organisation, namely by stimulating participation towards a more effective management of the Turkish forests..

26 Ekologi Hutan Management Hutan. VALUASI EKONOMI Willingness to pay for forest amenities: The case of non-industrial owners in the south central United States Ecological Economics Volume 56, Issue 1. Pages Ronald Raunikar, Joseph Buongiorno Kita menganalisis WTP (willingness to pay) untuk nilai non-kayu (NTV) oleh pengusaha suasta hutan non-industri (NIPF) pada hutan campuran di USA selatan Many NIPF owners maintain a more diverse and natural stand structure than that of a more profitable even-aged industrial plantation. The average NIPF owner was willing to forego 60% of the timber profit for the NTV of their more natural stands compared to a less diverse industrially managed even-aged plantation.

27 Mikrobiologi Lingkungan. Kimia Lingkungan. Pengolahan Limbah Cair….. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Water Reclamation Plants in Southern California Amy Townsend-Small, Diane E. Pataki, Linda Y. Tseng, Cheng-Yao Tsai and Diego Rosso. JEQ Vol. 40 No. 5, p Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a long- lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. This treatment a potentially large source of N 2 O in urban areas. Our results suggest that wastewater treatment that includes biological nitrogen removal can significantly increase urban N 2 O emissions..

28 Teknologi aplikasi pupuk. Agrohidrologi. Pencucian unsur hara pupuk dari lahan….. Nitrate Leaching from Nitrogen-Fertilized and Manured Corn Measured with Zero-Tension Pan Lysimeters John M. Jemison and Richard H. Fox JEQ. Vol. 23 No. 2, p Excessive N fertilization increases the potential for nitrate (NO − 3 ) leaching, but no research has evaluated NO − 3 leaching from corn (Zea mays L.) receiving economic optimum N rates (EON). In the nonmanured corn, the 3-yr average amount of NO 3 -N leached was 107 kg ha −1 or 36% of the N applied at EON. Total mass of NO 3 -N in the 1.2-m soil profile following harvest was useful to predict annual flow-weighted average leachate NO 3 -N concentrations, but this is not practical in most soils of the Northeast..

29 Nutrients Root absorption Metal reactions in aquatic environment. Fitoremediasi Air Limbah….. Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L. Nilima Chaturvedi, N K Dhal, Palli Sita Rama Reddy International Journal of Phytoremediation 12/2012; 14(10): The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L.. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites..

30 Pemupukan fosfat. Penyerapan hara oleh akar tumbuhan. Fitoremediasi tanah yang tercemar….. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and repeated harvests. Asit Mandal, T J Purakayastha, A K Patra, S K Sanyal International journal of phytoremediation. 14(10): A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP), single superphosphate (SSP) and two growing cycles on arsenic removal by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) from an arsenic contaminated Typic Haplustept of the Indian state of West Bengal.. Two successive harvests with DAP as the phosphate fertilizer emerged as the promising management strategy for amelioration of arsenic contaminated soil of West Bengal through phyotoextraction by P. vittata..

31 Teori Motivasi dan Partisipasi Sosial Ekonomi Sumberdaya Hutan. PERHUTANAN SOSIAL International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2010, 3(2): STATUS OF JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT IN INDIA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOREST PARTICIPATION IN A DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION SETTING Soumyendra Kishore Datta and Krishanu Sarkar Perlindungan sumberdaya hutan mensyaratkan partisipasi aktif masyarakat sekitar hutan. Partisipasi aktif dalam aktivitas konservasi hutan memerlukan komitmen dan motivasi masyarakat di sekitar dan di dalam hutan. Grant of permanent tenurial right to forest dependent people, mitigating the fear of eviction, extension of various support facilities and ensuring a cohesive trust between forest department and forest protection committees seem most urgent for ensuring meaningful participation.

32 Tata-kelola Usaha Sustainable BUSINESS FIRM. TANGGUNG-JAWAB SOSIAL KORPORASI Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Italian SMEs: towards a 'territorial' model based on small 'champions' of CSR? Mara Del Baldo. International Journal of Sustainable Society Vol. 2 No. 3. p Adakah hubungan positif antara budaya tanggung- jawab sosial dg sistem tata-kelola yang ada? Seberapa besar signifikansi korelasi tersebut pada UKM dan usaha sekala besar ?. The concluding reflections trace the features of a territorial model of socially responsible orientation centred on the best practices of SMEs, 'convivial enterprises' who are excellent examples of 'spirited businesses‘.

33 Produksi Bersih Sustainable consumption. SISTEM PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN Designing Environmental Management System for promoting sustainable consumption Shirish Sangle. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2008 Vol.1, No.1, pp Ide tentang konsumsi- lestari telah menjadi isu global. Sejaklan dnegan upaya pemerintah untuk mmenerapkan ide ini, diperlukan peran-serta industri dalam menciptakan pola-pola konsumsi yang lebih lestari. Pendekatan untuk mengelola isu-isu kelestarian telah menjadi konstruksi dalam “Environmental Management System (EMS)” berbasis standar ISO The implications of this model for structuring salient elements of EMS are then discussed. The audit would measure the extent to which an organisation has a management system competent to make consumption pattern more sustainable..

34 Green Industry Manajemen Perusahaan ECO-EFFICIENCY Conditional eco-efficiency measure from the perspective of pollution emission firms Feng Yang, Sheng Ang, Liang Liang, Dujun Zhai. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2011 Vol.3, No.3, pp Penerapan eko-efisiensi menghadapi kendala sasaran profit dan polusi dari perspektif emisi polusi perusahaan. Different from the previous eco-efficiency measures, our technique admits the selfish motives of pollution emission firms which have little motivation to minimise the pollution emission. As a result, the current approach can be accepted by pollution emission firms for providing feasible strategies in performance improvement..

35 DAMPAK GLOBAL POLUSI UDARA Kerjasama internasional. PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN GLOBAL Atmospheric Pollution as a Global Policy Problem Tapani Vaahtoranta. Journal of Peace Research May 1990 vol. 27 no Polusi udara telah menjadi permasalahan global, pengendaliannya mensyaratkan adanya kolaborasi banyak negara. Kerjasama terkendala oleh fakta bahwa negara- negara di dunia tidak mengalami dampak yang sama dan minat perlindungan lingkungannya juga beragam Three changes in particular contributed to the emergence of atmospheric pollution controls: 1.the imperatives of ecological interdependence, 2.technological developments, and 3.growing public pressure on policy-makers..

36 Polusi lalu-lintas jalan raya Epidemiologi: Analisis regresi KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Matthias Ketzel, Mette Sørensen, Johnni Hansen, Steffen Loft, Anne Tjønneland and Kim Overvad. Environmental Health 2012, 11:60 Polusi udara kota akibat lalu-lintas jalan raya telah dihubungkan dg “cardiovascular mortality”, yang diduga diakibatkan oleh paparan polusi udara dan biring lalu-lintas. Karakter personal dan gaya hidup diduga mempengaruhi hubungan tersebut Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake..

37 POLUSI Udara Kota Epidemiologi: Analisis Multivariate KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Air pollution and infant health: Lessons from New Jersey Janet Currie, Matthew Neidell, Johannes F. Schmieder Journal of Health Economics 28 (2009) 688–703 Kita mengkaji dampak dari tiga kriteria pencemar udara terhadap kesehatan bayi di New Jersey pada 1990 dengan jalan mengkombinasi- kan informasi tempat tinggal ibu dan informasi dari data pemantauan kualitas udara. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions..

38 Ekologi Pohon. Hujan asam HUTAN KOTA Acid Rain, Air Pollution, and Tree Growth in Southeastern New York L. J. Puckett. JEQ Vol. 11 No. 3, p Apakah analisis dendro-ekologis dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi perubahan hubungan pertumbuhan pohon dg iklim, sebagai akibat dari paparan kronis terhadap komponen- komponen hujan asam dan polusi udara. Temporally, the shift in growth response appears to correspond with the suspected increase in acid rain and air pollution. This change could be the result of physiological stress induced by components of the acid rain-air pollution complex, causing climatic conditions to be more limiting to tree growth..

39 Pencemaran udara. Fisiologi tanaman. The experiment was designed as a split-split plot with six replications.….. Field Testing Soybeans for Residual Effects of Air Pollution and Seed Size on Crop Yield R. K. Howell, L. P. Rose and R. C. Leffel JEQ. Vol. 9 No. 1, p Mean seed weights (g/100 seeds) for four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], cultivass grown in 1973 and 1974 in cylindrical open-top field chambers that provided carbon- filtered air were significantly greater than from plants grown in nonfiltered air in chambers, or in conventional plots without chambers. Differences in seed size observed for different air qualities did not significantly affect yields. In general, there was no significant yield advantage for plants grown from a selected seed size as compared with the original lot seed..

40 Rekayasa Instrumen pemanasan Teori pembakaran. KONSERVASI ENERGI Emissions and Energy Conservation in Residentdal Oil Heating A.C.S. Hayden, R.W. Braaten & T.D. Brown Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, 1978 Emisi dari pembakaran minyak pada peralatan pemanas di permukiman dapat dikurangi dengan jalan memperbaiki efisiensi siklis dan “steady running”. Teknik-teknik yang mereduksi kebutuhan pemanasan (thermostat cut-back) atau mereduksi kehilangan panas dapat mereduksi emisi SO 2 dan NO sebanding dengan hemat bahan bakar. Improved burner performance, with combustion at low excess air, offers the largest fuel savings, with commensurate reductions in SO 2 and NO, and greater reductions in CO and particulates..

41 Kualitas Udara Indoor & outdoor Dinamika partikulat dalam udara ambient. PENCEMARAN UDARA Indoor/Outdoor Air Pollution Exposure Continuity Relationships Marc Halpern Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, pages Hubungan kontinyuitas pencemaran udara indoor-outdoor dikaji untuk menemukan parameter utamanya. Hipotesis keseimbangan homeostatis antara pencemar indoor dan outdoor diuji dg menggunakan indeks kontaminan partikulat Pb. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering parameters other than outdoor pollutant levels in determining indoor air quality.

42 Solar Radiation budget. Ekofisiologi tumbuhan. The role of trees and grass in reducing regional and local temperatures in urban areas. ….. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area D. Armson, P. Stringer, A.R. Ennos. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages The process of urbanisation alters the thermal balance of an area resulting in an urban heat island effect where cities can be several degrees centigrade warmer than the surrounding rural landscape. This increased heat can make cities uncomfortable places and, during heat waves, can pose serious health risks. Grasses and trees can effectively cool surfaces and so can provide regional cooling, helping reduce the urban heat island in hot weather. Grasses has little effect upon local air or globe temperatures, so should have little effect on human comfort, whereas tree shade can provide effective local cooling..

43 Analisis citra dan Fotografi. Analisis Kenyamanan Lingkungan MANAJEMEN HUTAN KOTA Analysing recreational values and management effects in an urban forest with the visitor-employed photography method Erik Heyman Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages Pengelolaan hutan kota memerlukan “trade-offs” antara konservasi biodiversitas dengan promosi nilai-nilai wisata-kota. Kajian preferensi membuktikan bahwa masyarakat lebih menyenangi hutan- kota semi-terbuka dnegan sedikit tumbuhan-bawah dibandingkan dngan hutan-kota yang masif dengan tumbuhan bawah yang rapat. This study has shown that the visitor employed photography method can be used as a quantitative method to evaluate perceptions about forest vegetation and management in urban woodlands, and could serve as a valuable complement to conventional methods in preference research.

44 Teori persepsi dan preferensi kONSUMEN Valuasi jasa-jasa lingkungan. PERENCANAAN KOTA Perceptions of parks and urban derelict land by landscape planners and residents Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages Mathias Hofmann, Janneke R. Westermann, Ingo Kowarik, Elke van der Meer Persepsi masyarakat dan pelaku usaha belum diintegrasikan dalam proses perencanaan kota Perencanaan RTH kota berbasis persepsi masyarakat dan kualitas lahan dan lingkungan.

45 Analisis Persepsi, sikap dan perilaku. Analisis pengambilan keputusan publik Perilaku Konsumen Attitude and willingness toward participation in decision-making of urban green spaces in China Xi-Zhang Shan Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 2. Pages Urban green spaces serve a variety of residents with various perceptions, preferences and demands. Their effective governance and precision provision increasingly require public input. Due to the unique political regime, public decision- making in China has long been controlled by governments with the public neglected.. The positive attitudes and strong willingness toward participation despite socioeconomic variations, fitting into a global trend of increasing civic consciousness and strengthening the theoretical base of public participation. This positive findings lay a sound social foundation for the participatory decision- making in decision- making of urban green spaces..

46 Kesehatan Ibu & Anak. KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Ekologi Kuantitatif An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality June J Cheng, Corinne J Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Bruce K Newbold and Andrew Mente Environmental Health 2012, 11:4 Akses air bersih dan sanitasi berhubungan erat dnegan kesehatan ibu, anak dan kelahiran. Seberapa jauh upaya perbaikan akses air bersih dan sanitasi mempengaruhi mortalitas ibu, anak dan bayi ?. Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. If the world is to seriously address the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, then improved water and sanitation accesses are key strategies..

47 .. …....


Download ppt "PROGRAM PASCASARJANA UNIVERSITAS BRAWIJAYA KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN : INTERDISIPLIN."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google