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4/23/2015handout-SI-032204 KSI -by:sol's-1 DK71023 Konsep Sistem Informasi (3-sks) Oleh : Solikin WS.,M.T.

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Presentasi berjudul: "4/23/2015handout-SI-032204 KSI -by:sol's-1 DK71023 Konsep Sistem Informasi (3-sks) Oleh : Solikin WS.,M.T."— Transcript presentasi:

1 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-1 DK71023 Konsep Sistem Informasi (3-sks) Oleh : Solikin WS.,M.T.

2 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-2 DK71023 Konsep Sistem Informasi (3-sks) Prasyarat : Pengantar Teknologi Informasi Tujuan :  memahami dan menguasai konsep sistem informasi,  dapat menjelaskan peranan informasi dalam suatu organisasi,  struktur dari suatu sistem informasi,  dukungan komputer terhadap suatu sistem informasi, dan  nilai informasi bagi pengambilan keputusan

3 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-3 Materi : 1.Pengertian data dan informasi 2.Konsep dasar sistem dan sistem informasi 3.Konsep organisasi dan manajemen dalam kaitannya dengan suatu sistem informasi 4.Struktur sistem informasi: komponen, aktivitas, peran, dan tujuan pembangunan sistem informasi 5.Jenis-jenis sistem informasi berbasis komputer 6.Peran sistem informasi untuk pengambilan keputusan

4 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-4 Buku Referensi : 1. Couger, J.D. and Mc Fadden, F.R., "Introduction to Computer- Based Information Systems", John Willey & Sons, Inc., New York, McLeod Jr., Raymond, “Management Information System  A Study of Computer-Based Information System”, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, Laudon, Kenneth C. dan Laudon, Jane P., “Management Information System  A Contemporary Perpective”, Macmillan Publishing Company, New York, Laudon, Kenneth C. dan Laudon, Jane P., “Management Information System  Management The Digital Firm, Seven Edt.”, Prentice-Hall,New Jersey, Turban-McLean-Wetherbe, “Information Technology For Management,Second Edition”, John Wiley & Sons, USA, Steven Alter, “Information Systems Foundation of E-Business, 4Ed”, Prentice Hall, New Jersey,2002.

5 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-5

6 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-6  Pengertian Data dan Informasi Data : “Streams of raw facts representing events occurring in organizations or the physical environment before they have been organized and arranged into a form that people can understand and use”, 4.p8-9). (adalah aliran dari fakta yang direpresentasikan melalui kejadian dalam organisasi atau lingkungan fisik sebelum diorganisasi dan di susun ke dalam bentuk yang dapat dimengerti dan digunakan oleh user). Data adalah fakta / sebagian fakta yang mengandung arti berupa angka, huruf, symbol khusus atau gabungan darinya.

7 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-7  Informasi (1) “Data have been shaped into form that is meaningful and useful to human beings”. (Informasi adalah data yang disusun kedalam bentuk yang dapat dimengerti dan bermanfaat bagi user) atau. Informasi adalah “hasil dari kegiatan pengolahan data yang memberikan bentuk yang lebih berarti berupa suatu informasi” atau Informasi adalah data yang mempunyai nilai (berarti) bagi penerimanya dan dapat digunakan untuk dasar pengambilan keputusan.

8 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-8  Data vs Informasi

9 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-9  Informasi(2) Untuk menjadi informasi,umumnya data perlu mengalami proses pengolahan. Sifat informasi dapat perfect (sempurna, tidak mengandung unsur ketidakpastian) dan dapat pula imperfect (tidak sempurna, mengandung unsur ketidakpastian).

10 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-10  Informasi(3) Sumber Informasi : Pengamatan lapangan (observasi) Kuesioner Kejadian / event (pencatatan, perekaman ataupun penangkapan sinyal digital secara langsung). Pemodelan (forecasting, econometric, operational research, simulation, heuristic, dsb).

11 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-11  Informasi(4) Karakteristik (kualitas) Informasi yang baik : Timeliness (informasi harus tepat waktu, tersedia manakala dibutuhkan) Accuracy (informasi harus akurat / teliti) Reduced Uncertainty (informasi ketidakpastiannya harus ditekan / diminimize/diperkecil) Element of Surprise (informasi tidak mengandung unsur / elemen kejutan)

12 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-12  Informasi(5) Informasi disampaikan kepada pengguna (user) dapat direpresentasikan dalam media : Kertas/hardcopy Tampilan/display-monitor/video Suara/audio Informasi yang dibutuhkan manajemen umumnya dalam bentuk laporan. Ada banyak variasi dan tipe laporan antara lain : Loran Periodik Laporan Indikator Kunci Laporan berdasarkan permintaan (on-call report) Laporan Khusus Laporan Penyimpangan (exception report)

13 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-13  Informasi(6) Laporan dapat di representasikan dengan berbagai bentuk, antara lain yang umum digunakan : Narasi Tabel Grafik dan Gambar Kombinasi Kertas/hardcopy

14 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-14 System ? “A group of elements or parts that are integrated and coordinated for the purpose of achieving a goal” (Sekumpulan komponen atau bagian yang terintegrasi dan dikoordinir untuk maksud mencapai suatu tujuan / gol)

15 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-15  information system An information system (IS) is an arrangement of people, data, processes, and information technology that interact to collect, process, store, and provide as output the information needed to support an organization

16 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-16 What is a System? Manufacturing Process Input of Raw Materials Output of Finished Products Environment Other Systems Control by Management Control Signals Control Signals Feedback Signals Feedback Signals System Boundary

17 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-17 The Internetworked -Business Manufacturing and Production Engineering & Research Accounting, Finance, and Management Suppliers and Other Business Partners Procurement, Distribution, and Logistics Advertising Sales Customer Service Consumer and Business Customers Company Boundary Intranets The Internet Extranets

18 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-18 A Federation of Information Systems

19 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-19 Information System Applications

20 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-20 Focuses for Information Systems Knowledge — the raw material used to create useful information. Process — the activities (including management) that carry out the mission of the business. Communication — how the system interfaces with its users and other information systems.

21 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-21 The CMM Process Management Model Capability Maturity Model (CMM) – a standardized framework for assessing the maturity level of an organization’s information system development and management processes and products. It consists of five levels of maturity: Level 1—Initial: System development projects follow no prescribed process. Level 2—Repeatable: Project management processes and practices are established to track project costs, schedules, and functionality. Level 3—Defined: A standard system development process (sometimes called a “methodology”) is purchased or developed. All projects use a version of this process to develop and maintain information systems and software. Level 4—Managed: Measurable goals for quality and productivity are established. Level 5—Optimizing: The standardized system development process is continuously monitored and improved based on measures and data analysis established in Level 4.

22 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-22 Capability Maturity Model (CMM)

23 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-23 Types of Information Systems Transaction Processing Systems Process Control Systems Enterprise Collaboration Systems Operations Support Systems Management Information Systems Decision Support Systems Executive Information Systems Management Support Systems Information Systems

24 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-24 A transaction processing system (TPS) is an information system that captures and processes data about business transactions. A management information system (MIS) is an information system that provides for management-oriented reporting based on transaction processing and operations of the organization. A decision support system (DSS) is an information system that either helps to identify decision making opportunities or provides information to help make decisions.

25 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-25 An expert system is an information system that captures the expertise of workers and then simulates that expertise to the benefit of nonexperts. A communications and collaboration system is an information system that enables more effective communications between workers, partners, customers, and suppliers to enhance their ability to collaborate. An office automation system is an information system that supports the wide range of business office activities that provide for improved work flow between workers.

26 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-26 Other Categories of Information Systems Expert Systems Knowledge Management Systems Functional Business Systems Strategic Information Systems Cross-Functional Information Systems

27 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-27 The Information Systems Development Process

28 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-28 Management Challenges of the E-Business Enterprise Business Strategies Business Processes Business Needs Customer Relationships Business Partners Suppliers Business Customers Ethical Considerations Potential Risks? Potential Laws? Possible Responses? IS Human Resources IS Development IT Infrastructure IS Performance Organization Structure and Culture User Acceptance

29 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-29 Chapter Summary Information Systems play a vital role in the efficient and effective operations of E- Business, E-Commerce and enterprise collaboration. The business professional must know: Foundations (fundamentals) of IS Information Technologies Business Applications Development Processes; and Managerial Challenges

30 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-30 Chapter Summary (cont) A system is a group of interrelated components working toward the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. An information system uses the resources of people, hardware, software, data, and networks to perform input, processing, output, storage and control activities.

31 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-31 IS Resources: Hardware Resources Software Resources People Resources Data Resources Network Resources Products: Paper Reports Visual Displays Multimedia Documents Electronic Messages Graphics images Audio Responses Chapter Summary (cont)

32 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-32 Information systems perform three vital roles in business firms. They support: Business processes and operations, Business decision making; and Strategic competitive advantage Major application categories of information systems include: Operations Support Systems; and Management Support Systems Chapter Summary (cont)

33 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-33  Data : Tipe Data Lima tipe utama data pada sistem informasi yang sekarang yaitu : 6.p ) 1. predefined data item, 2. images, 3. text, 4. audio, dan 5. video Pada sistem informasi tradisional hanya berisi predefined data item dan text. Pada saat ini, akibat pesatnya kemajuan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi IT data dapat dibuat dalam bentuk gambar, suara dengan menggunakan teknik seperti digitization, voice messaging dan video conference

34 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-34 Predefined data item Predefined data item tediri dari numeric atau alphabetical item, yang mempunyai arti dan format khusus yang jelas dan selanjutnya digunakan untuk mengendalikan kalkulasi dan transaksi yang menggunakan data. Sebagai contoh credit card number, transaction date, purchase account, dan merchant ID.

35 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-35 Text Text terdiri dari letters, numbers, dan karakter lainnya yang pengertiannya dikombinasikan tidak hanya bergantung pada bentuk yang ditentukan (prespecified format) atau definisi dari item individual (defined of individual items).

36 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-36 Images Images adalah data dalam bentuk gambar, baik dalam bentuk photographs, gambar yang dibuat tangan (hand-drawn pictures), atau grafik yang dihasilkan dari data numerik. Images dapat disimpan, dimodifikasi, dan di kirim (transmitted) dalam banyak cara yang sama seperti text.

37 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-37 Audio Audio adalah data dalam bentuk suara. Video Video adalah kombinasi gambar dan suara yang ditampilkan secara bersamaan. Penggunaannya misalnya melalui video conference.

38 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-38 Satuan Data Bitsatuan terkecil data Bytesatu karakter=8 bit Wordsatu kata=2 byte=16 bit Double Wordsatu kata=4 byte=32 bit Datasatu data=beberapa byte yang punya arti Recordsatu baris data Fieldsatu lajur/kolom data Tablesatu table data (baris dan kolom) Librarysatu kumpulan file data Database satu bank data (kumpulan semua data)

39 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-39 Evolution of DB Systems Flat files s s Hierarchical – 1970s s Network – 1970s s Relational – 1980s - present Object-oriented – 1990s - present Object-relational – 1990s - present Data warehousing – 1980s - present Web-enabled – 1990s - present

40 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-40 Basis Data (Database) Elemen Basis Data Terdapat 3 elemen basis data yaitu : User, Isi Data dan Tempat Penyimpan (memori) data. Dalam elemen user terdapat 3 golongan yaitu : Operator yang memerlukan fasilitas ‘Query’ atau paket program yang sudah jadi Programmer yang memerlukan bahasa pemrograman DBMS DBA (database administrator) yang memerlukan data dictionary system (DDS)

41 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-41 Pengertian Basis Data Basis Data adalah kumpulan dari data yang saling berhubungan (berinteraksi) satu dengan yang lainnya, tersimpan di perangkat keras computer dan digunakan perangkat lunak untuk memanipulasinya. Penerapan database dalam sistem informasi di sebut database sistem.

42 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-42 Pengertian Sistem Basis Data Sistem Basis Data adalah suatu sistem informasi yang mengintegrasikan kumpulan dari data yang saling berhubungan satu dengan yang lainnya dan membuatnya tersedia untuk beberapa aplikasi yang bermacam-macam di dalam suatu organisasi. Software yang digunakan untuk mengatur (manage) data adalah DBMS (Data Base Management System). Contoh DBMS : Excell, Access, FoxBase, FoxPro, Oracle, Informix, Sybase, dll

43 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-43 Kenapa perlu konsep Basis Data Dalam pendekatan pengolahan data tradisional sumber data ditangani sendiri- sendiri oleh masing-masing bagian untuk tiap aplikasi. Sedangkan dalam konsep database, pengolahan data dilakukan secara terintegrasi dalam sebuah database, dimana tiap-tiap orang atau bagian dapat memandang database dari sudut pandangan yang berbeda.

44 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-44 Organisasi File Basis Data Organisasi data secara konvensional dirasakan kurang, karena berorientasi pada file, artinya data cenderung hanya berhubungan dengan data yang lainnya dalam satu file saja, kurang ada hubungan dengan data lain yang berada di file lain. Oleh karena itu dikembangkan jenis organisasi data yaitu : Hirarki (berjenjang), Network (jaringan) dan Relasional (hubungan).

45 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-45 Organisasi Hirarki (1) Organisasi Hirarki / berjenjang atau disebut juga struktur data poon (tree). Suatu pohon dibentuk dari beberapa elemen grup data yang berjenjang, disebut dengan node. Node yang paling atas disebut root (level-1), tiap node dapat bercabang ke node-node yang lain. Dengan ketentuan setiap pohon hanya mempunyai satu root saja dan tiap- tiap node kecuali root hanya dapat mempunyai sebuah orang tua (parent) saja tetapi tiap-tiap node dapat mempunyai beberapa anak (child).

46 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-46 Organisasi Hirarki (2)

47 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-47 Organisasi Network(1) Pada Organisasi pohon tiap node tidak dapat mempunyai lebih dari satu orang tua, maka pada strukur data jaringan tiap-tiap node dapat mempunyai lebih dari satu orang tua.

48 4/23/2015 handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-48 Organisasi Network(2)

49 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-49 Organisasi Relasional (1) Hubungan di dasarkan pada field kunci (yaitu field yang unik / tidak ada duanya), contoh file MHS dan file NILAI dihungkan melalui field kunci NPM.

50 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-50 Organisasi Relasional (2)

51 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-51 Relasi Data

52 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-52 Data, Informasi dan Sistem Informasi (..catatan tambahan) SI sudah merupakan bagian dari perusahaan untuk mendukung usaha dengan CBIS (Computer Base Information System) Resources : 5M + I Man Machine Money Material Method and Information

53 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-53 Kenapa SI perlu dimenej?, karena resources terbatas, karena terbatas maka perlu di optimalkan pemanfaatannya Sistem pasti mempunyai tujuan, komponen sistem apa saja, tergantung sistem apa, bisa metode, barang, dll Karakteristik sistem : 1. Transformasi input ke output (retrieve, update, representation) Representasi : Text,suara,gambar, dll 2. Interdisiplinair yang tergabung dalam satu kesatuan 3. Holistik (menyeluruh) 4. Dapat dibedakan dengan yang lainnya (lingkungannya) 5. Sinergi 6. Hierarki 7. Ada aturan (regulasi) 8. Harus punya tujuan (objective)

54 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-54 Information Systems Architecture (ISA) Overall blueprint for organization’s information systems Consists of: Data (Enterprise Data Model – simplified ER Diagram) Processes – data flow diagrams, process decomposition, etc. Data Network – topology diagram (like fig 1.8) People – people management using project management tools (Gantt charts, etc.) Events and Points in Time (when processes are performed) Reasons for events and rules (e.g. decision tables)

55 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-55 Information Engineering A data-oriented methodology to create and maintain information systems Top-down planning approach. Four steps: Planning Results in an Information Systems Architecture Analysis Results in functional specifications…i.e. what we want Design Results in design specifications…i.e. how we’ll do it Implementation Results in final operational system

56 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-56 Information Systems Planning Strategy development IT Planning to meet Corporate strategy Three steps: 1. Identify strategic planning factors 2. Identify corporate planning objects 3. Develop enterprise model

57 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-57 Identify Strategic Planning Factors (table 2.1) Organization goals – what we hope to accomplish Critical success factors – what MUST work in order for us to survive Problem areas – weaknesses we now have

58 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-58 Identify Corporate Planning Objects (table 2.3) Organizational units Organizational locations Business functions – these might become the users Entity types – the things we are trying to model Information (application) systems

59 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-59 Develop Enterprise Model Decomposition of business functions See figure 2.2 Enterprise data model See figure 2.1 Planning matrixes See figure 2.3

60 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-60 Enterprise Data Model First step in database development Specifies scope and general content Overall picture of organizational data, not specific design Entity-relationship diagram Descriptions of entity types Relationships between entities Business rules

61 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-61 Informasi Data yang mempunyai nilai (berarti) bagi penerimanya dan dapat digunakan untuk dasar pengambilan keputusan Untuk menjadi informasi umumnya data perlu mengalami proses pengolahan Sifat informasi : 1. Perfect (tidak mengandung unsur ketidakpastian) 2. Imperfect (mengandung unsur ketidakpastian)

62 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-62 Suatu data jika akan menghasilkan informasi yang baik, maka datanya harus bersih. prosesnya meliputi : 1.Verifikasi 2.Validasi 3.Duplication data

63 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-63 Macam-macam atribut suatu data : 1. Identifier (sebagai identifikasi) 2. Locater (sebagai penunjuk lokasi) 3. Temporal 4. Classifier 5. Relational Faktor yang mempengaruhi ‘nilai suatu informasi’ : 1. Tepat ISI dan TELITI (accuracy) 2. Tepat WAKTU (timeliness) 3. Tepat GUNA (relevancy) 4. Tepat SAJI (presentation)

64 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-64 Manfaat Informasi Terhadap Proses : 1. Menghemat Tenaga 2. Meningkatkan Efisiensi 3. Mempercepat Proses 4. Perbaikan Dokumentasi 5. Pencapaian Standar 6. Perbaikan Keputusan Terhadap Produk : 1. Peningkatan “feature” 2. Perubahan Karakteristik 3. Peningkatan Fasilitas Penyampaian Produk 4. Inovasi Produk barang atau jasa

65 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-65 Terhadap Kualitas : 1. Peningkatan kualitas proses (JIT,Feedback, dsb) 2. Peningkatan kualitas produk (standarisasi produk, peningkatan pelayanan, dsb) Komponen SI : 1. Technoware (S/W,H/W, Jaringan) 2. Infoware (Database) 3. Organware (Organisasi dan Prosedur) 4. Brainware (humanware)

66 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-66 Technoware (S/W,H/W, Jaringan)  Merupakan sistem komputer dan jaringan Infoware (Database)  DBMS (Data Base Management System)  DBA (Database Administrator)  Kegagalan DBMS pada umumnya pada updating karna faktor SDM  Jika data tidak diupdate, maka cutomer kecewa, ini akan sangat berbahaya. Oleh karena itu perlu dijaga kedisiplinan agar data tetap up-to-date.

67 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-67 Organware (Organisasi dan Prosedur)  Mencakup Organisasi dan Prosedur  Prosedur : 1. Prosedur Penyiapan Data 2. Prosedur Perekaman Data 3. Prosedur Pemrosesan Data 4. Prosedur Pengamanan Data 5. Dsb  Jika sistem sudah “menyimpang terlalu jauh”, maka perlu di “Re-Design”  Dengan adanya prosedur baru, terdapat cara kerja baru dan ini harus disosialisasikan  Kalau mau mengembangkan SI harus mengacu kepada rencana induk perusahaan  Dulu EDP sekarang IT Division atau IS Division

68 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-68 Brainware  Mengatur Brainware paling sulit dibandingkan dengan 3 komponen yang lainnya  Contoh job dalam bidang IT: 1. Operator Perekam Data 2. Teknisi Perangkat Kerja dan Jaringan 3. Pemrogram APlikasi Sistem (Programmer) 4. Analis Sistem (Analyst) 5. Administrator Database (Database Administrator) 6. Perancang Sistem (System Designer) 7. Perekayasa Perangkat Lunak (S/W Engineering) 8. Perekayasa Jaringan (Network Engineering) 9. Pengelola Proyek SI (IS Project Manager)

69 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-69 Karakteristik Sistem

70 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-70 Siklus Pengolahan Data

71 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-71 Amazon.com : An Evolving Business Models The Need for Frameworks and Models The Work System Framework Work System Principles Relationships Beetwen Work Systems and IS The Principle Based Systems Analysis Method Measurement Work System Performance Clasification Related to Understanding Systems from Business Viewpoint

72 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-72 Amazon.com : An Evolving Business Models ( Work System Snapshot, Amazon.com provides a different way to shop for books)

73 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-73 The Work System Framework The Customer The Product and Services The Business Process The Participant The Information The Technology Context Infrastructure

74 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-74 The Customer People who use and receive direct benefit from the products and services

75 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-75 The Product and Services The combination of physical things information and services that the work system produces for to customer

76 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-76 The Business Process The sets of the steps or activities that are performed within the work system

77 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-77 The Participant People who perform the work step in the business process

78 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-78 The Information The information used by the participants to perform their work

79 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-79 The Technology The hardware, software and the other tools and equipment used by the participants

80 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-80 Context The organizational, competitive, technical and regulatory realm within which the work system operates

81 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-81 Infrastructure Is share human and technical resources that the work system rellies on even through these resources exist and are managed outside of it.

82 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-82

83 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-83 Data and Knowledge Management (KM) I. Data Management : 1. A Critical Success Faktor (CSF) 2. Data Life Cyle Process and Knowledge Discovery 3. Data Source and Collection 4. Data Quality (DQ) 5. Multimedia and OO Databases 6. Document Management

84 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-84 II. Data Warehousing, Mining and Analysis : 1. Transaction Vs Analytical Processing 2. Data Warehousing and Marts 3. Knowledge Discovery, Analysis and Mining

85 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-85 III. Data Visualization and Technology 1. Data Visualization 2. Multidimensionality 3. GIS

86 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-86 IV. Marketing Databases in Action 1. The Marketing Transaction Database 2. Implementation in Example V. KM 1. Knowledge Base and Organizational Learning 2. Implementing KM Systems

87 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-87 I.Data Management I. A Critical Success Faktor (CSF) The Difficulties The Amount of data increases exponentially Collected by many individuals, using several methods and devices Organization’s data are relevant for specific decision Raw Data my be stored in different computing systems, databases, formats, and human and computer languages Data Security, Quality, and integrity

88 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-88 These difficulties and the critical need for Timely and Accurated information Search effective and efficient Data management Support TPS Relational Databases Client/Server Environment Finding Data Quiqly and Easly Creation of Data Warehouse

89 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Data Life Cyle Process and Knowledge Discovery Trace how and where data flows in organization Business do not run on data, They run on information and their knowledge of how to put that information to uses successfully. The transformation of data into knowledge mybe accomplished in several ways

90 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-90

91 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Data Source and Collection The Data life cycle begins with the acquisition of data from data sources. Data can include :  Documents  Pictures  Maps  Sound and

92 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-92  Animation  Concepts  Opinions  Raw or  Summarized or extrated data Data Source :  Internal Data  Personal Data  External Data

93 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-93 Internal Data :  are organizational internal data are stored in one or more places  About : people, product, services, and processes Personal Data  IS user or other coorporate employees by creating personal data

94 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-94 External Data :  Data are available on :  CD-ROM  Internet Server (film, music or voice)  Pictures (diagram, atlases)  Television  Large amounts of external data are available on the internet.  The internet and commercial databases services -> Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)

95 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-95 Methods For Collection Raw Data  Can be collected :  Manually or  Instruments or sensors  Scanned or  Transferred Electronically  Manual Data Collected :  Time studies  Surveys  Observations and  Constributions from experts

96 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Data Quality (DQ) Data are frequently found to be :  Inaccurate  Incomplete  Ambiguous  The economical and social damage from poor quality data costs billions of dollars

97 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-97 Problem Data : DQ Problem divide into four catagories and dimension : 1. Instrinsic DQ :  Accuracy, objectivity, believability, reputation 2. Accessability DQ :  Accessability and security 3. Contextual DQ :  Relevance, Value Added, timeliness, completeness, amount data 4. Representasion DQ:  Interpretability, ease of understanding, concise representation, consistent representation

98 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-98 Problem Data (cont..):  Data are not correct  Data are not timely  Data are not measured or index properly  Needed data simply do not exist One of the major issues of DQ is DATA INTEGRITY

99 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-99 OOD are sometimes referred to as multimedia databases and are manage special Multimedia Databases Management Systems (MDMS) These manage data in variety of formats in additional to standard text or numeric fields. The formats include Images such as digitized photographs or forms of bit-mapped graphics

100 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Document Management (DM) Document Management Systems (DMS) provide information to decision makers in an electronic format DM is the automated control of electronic document, page images, spreadsheet, word processing document, and complex, compound documents through their entire life cycle within an organization, from initial creation to final archiving. DMS usually include computerized imaging systems

101 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-101 II. Data Warehousing, Mining and Analysis : I. Transaction Vs Analytical Processing  Data processing in organizations can be viewed either as transactional or analytical  Transactional Processing, in the routine daily processing of the transactional of the organizations such as ordering or billing

102 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-102 A good data delivery system therefore should be able to support :  Easy data access by the end users themselve  Quicker decision making  More accurate and effective decision making  Flexible decision making

103 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-103 This improved option of analytical processing involves three concepts : 1. A business representation of data for end users 2. A client/server enviroment that gives the user query and reporting capabilities 3. A server-base repository, the data warehouse, that allows centralized security and control over the data

104 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Data Warehousing and Marts Data Warehouse, benefits : 1. To reach data quickly 2. To do it easly The purpose of data warehouse is to establish a data repository that makes operational data accessable in a form rapidly acceptable for analytical processing activities such as decision support, EIS, and other user application.

105 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-105 Data Warehouses allow for the storage of metadata, which include data summaries that are easier to index and search, especially with web tools

106 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-106

107 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-107 Characteristic of Data Warehousing 1. Organization :  data are organized by detailed subject, containingly information relevant for decision support 2. Consistency  Data in different operational databases my be encoded differently, e.g gender data ‘0’, ‘1’ or ‘m’, ‘f’ and consistent manner

108 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Time variant  The data are kept for 5 to 10 years so they can be used for trends, forecasting and comparisons over time 4. Nonvolatile  Once entered into the warehouse, data are not update (Tdk dpt diubah)

109 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Relational  Typically the data warehouse uses a relational structure 6. Clent/Server  The data warehouse uses the client/server architecture mainly to provide the end user an easy access to its data

110 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-110 Data Marts is a replicated subset of the data warehouse and is dedicated to a functional or regional area.

111 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-111 Summary of strategic Uses of Data Warehousing IndustryFunctional Area of UseStrategic Use AirlineOperations and Marketinganalysis of route profitability BankingProduct Development,Customer service, operation and marketingtrend analysis, product and service promotion. Reduction of IS expenses Healt CareOperationreduction of operational expenses

112 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Knowledge Discovery, Analysis and Mining The program of extracting useful knowledge from volumes of data is known as knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) or just knowledge discovery. KDD’s objective is to identify valid, novel, potensially usefull, and ultimatelly understandable patterns in data

113 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-113 KDD support by three technologies : 1. Massive data collection 2. Powerfull multiprocessor computers 3. Data Mining Algorithms Tools and Techniques of KDD KDD tools over time can be divided into four major stage : 1. Data Collection (1960s) 2. Data Acess (1980s) 3. Data Warehousing and Decion Support (1990s) 4. Intelligence Data Mining (l-1990)

114 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-114 The problem with the data collection and access techniques is that they are not suitable for a large volume of data, nor can they be used effectively by end user. Even though Structured Query Language (SQL) use is becaming more user friendly.

115 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-115 OLAP (On Line Analytical Processing) OLAP refers to such end-user activities as DSS modeling using spreadsheets and grahics, which are done online. Unlike online transaction online processing (OLTP) application.

116 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-116 Data Mining Data mining derives is name from the similarities between searching for valuable business information in a large database and mining a mountain for a vein of valuable are.

117 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-117 I. Impact on Organizations II. Impact on Individuals at Work III. Societal Impacts and The Internet Community IMPACT OF IT ON ORGANIZATIONS, INDIVIDUALS AND SOCIETY

118 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Structure 2. Authority 3. Power and 4. Job Content I.IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS

119 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Job Satisfaction 2. Dehumanization and Psychological Impacts 3. Impacts On Health and Safety II.IMPACTs ON INDIVIDUALS AT WORK

120 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's Opportunitis For People With Disabilities 2. Quality of Life Improvements 3. Other Impacts III.SOCIETAL IMPACTS AND THE INTERNET COMMUNITY

121 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-121 Structure,Authority,Power and Job Content a. Flatter Organizational Hierarchies b. Staff-To-Line Ratio c. Special Units d. Centralization of Authority e. Power and Status f. Job Contens g. Role Ambiguity and Conflict IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS 1.1. Structure

122 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-122 Increased Productivity and increased span of control Decreased number of experts FOH result from : reduction in the total number of employees, reengineering of business process, and ability of lower-level employee to perform higher – level job A. Flatter Organizational Hierarchies (FOH)

123 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-123 The number of professional and specialists could decline in relation to the total number of employees in the organizations. B. Staff-To-Line Ratio

124 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-124 Creating a technology centre Internet/electronic commerce unit Decision support system departement Intelligent system departement C. Special Units

125 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-125 Because of the trend toward smaller and flatters organizations, centralization become more popular. Example : introduction of expert systems in general electric’s maintenance area increased the power of the desentarlization units because they become less dependent on the companys headquarters. D. Centralization of Authority

126 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-126 Knowledge is power Changing the power structure within organization Example : expert system may reduce the power of certain professional group, becaise their knowledge will be in the public domain. E. Power and Status

127 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-127 Job Conten is important not only because it is related to organizational structure, but also becase it is interrelated with employee satisfaction, compensation, status, and productivity. Changes in job content occuur when work is redesigned. Example : when BPR (Business Process Reenginerring) is attempted or when electronic commerce changes the marketing system. F. Job Contens

128 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-128 Employee Career Ladders Changes in Supervision Other Considerations The Manager’s Job IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS 1.2. Personnel Issues

129 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-129 Automation of routin decision Less expertise required for many decisions Less reliance on experts to provide support to top executive Power distribution among managers Electronic support of complex decision (intelligent agents, DSS) IMPACTs ON ORGANIZATIONS 1.3. The Manager’s Job

130 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-130 Job Stress Repetitive Strain Injuries Lessening The Negative Impact on Health and Safety Other Impacts Impacts On Health and Safety

131 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-131 Dehumanization : Negative effect on people’s individuality, such : many people feel loss of identity. Expert systems or artificial intelligence are increasingly replacing people in the creative arena. Dehumanization and Psychological Impacts

132 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-132 Psychological Impacts : Isolating influence : depression and loneliness Distance learning : lack of social impact. Dehumanization and Psychological Impacts(2)

133 4/23/2015handout-SI KSI -by:sol's-133 IS and Individual


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