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MANUAL-MATERIAL HANDLING. Pendahuluan Mekanisasi >>  msh > pekerjaan yg hrs dilakukan secara manual – mengandalkan kekuatan manusia  LBP Fakta : 20%

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Presentasi berjudul: "MANUAL-MATERIAL HANDLING. Pendahuluan Mekanisasi >>  msh > pekerjaan yg hrs dilakukan secara manual – mengandalkan kekuatan manusia  LBP Fakta : 20%"— Transcript presentasi:

1 MANUAL-MATERIAL HANDLING

2 Pendahuluan Mekanisasi >>  msh > pekerjaan yg hrs dilakukan secara manual – mengandalkan kekuatan manusia  LBP Fakta : 20% cedera punggung  Work related-  bisa diatasi dengan teknik manual handling yg benar

3 According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, more than one million workers suffer back injuries each year, and back injuries account for one of every five workplace injuries or illnesses. Furthermore, one-fourth of all compensation indemnity claims involve back injuries, costing employers billions of dollars. These figures do not begin to reflect the pain and suffering employees experience as a result of their injuries.

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5 What is “Ergonomics”? Ergonomics is the scientific study of human work. Ergonomic principals adapt work to a specific person by designing tasks & tools or equipment to fit the individual to prevent injuries to the musculoskeletal system.

6 What are the benefits of ergonomics? Reduction of work-related injuries Increased worker productivity Increased work quality Reduced absenteeism Increased morale Ergonomics provides a win-win situation…..on and off the job YOU JUST FEEL BETTER!

7 DEFINISI MMH  memindahkan item /barang dengan energi manusia

8 Termasuk dalam manual handling Lifting Lowering Pushing pulling Carrying – moving Holding (person, animal or item)

9 Contoh Bawa box Using handles Repair activity lifting

10 Item yg dipundahkan bisa berveriasi dlm: Bentuk - Ukuran Berat- Bulk Jenis- Kemudahan Risiko pd pekerja yg melakukan MMH

11 Masalah utama MMH Tdk menggunakan teknik mengangkat & membawa dg benar – Mengangkat-posisi awkward – Mengangkat sambil memutar (twisting) – Mengangkat beban terlalu berat – Gerakan repetitive – Membawa item yg berukuran besar  mengganggu pandangan & keseimbangan

12 The amount of force you place on your back during lifting may surprise you! Think of your back as a see saw, with the pivot point in the center. It only takes ten pounds of pressure to lift a ten pound object.

13 If you shift the pivot point to one side, it takes much more force to lift the same object. Your waist acts like the pivot point on a see saw, with a 10:1 ratio. Lifting a ten pound object puts 100 pounds of pressure on your lower back.

14 When you add in the 105 pounds of the average human upper torso, you see that lifting a ten pound object actually puts 1,150 pounds of pressure on the lower back.

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16 Bend Your Knees Bend at your knees, not your waist. This helps you keep your center of balance and lets your legs do the lifting, not your back.

17 "Hug" The Load Try to hold the object as close to your body as possible, as you gradually straighten your legs to a standing position.

18 Avoid Twisting Twisting can overload your spine and lead to serious injury. Make sure your feet, knees and torso are pointed in the same direction when you are lifting.

19 Lever effect -- can magnify weight by factor of up to 10 (40 lbs.) (200 lbs.) Maximum Safe Lifting Weight = 51 lbs. National Safety Council 10 lbs. 100 lbs.

20 Use Your Head and Save Your Back! STAND close to the load Bend your knees - not your back! Let your legs do the lifting Get Help with heavy or awkward loads! Use the right tools! Means using your head!

21 Carrying the load… Hold the load close so you can see over it. Keep the load balanced. Avoid twisting the body Watch out for pinch points -- doorways, etc. Face the way you will be moving.

22 For those Awkward Moments... If you must lift or lower from a high place: Stand on a platform instead of a ladder Lift the load in smaller pieces if possible Push the load to see how heavy and stable it is. Slide the load as close to yourself as possible before lifting up or down. Get help when needed to avoid an injury.

23 From hard-to-get-at places... Get as close to the load as possible Keep back straight, stomach muscles tight Push buttocks out behind you. Bend your knees Use leg, stomach, and buttock muscles to lift -- not your back.

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29 Heavy lifting can injure the back, especially when it is repetitive and over a long period of time.

30 Twisting at the waist while lifting or holding a heavy load…this often happens when using a shovel…

31 Reaching and lifting… Over your head, across a table, or out the back of a truck…

32 Lifting or carrying objects with awkward or odd shapes…

33 Working in awkward, uncomfortable positions…

34 Sitting or standing too long in one position can be very hard on the back…

35 It is also possible to injure your back slipping on a wet floor, ice, etc…

36 Exercises that work your back, hips, thighs, and abdominal muscles can minimize back problems… Warm up slowly and exercise regularly…

37 Wall slides will strengthen your hips, thighs, and lower back… Stand with your back against the wall, feet shoulder- width apart. Slide down into a crouch with knees bent to a 90º angle. Count to 5 and slide back up. Repeat 5 times…

38 Leg raises will strengthen your legs and lower back… Lie on your stomach and raise one leg from the floor. Hold for a 10 count and return leg to floor. Do the same with the other leg. Repeat five times with each leg…

39 Crunches will strengthen your abdominal muscles…. Lie flat on your back, knees bent and feet flat on the floor. With your hands supporting the head and neck, slowly raise head and shoulders off floor. Count to 10 and repeat 5 times…

40 Knee raises will strengthen your legs and abdominal muscles… Lie on back, knees bent and feet flat on floor. Raise knees toward chest. Do not raise head or straighten legs as you lower them. Repeat 10 times…

41 Lie on your stomach, hands under shoulders, and push up. Raise top half of your body as high as possible. Keep hips and thighs on floor. Repeat 10 times…

42 Stand with feet shoulder-width apart. Place hands in small of back. Keep knees straight and bend back at waist as far as possible. Hold for a couple of seconds. Repeat as needed.

43 Use proper lifting techniques Use proper lifting techniques Exercise on a regular basis Place objects up off the floor Use carts, dollies, and other lifting devices whenever possible Test the weight of an object before lifting by picking up a corner Test the weight of an object before lifting by picking up a corner Get help if the object is too heavy

44 BEBERAPA PETUNJUK KERJA DUDUK  TIDAK BOLEH MENGANGKAT ATAU MEMBAWA OBYEK DENGAN BEBAN >4,5 KG JIKA OBYEK YANG DIANGKAT >16-20 KG  HARUS LEBIH HATI2 DALAM EVALUASI RISIKO PEKERJA YG SDH AGAK LANJUT  TIDAK BOLEH MEMBAWA, MENGANGKAT ATAU MENURUNKAN BEBAN >55 KG TANPA BANTUAN ALAT  BUAT TEAM KERJA  TERAPKAN METODE ANGKAT YANG BENAR

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48 RECOMMENDED WEIGHT LIMIT (RWL) Recomendasi NIOSH RWL= berat beban yang masih aman untuk dikerjakan pada waktu tertentu tanpa menimbulkan risiko gangguan sakit pinggang (LBP) (Water & Anderson 1996b) 6 variabel : Horizonta Load (H); Vertical Load (V), Destination (D), Angle of Asymetric (A), Frekuency of Lifting (F), Coupling Classification ( C )

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51 RWL = LC X HM X VM X DM X AM X FM X CM LC = LOAD CONSTANT =23 Kg HM=HORIZONTAL MULTIPLIER = 25/H VM= Vertical Multiplier = (1 – 0,003 / (V-75) ) DM = Distance Multiplier = (0, / D ) AM = Asymetric Multiplier = (1 – A) FM = Frequency Multiplier (tabel 1) CM – Coupling Multiplier (tabel 2)

52 Tabel 1 Frequency Muliplier Freq. lift/minute (F) Lama Kerja Mengangkat ≤ 1 jam> 1 jam dan ≤≤ V < 75V ≥ 75V < 75V ≥ 75V < 75V ≥ 75 ≥ 0,21,00 0,95 0,85 0,50,97 0,92 0,81 10,94 0,88 0,75 20,91 0,84 0,65 30,88 0,79 0,55 40,84 0,72 0,45 50,80 0,60 0,35 60,75 0,50 0,27 70,70 0,42 0,220,22` 80,60 0,35 0,18

53 lanjutan Freq. lift/minute (F)* Lama Kerja Mengangkat ≤ 1 jam> 1 jam dan ≤ 2 jam> 2 jam ≤ 8 jam **V < 75V ≥ 75V < 75V ≥ 75V < 75V ≥ 75 90,52 0,26 0,000,15 100,45 0,000,230,000,13 110,41 0,000,210,00 120,37 0,00 130,000,340,00 140,000,310,00 150,000,280,00 >150,00 *untuk frekuensi angkatan < 1 kali/5 menit, F= 0,2 lift/min ** dalam cm, diukur dari permukaan lantai

54 Tabel 2. Couplig Multiplier Tipe couplingCm V < 75 cmV ≥ 75 cm Baik (Good)1,00 Sedang (Fair)0,951,00 Jelek (Poor)0,90

55 LIFTING INDEX (LI) ESTIMASI SEDERHANA THD RISIKO CEDERA YANG DIAKIBATKAN OLEH OVER EXERTION. BERDASARKAN BERAT BEBAN DAN NILAI RWL  LI DPT DITENTUKAN SBB LI = BB / RWL ≤ 3,0 KRITERIA : LI ≤ 1,0 (LOW RISK OF LBP); LI > 1 (MODERATELY STRESSFUL TASK); LI > 3 (HIGHLY STRESSFUL TASK)

56 Seorang pekerja bagian produksi bertugas melakukan pekerjaan mengangkat hasil produksi dalam kemasa untuk dimasukkan ke dalam kardus pengepakan. Berat produk 20 kg. Dalam waktu 8 jam kerja (1 jam istirahat), ia harus memasukkan 700 produk ke dalam dus. Pekerjaan dilakukan dengan berdiri. Jarak antara pekerja dengan produk 25 cm (horizontal), ketinggian 80 cm (vertikal). Jarak (destinasi) 50 cm. benda berbentuk persegi dan tak ada handle.Pertanyaan : apakah pekerjaan yang dilakukan ini mempunyai risiko untuk cedera musculo skeletal?


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