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Experimental Research. DESAIN PENELITIAN DITENTUKAN OLEH: 1.RUMUSAN MASALAH YANG HENDAK DIJAWAB LEWAT PENELITIAN (RESEARCH QUESTION) 2.TUJUAN PENELITIAN.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Experimental Research. DESAIN PENELITIAN DITENTUKAN OLEH: 1.RUMUSAN MASALAH YANG HENDAK DIJAWAB LEWAT PENELITIAN (RESEARCH QUESTION) 2.TUJUAN PENELITIAN."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Experimental Research

2 DESAIN PENELITIAN DITENTUKAN OLEH: 1.RUMUSAN MASALAH YANG HENDAK DIJAWAB LEWAT PENELITIAN (RESEARCH QUESTION) 2.TUJUAN PENELITIAN YANG INGIN DICAPAI

3 DESAIN PENELITIAN MENENTUKAN : 1.PERLU /TIDAKNYA METODE SAMPLING 2.PERLU/TIDAKNYA RUMUS BESAR SAMPEL 3.PERLU/TIDAKNYA ALOKASI RANDOM

4 TUJUAN PENELITIAN 1.IDENTIFIKASI DAN KARAKTERISASI 2.MEMBUAT ATAU MENGEMBANGKAN MODEL 3.MENGEKSPLORASI FAKTOR 4.MEMBUKTIKAN HUBUNGAN ANTAR VARIABEL 5.MEMBUKTIKAN PENGARUH SUATU VARIABEL TERHADAP VARIABEL LAIN

5 DESAIN PENELITIAN 1.UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN PENELITIAN BUTIR 1, 2, 3, DAN 4 DIGUNAKAN DESAIN PENELITIAN NON EKSPERIMENTAL 2.UNTUK MENCAPAI TUJUAN PENELITIAN BUTIR 5 DIGUNAKAN DESAIN PENELITIAN EKSPERIMENTAL

6 What is an Experiment? Suatu metode riset dimana: –Kondisi-kondisi dikendalikan/dikontrol independent variables –agar 1 atau lebih independent variables –dapat dimanipulasi untuk menguji hipotesis dependent variable –tentang suatu dependent variable. Memungkinkan: –Evaluasi hubungan kausatif diantara variabel –sementara sebagian besar variabel lainnya dieliminasi atau dikontrol

7 Beberapa Definisi Dependent VariableDependent Variable –Suatu kriteria dimana eksperimen dievaluasi. –Variabel yang diharapkan bersifat dependent (tergantung) kepada manipulasi terhadap variabel independent Independent VariableIndependent Variable –Semua variabel yang dapat dimanipulasi, or dirubah, dan tidak bergantung kepada variabel yang lain –Variabel yang dihipotesiskan memiliki pengaruh kausatif

8 More Definitions Experimental TreatmentsExperimental Treatments –Manipulasi alternatif terhadap variabel independen yang diteliti Experimental GroupExperimental Group –Kelompok subjek yang dikenakan perlakuan/treatment Control GroupControl Group –Kelompok subjek yang dikenakan kondisi kontrol –Tidak dikenakan perlakuan/treatment

9 More Definitions Test UnitTest Unit –Unit perlakuan/uji yang responnya terhadap treatment sedangan diobseravasi atau diukur RandomisasiRandomisasi –Penempatan subjek dan treatmen ke dalam kelompok didasarkan atas peluang –Memberikan “control by chance” –Randomisasi memberikan asumsi bahwa kelompok adalah identik pada keseluruhan variabelnya kecuali variabel perlakuan

10 Constant Error (bias) Constant errorConstant error is error that occurs in the same experimental condition every time the basic experiment is repeated – a systematic bias Example: –Experimental groups always administered the treatment in the morning –Control groups always in the afternoon –Introduces an uncontrolled extraneous variable – time of day –Hence, systematic or constant error Extraneous VariablesExtraneous Variables –Variables other than the manipulated variables that affect the results of the experiment –Can potentially invalidate the results

11 Sources of Constant Error Demand CharacteristicsDemand Characteristics –Experimental design procedures or situational aspects of the experiment that provide unintentional hints to subjects about the experimenter’s hypothesis –If occurs, participants likely to act in a manner consistent with the experimental treatment. –Most prominent demand characteristic is the person actually administering the experimental treatments. Experimenter BiasExperimenter Bias –Effect on the subjects’ behavior caused by an experimenter’s presence, actions, or comments. Guinea Pig EffectGuinea Pig Effect –Effect on experimental results caused by subjects changing normal behavior or attitudes to cooperate with experimenter.

12 Controlling Extraneous Variables BlindingBlinding –Technique used to control subjects’ knowledge of whether or not they have been given the experimental treatment. –Taste tests, placebos (chemically inert pills), etc. Constancy of ConditionsConstancy of Conditions –Subjects in experimental & control groups are exposed to identical situations except for differing conditions of the independent variable.

13 Controlling Extraneous Variables Order of PresentationOrder of Presentation –If experimental method requires that the same subjects be exposed to 2 or more experimental treatments, error may occur due to order in which the treatments are presented –Counterbalancing ½ the subjects exposed to Treatment A first, then to Treatment B. Other ½ exposed to Treatment B first, then to Treatment A. Eliminates the effects of order of presentation

14 Experimental Validity Internal ValidityInternal Validity –Indicates whether the independent variable was the sole cause of the change in the dependent variable External ValidityExternal Validity –Indicates the extent to which the results of the experiment are applicable to the real world

15 Extraneous Variables that Jeopardize Internal Validity History EffectHistory Effect –Specific events in the external environment between the 1 st & 2 nd measurements that are beyond the experimenter’s control –Common history effect occurs when competitors change their marketing strategies during a test marketing experiment Cohort EffectCohort Effect –Change in the dependent variable that occurs because members of one experimental group experienced different historical situations than members of other experimental groups

16 Extraneous Variables that Jeopardize Internal Validity Maturation EffectMaturation Effect –Effect on experimental results caused by experimental subjects maturing or changing over time –During a daylong experiment, subjects may grow hungry, tired, or bored Testing EffectTesting Effect –In before-and-after studies, pretesting may sensitize subjects when taking a test for the 2 nd time. –May cause subjects to act differently than they would have if no pretest measures were taken

17 Extraneous Variables that Jeopardize Internal Validity Instrumentation EffectInstrumentation Effect –Caused by a change in the wording of questions, in interviewers, or in other procedures used to measure the dependent variable. Selection EffectSelection Effect –Sampling bias that results from differential selection of respondents for the comparison groups. Mortality or Sample AttritionMortality or Sample Attrition –Results from the withdrawal of some subjects from the experiment before it is completed –Effects randomization –Especially troublesome if some withdraw from one treatment group and not from the others (or at least at different rates)

18 KENDALI FAKTOR YANG TERKAIT DENGAN VALIDITAS EKSTERNAL 1. FAKTOR EKSTRINSIK DARI VALIDITAS INTERNAL, TERKAIT DENGAN SELEKSI INDIVIDU KE DALAM KLP. PERLAKUAN DAN KLP. KONTROL  SELECTION BIAS DI ATASI LEWAT : 1. RANDOMISASI 2. MATCHING : PRECISION MATCHING ATAU FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION MATCHING

19 2. FAKTOR INTRINSIK DARI VALIDITAS INTERNAL : 1. HISTORY 2. MATURATION 3. INSTRUMENTATION’ 4. EXPERIMENTAL MORTALITY 5. TESTING EFFECT 6. REGRESSION ARTIFACT 7. INTERACTION : - SELECTION AND HISTORY - SELECTION AND MATURATION

20 DIATASI DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN KELOMPOK KONTROL VALIDITAS INTERNAL ADALAH VALIDITAS YANG TERKAIT DENGAN INFERENSI KAUSALITAS (MERUPAKAN CONDITION SINE QUA NON UNTUK MENEGAKKAN HUBUNGAN SEBAB AKIBAT) VALIDITAS EKSTERNAL ADALAH VALIDITAS YANG TERKAIT DENGAN GENERALISASI

21 POPULASI HETEROGEN SCREENING: KRITERIA INKLUSI DAN INKLUSI POPULASI HOMOGEN SAMPEL Tx K

22 Figure 8.3 Experimentation as Conclusive Research Conclusive Research Descriptive Causal Experimentation Field Experiments Laboratory Experiments Figure 8.3 Experi mentati on as Conclus ive Resear ch

23 Table 8.2 Laboratory Versus Field Experiments Table 8.2 Laboratory Versus Field Experiments

24 Symbolism for Diagramming Experimental Designs X X = exposure of a group to an experimental treatment O O = observation or measurement of the dependent variable If multiple observations or measurements are taken, subscripts indicate temporal order – I.e., O 1, O 2, etc. = random assignment of test units; individuals selected as subjects for the experiment are randomly assigned to the experimental groups R

25 Pre-Experimental Designs Do not adequately control for the problems associated with loss of external or internal validity Cannot be classified as true experiments Often used in exploratory research Three Examples of Pre-Experimental Designs –One-Shot Design –One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design –Static Group Design

26 One-Shot Design after-only designA.K.A. – after-only design A single measure is recorded after the treatment is administered Study lacks any comparison or control of extraneous influences No measure of test units not exposed to the experimental treatment May be the only viable choice in taste tests Diagrammed as:XO 1

27 One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design Subjects in the experimental group are measured before and after the treatment is administered. No control group Offers comparison of the same individuals before and after the treatment (e.g., training) If time between 1 st & 2 nd measurements is extended, may suffer maturation Can also suffer from history, mortality, and testing effects Diagrammed asO 1 XO 2

28 Static Group Design after-only design with control groupA.K.A., after-only design with control group Experimental group is measured after being exposed to the experimental treatment Control group is measured without having been exposed to the experimental treatment No pre-measure is taken Major weakness is lack of assurance that the groups were equal on variables of interest prior to the treatment Diagrammed as:Experimental Group XO 1 Control GroupO 2

29 Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Before-After with ControlA.K.A., Before-After with Control True experimental design Experimental group tested before and after treatment exposure Control group tested at same two times without exposure to experimental treatment Includes random assignment to groups Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups Do run the risk of a testing effect

30 Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design Diagrammed as –Experimental Group:O 1 XO 2 –Control Group:O 3 O 4 Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O 2 – O 1 ) -- (O 4 – O 3 ) Example –20% brand awareness among subjects before an advertising treatment –35% in experimental group & 22% in control group after the treatment –Treatment effect equals (0.35 – 0.20) – (0.22 – 0.20) = 13% R R

31 Posttest-Only Control Group Design After-Only with ControlA.K.A., After-Only with Control True experimental design Experimental group tested after treatment exposure Control group tested at same time without exposure to experimental treatment Includes random assignment to groups Effect of all extraneous variables assumed to be the same on both groups Do not run the risk of a testing effect Use in situations when cannot pretest

32 Posttest-Only Control Group Design Diagrammed as –Experimental Group:XO 1 –Control Group:O 2 Effect of the experimental treatment equals (O 2 – O 1 ) Example –Assume you manufacture an athlete’s foot remedy –Want to demonstrate your product is better than the competition –Can’t really pretest the effectiveness of the remedy R R

33 Solomon Four-Group Design True experimental design Kombinasi pretest-posttest with control group design dan the posttest-only with control group design Memberikan kesempatan mengontrol efek pengujian interaktif dan mengendalikan sumber- sumber variasi eksternal lainnya. Menggunakan prinsip penempatan random

34 Solomon Four-Group Design Diagrammed as –Experimental Group 1:O 1 XO 2 –Control Group 1:O 3 O 4 –Experimental Group 2:XO 5 –Control Group 2:O 6 Effect of independent variable (O 2 – O 4 ) & (O 5 – O 6 ) Effect of pretesting (O 4 – O 6 ) Effect of pretesting & measuring (O 2 – O 5 ) Effect of random assignment (O 1 – O 3 ) R R R R

35 Quasi-Experimental Designs More realistic than true experiments Researchers lacks full control over the scheduling of experimental treatments or They are unable to randomize Includes –Time Series Design –Multiple Time Series Design Same as Time Series Design except that a control group is added

36 Time Series Design Melakukan pengukuran secara periodik pada sejumlah variabel dependent terhadap sekelompok unit test Setelah pengukuran multipel, dilakukan perlakuan/treatment (atau terjadi alamiah) Setelah treatment, pengukuran periodik kembali dilaksanakan untuk menentukan efek treatment Diagrammed: O 1 O 2 O 3 O 4 XO 5 O 6 O 7 O 8

37 Statistical Designs Multiple experiments are conducted simultaneously to permit extraneous variables to be statistically controlled and Effects of multiple independent variables to be measured Advantages: –Can measure the effects of more than one independent variable –Can statistically control specific extraneous variables –Economical designs can be formulated when each subject is measured more than once.

38 COMPLETELY RANDOMIZED DESIGN SEJUMLAH SUBYEK YANG HOMOGEN DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE DALAM KELOMPOK SECARA LENGKAP MISAL 20 SUBYEK YANG HOMOGEN DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE DALAM 4 KELOMPOK DENGAN JUMLAH SUBYEK YANG SAMA UNTUK MASING- MASING KELOMPOK RANDOM DILAKUKAN DENGAN MENGGUNAKAN RANDOM PERMUTATION

39 The randomized controlled trial (RCT) Regarded as the ultimate research design in health care The classic experiment

40

41 Randomized Block Design Subjek ditempatkan secara acak (random) ke dalam kelompok perlakuan & kelompok kontrol Unit-unit uji disebar ke dalam blok (atau kelompok) menurut variabel eksternal –I.e., lokasi, umur, berat, gender, penghasilan, pendidikan, etc. Terutama bermanfaat apabila dibutuhkan sampel kecil

42 RANDOMIZED BLOCK DESIGN SEJUMLAH INDIVIDU YANG HETEROGEN DIPILAH MENJADI KELOMPOK (BLOK) YANG ANGGOTANYA HOMOGEN KEMUDIAN PERLAKUAN A, B, C DIALOKASIKAN SECARA RANDOM KE SUBJEK DI DALAM BLOK YANG SAMA

43 H Kuntoro : Materi Konsep Metode Sampling IAIFI 9 Des 06

44

45 AB C CA B B C A CB A

46 Latin Square Design Allows control or elimination of the effect of two extraneous variables Systematically blocks in 2 directions by grouping test units according to 2 extraneous variables Includes random assignment of treatments to each cell in the design Used for comparing t treatment levels in t rows and t columns –I.e., if we have 3 treatment levels, we must have 3 rows and 3 columns

47 Latin Square Design Extraneous Variable 2 ABC Extraneous Variable 1 BCA CAB where A, B, & C are all treatments

48 Latin Square Design Example PER CAPITA INCOME TIME IN OPERATION HighMediumLow < 5 yearsX1X1 X2X2 X3X3 5 – 10 yearsX2X2 X3X3 X1X1 > 10 yearsX3X3 X1X1 X2X2

49 Factorial Design Untuk menguji efek manipulasi yang dikenakan pada sekurang - kurangnya 2 variabel independen (secara simultan pada berbagai level) terhadap variabel dependent the main effect (efek utama)Impak yang dimiliki setiap variabel independent pada variabel dependent disebut sebagai the main effect (efek utama) interaction effect (efek interaksi)Dependent variable dapat juga dipengaruhi oleh interaksinya dengan independent variables. Hal ini dinamakan the interaction effect (efek interaksi)

50 50/42 Illustration 1: (2 × 2 simple factorial design). A 2 × 2 simple factorial design can graphically be depicted as follows:

51 Factorial Design Example Sebuah perusahaan ingin memanfaatkan 12 toko-nya untuk mempelajari apakah tingkat penjualan akan berubah pada 3 jam operasi berbeda dan 2 jenis promosi yang berbeda. Dependent variable adalah perubahan tingkat penjualan Independent variables –Jam buka toko 6 am to 6 pm –Jam buka toko 6 am to midnight –Jam buka toko 24 hours/day –Promosi seles: hadiah sampel –Promosis sales : sampel makan Dinamakan suatu rancangan faktorial 3 x 2 Memerlukan 6 grup eksperimen (3 x 2 = 6)

52 Factorial Design Example HOURS OF OPERATION SALES PROMOTION 6 am – 6 pm5 am – midnight24 hours Gift stamps Food samples

53 Factorial design example 3 x 3 KONSENTRASI K1K2K3K4 SUHUS1rrrr S2rrrr S3rrrr


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