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Masalah Ekonomi: Terbatas, Keinginan, dan Pilihan Bab 2.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Masalah Ekonomi: Terbatas, Keinginan, dan Pilihan Bab 2."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Masalah Ekonomi: Terbatas, Keinginan, dan Pilihan Bab 2

2 Dlm Bab Ini Akan Dipelajari n Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi n Efisiensi Ekonomi n Bagaimana Mencapai Pertumbuhan Ekonomi n 2 Sistem Ekonomi Utk Memilih Keputusan Produksi & Konsumsi n Model Circular flow

3 Topik Bab II n Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi n Sumber Daya (Resources) n Pengangguran & Pertumbuhan n Sistem Ekonomi n Model Circular Flow

4 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi n Masyarakat Selalu Mengalami Kebutuhan Yang Tidak Terbatas …

5 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi n Masyarakat Selalu Mengalami Kebutuhan Yang Tidak Terbatas … n Tetapi Sumber Daya Terbatas…

6 Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources

7 Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources n Tanah (Land)

8 Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources n Tanah (Land) n Modal (Capital)

9 Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources n Tanah (Land) n Modal (Capital) Notes.... INVESTMENT FINANCIAL CAPITAL REAL CAPITAL

10 Sumber Daya (Resources) Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources n Tanah (Land) n Modal (Capital) Human Resources n Tenaga Kerja (Labour)

11 Sumber Daya (Resources) Property Resources n Tanah (Land) n Modal (Capital) Human Resources n Tenaga Kerja (Labour) n Kemampuan Entrepreneur

12 Kemampuan Enterprenuer n Inisiatif n Membuat Keputusan n Inovasi n Resiko

13 PROPERTY RESOURCES HUMAN RESOURCES ENTREPRENEUR PROFIT & LOSS LAND RENT CAPITAL INTEREST WAGES LABOUR Sumber Pembayaran

14 Terbatas (Scarcity) n resources Terbatas n constraints Dlm produksi

15 Topik Bab II 3 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi n Resources n Unemployment, Growth n Sistem Ekonomi n The Circular Flow Model

16 Production Possibilities Assumes: n full employment & productive efficiency n Resources Tetap n Technology Tetap n 2 Barang –pizzas symbolize consumer goods –industrial robots symbolize capital goods

17 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES 10,000 Robot

18 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES 10,000 Robot atau 400,000 Pizza Menggunakan resources?

19 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES 10,000 Robot atau 400,000 Pizza Contoh....

20 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (dlm ratusan ribu) ROBOT (dlm ribuan)

21 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (dlm ratusan ribu) ROBOT (dlm ribuan)

22 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands)

23 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands)

24 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands)

25 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands)

26 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands)

27 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES CURVE

28 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES Q Q Robots (thousands) Pizzas (hundred thousands) A B C D E attainable but inefficient W Unattainable Attainable and efficient Robots (thousands) Grafik 2-1

29 Production Possibilities Law of Increasing Opportunity Costs: n opportunity cost naik dengan Kenaikan Produksi n Jika Menambah Pizza, Mengurangi Robot illustrated...

30 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) n Opportunity Cost 1st Pizza unit =1 Robot unit 1 (hundred thousand) pizzas “cost” 1 (thousand) robots

31 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) n Opportunity Cost 2nd Pizza unit =2 Robot units 1 (hundred thousand) pizzas “cost” 2 (thousand) robots

32 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) n Opportunity Cost 3rd Pizza unit = 3 Robot units 1 (hundred thousand) pizzas “cost” 3 (thousand) robots

33 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) n Opportunity Cost 4th Pizza unit = 4 Robot units 1 (hundred thousand) pizzas “cost” 4 (thousand) robots

34 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES PIZZA01234 (in hundred thousands) ROBOTS (in thousands) n Opportunity Cost 1st Pizza Unit = 1 Robot Unit n Opportunity Cost 2nd Pizza Unit = 2 Robot Units n Opportunity Cost 3rd Pizza Unit = 3 Robot Units n Opportunity Cost 4th Pizza Unit = 4 Robot Units the more pizzas we make, the more each one costs, in terms of robot units foregone

35 Production Possibilities Law of Increasing Opportunity Costs: n as we make more pizzas, the # of robots we have to give up (per pizza) increases n so production possibilities curve gets steeper and steeper

36 1st pizza unit costs 1 robot unit

37 2nd pizza unit costs 2 robot units

38 3rd pizza unit costs 3 robot units

39 the more pizza we make, the more robots we have to give up  the steeper the curve

40 Topik Bab II 3 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi 3 Resources n Unemployment, Growth n Sistem Ekonomi n Model Circular Flow

41 Production Possibilities Curve Q Q Robots (thousands) Pizzas (hundred thousands) U Unemployment & Underemployment U Di Titik U Robots (thousands) Grafik 2-2

42 Production Possibilities Curve Q Q Robots (thousands) Pizzas (hundred thousands) Unemployment & Underemployment U Di Ttitik U Robots (thousands) U grafik2-3

43 Production Possibilities Curve n Pertumbuhan Ekonomi: Bergeser Ke Sebelah kanan Disebabkan Oleh Pertambahan Dlm resource supplies 2. Kenaikan technology

44 PRODUCTION POSSIBILITIES Economic Growth Q Q Pizzas (hundred thousands) A’ B’ C’ D’ E’ Robots (thousands) garfik 2-4

45 Topik Bab II 3 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi 3 Resources 3 Unemployment, Growth 3 Sistem ekonomi n Model Circular Flow

46 Economic Systems n resource allocation methods differ according to: –resource ownership –co-ordination method

47 Sistem Pasar n Swasta Pemilik Resources n Aksi Independen Pembeli dan Penjual n Peranan Pemerintah Terbatas

48 Sistem Komando n socialism, communism n government Memiliki resources n Perencanaan Terpusat

49 Chapter 2 Topics 3 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi 3 Resources 3 Unemployment, Growth 3 Sistem ekonomi n Model Circular Flow

50 BUSINESSES Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

51 BUSINESSES HOUSEHOLDS Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

52 BUSINESSES HOUSEHOLDS RESOURCE MARKET RESOURCESINPUTS Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

53 BUSINESSES HOUSEHOLDS RESOURCE MARKET RESOURCESINPUTS $ COSTS $ INCOMES Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

54 BUSINESSES HOUSEHOLDS RESOURCE MARKET RESOURCESINPUTS $ COSTS $ INCOMES PRODUCT MARKET GOODS & SERVICES GOODS & SERVICES Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

55 BUSINESSES HOUSEHOLDS RESOURCE MARKET RESOURCESINPUTS $ COSTS $ INCOMES PRODUCT MARKET GOODS & SERVICES GOODS & SERVICES $ CONSUMPTION $ REVENUE Circular Flow Model Grafik 2-5

56 Topik Bab II 3 Fondasi Ilmu Ekonomi 3 Resources 3 Unemployment, Growth 3 Sistem ekonomi n Model Circular Flow

57 Berikut Permintaan dan Permintaan danPenawaran Bab 3 Bab 3


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