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2. Organ Pelengkap a.Gigi b. Lidah c.Kelenjar Air Liur d. Hati e. Pankreas Sistem pencernaan Kuda 1. Saluran Pencernaan a. Mulut b.farings c.Esophagus.

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Presentasi berjudul: "2. Organ Pelengkap a.Gigi b. Lidah c.Kelenjar Air Liur d. Hati e. Pankreas Sistem pencernaan Kuda 1. Saluran Pencernaan a. Mulut b.farings c.Esophagus."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 2. Organ Pelengkap a.Gigi b. Lidah c.Kelenjar Air Liur d. Hati e. Pankreas Sistem pencernaan Kuda 1. Saluran Pencernaan a. Mulut b.farings c.Esophagus d.Lambung e. Usus Kecil f. Usus Besar

3 Saat pakan awal Sekresi Saliva dari kelenjar parotis Mengeluarkan air liur hanya selama makan, ~ 10 gal / hari Mulut

4 1. Kelenjar parotis 2. Kelenjar mandibularis/submaksilaris 3. Kelenjar lingualis Tugas 1 : Apa Fungsi dari Kelenjar Saliva dan peranan masing- masing kelenjar air liur diatas pada ternak kuda

5 Anatomy of Digestive Tract

6 Digestive Tract  Pharings dan Esophagus Farings berperan untuk menyambung rongga mulut dan esophagus  Panjang esophagus sekitar cm

7 Lambung Ukuran kecil, sering, makanan, memulai pencernaan, seperti non-ruminansia 10% dari saluran Terbatas pencernaan Tukak Lambung

8 Small Intestine  Small Intestine - 30% of tract  Digestion of  Starch65-75%  Protein, AA’s 60-70%  Fat 90%  Ca absorption 95-99%  Phosphorous 20-25%  Fast rate of passage  No gall bladder

9 Large Intestine  Large Colon  Absorbs  H 2 0  VFA’s  AA  Phosphorus, 50%  NaCl  Small Colon  Absorption of H 2 0  Fecal ball formation

10 Comparisons of digestion HumanRuminantEquine Stomach30%70%9-10% Sm. Intestine 33%19%30% Cecum7%3%16% Lg. Intestine 30%7%45%

11 Perbandingan Kapasitas Saluran Pencernaan (liter) KudaSapiBabi Rumen-Retikulum- Omasum Lambung17,615,47,7 Usus Kecil6668,49,9 Sekum82,59,91,1 Kolon dan Rektum15,528,68,8 Jumlah181,5342,127,5

12 Kapasitas Saluran Pencernaan

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14 herbivora monogastrik - perut sederhana, makan tanaman hindgut fermentor - pencernaan serat pada LI Pencernaan dan penyerapan bahan pakan nonfibrous (Protein, lemak, gula, pati, air, vitamin, mineral) di perut dan SI - FOREGUT Pencernaan dan fermentasi bahan pakan berserat (Selulosa dan hemiselulosa) dalam sekum dan usus besar oleh bakteri dan penyerapan VFA, air, amonia, mineral, vitamin – hindgut Foregut : 38% HindGut : 62% Pencernaan Nutrisi Kuda

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16 Air  Penting untuk semua fungsi tubuh Suhu Feed pencernaan Jumlah asupan air Tingkat latihan Kualitas pakan dalam ransum Proporsi diet hijauan Minimal 1 gallon/100 lbs BW / hari

17 GI Tract Health  Forage  Concentrate – Grain  Supplements

18 Volatile Fatty Acids Glucose Fatty Acids Fat Glycogen Digestible Carbohydrate Fermentable Fiber StomachSmall IntestineLarge Intestine Fat Digestion of Feed

19 Kategori Pencernaan Kuda  Maintenence - dasar persyaratan kehidupan Pertumbuhan - termuda memiliki persyaratan tertinggi Kehamilan - tiga bulan terakhir Laktasi - tiga bulan pertama Pekerjaan - tergantung pada aktivitas ringan, sedang, intens Tugas 2 : Bagaimana pencernaan kuda pada masing-masing kategori/periode ini

20 Maintenance  Size: body weight  Environment  Individual digestive & metabolic efficiency  Dry matter intake: 1.5% of the BW  Most - energy requirements are met with forage alone

21 GERIATRIC HORSES Fiber digestion decreases Ability to manufacture or absorb certain vitamins decrease B vitamins Vitamin C Decreased kidney function Calcium stones may build up Decreased liver function Jaundice, weight loss, lethargy, loss of appetite, intolerance for fat and protein in diet

22 THE GERIATRIC HORSE  Confinement? No! Turnout with a friend.  Weight loss reasons: Poor dentition  Reduction in digestion - parasites, microbial constituents, B Vits  Selection of Feed  Highly palatable  Easy to chew & swallow  Clean & dust free  Highly digestible pellets or extruded feeds  Contain enough high quality fiber to aid digestion. High quality hay – no alfalfa.  Chopped hay, hay cubes or pellets  Soaked feeds or mashes

23 Feeding The Athlete

24 Levels of Performance/Work  Light - western and English pleasure, trail riding, equitation, hacking  Moderate - dressage, ranch work, roping, cutting, barrel racing, jumping  Intense - race training, polo, cutting,

25 Muscle Glycogen Blood Glucose Anaerobic Glycolysis Oxidative Metabolism Pyruvate Lactate ATP Free-Fatty Acids Creatine Phosphate Myokinase and CPK Reactions CO 2 and Water Lipolysis Oxygen SOURCES OF ENERGY FOR THE PERFORMANCE HORSE

26 1. Water intake 2. Maximize forage intake 3. Minimize concentrate consumption 4. Balance the ration in the following order (a)energy (b) protein (c) minerals (d) vitamins 5. Monitor body weight & body condition score 6. Change feedstuffs gradually (7 ‐ 14 days) 7. Calcium to phosphorus should be between 3:1 to 1:1 8. Supplement minerals & vitamins 9. Feed each horse as an individual

27 Energy Sources  Hydrolysable CHO  Sugars & starches  Create ↓ intestinal pH &  risk of colic  Fermentable CHO  Beet pulp or soy hulls  ↓ glycogen usage  Fat  3X the energy concentration of CHO  Creates higher energy feed  Protein (minimal usage)

28 Required Energy ActivityExamplesDE (Mcal/d) MaintenancePasture16 Light workPleasure riding20 Moderate workReining, jumping24 Intense workRacing, endurance32

29 FAT SUPPLEMENTATION l Why Use It For Performance Horses? Energy from fat is 90% utilizable Fat ↓ heat of fermentation Fat  glycogen storage prior to race Fat ↓ buildup of lactic acid during intense exercise Fat ↓ fatigue

30 Sources of Fat l Natural horse diets contain < 3-4% fat l “High Fat” sweet feeds contain 6-10% fat l Fat Supplements l Vegetable Oil (most common 99% fat) l Rice Bran (very palatable 20% fat) l Animal tallow (not palatable)

31 Fat Guidelines  No gall bladder  Max ~20% in total diet  1100 lb horse can digest 17.5 oz of fat (Just over 2 cups)  If adding fat to existing diet, need to rebalance other nutrients  (i.e. vitamin E (200 IU/cup of added oil)  Add 6-10 weeks before performance.

32 General Guidelines For Feeding Working Horses  Hay requirement  Feed at least 50% of total ration as forage (pasture &/or hay)  Preferably high quality grass hay or alfalfa/grass mix  Exercising horses do not need high levels of protein  More important – quality of protein  Horses should be fed to meet their immediate needs  I.e. cut grain on rest days  If stalled, overfeeding can  stocking up or colic

33 The Growing Horse  Goals  Maximize genetic potential for growth  Sound musculoskeletal system Nutrient balance is importantNutrient balance is important Requires higher quality feedsRequires higher quality feeds Growth rate & age determines requirementsGrowth rate & age determines requirements Growing till reach 30 monthsGrowing till reach 30 months

34 Percent of Mature Body Weight vs... Months of Age Months of Age % Percent of Mature Height vs.. Months of Age Months of Age

35 Weanlings  Minimize stress  Minimize post-weanling slump.  lbs grain/100 lbs body wt  lb hay/100 lb body wt  Ca > P  Monitor feed & water intake

36  As foals get older, the ration should be increased by adding more good quality hay, leaving the grain mix relatively constant.

37 Feeding Yearlings  Sales/show  Forage  High quality  lb/100 lb body wt.  Concentrate  Formulated for growth  lb/100 lb body wt. Turnout – Forage High to moderate quality lbs./100 lbs. body wt. – Forage balancer

38 Monitoring The Growth Process  Daily Intakes  Body Weight  Average daily gain  Signs of Skeletal Abnormalities  Physitis  Joint effusion  Lameness

39 0-3 months4+ months Months 0-8Months 9-11 Lactation Gestation Nutrition of The Broodmare

40 Gestation: Nutritional Concerns  Provision of nutrients for:  Fetal growth & development  Other products of conception Last 3 month of gestation: 60 % foals’ weightLast 3 month of gestation: 60 % foals’ weight Mare needs to gain 0.3 – 0.8 lb/dMare needs to gain 0.3 – 0.8 lb/d

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42 Average daily milk production in mares

43 Feed Consumption (% BW) Mare statusForageConcentrateTotal Early pregnancy Late pregnancy Early lactation Late lactation Adding concentrate to late pregnancy mares accounts for limited energy & acclimates microbes Allow 1 wk to 10 d for mares to adjust to intake changesAllow 1 wk to 10 d for mares to adjust to intake changes Heavy milkers may require as much as % of BW in concentrate feed/day

44 Nutrition of the Breeding Stallion  Primary Concern  Maintenance of Body Condition Non-breeding – Forage + vitamin/mineral supplement Breeding – 0.5% concentrate – % hay


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