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Prepared by : Choiri Dian Fariza (014201305033) Moch Wildan Fadilah (014201305002) Rudi Haeruman (014201305004) Ryowa Sihombing (014201305011)

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Presentasi berjudul: "Prepared by : Choiri Dian Fariza (014201305033) Moch Wildan Fadilah (014201305002) Rudi Haeruman (014201305004) Ryowa Sihombing (014201305011)"— Transcript presentasi:

1 Prepared by : Choiri Dian Fariza (014201305033) Moch Wildan Fadilah (014201305002) Rudi Haeruman (014201305004) Ryowa Sihombing (014201305011)



4 Importance of Cross-Cultural Research Cultural Influences on Leadership Behavior

5 Cross-cultural studies Methodological problems - Lack of equality of meaning - Confounding effects of demographic and situational variables that are not controlled by sampling - Response biases that differ across cultures - Lack of representative samples - levels of analysis problems caused by using an overall culture score Cross-cultural reserch on behavior differences Examples of research on the effects of behavior ( THE GLOBE PROJECT )

6 Rated effective in most culturesRating varied across cultures VisionaryAmbitious DecisiveCautious DynamicCompassionate DependableDomineering Encouraging and positiveFormal Exellence-orientedHumble (self-effacing) Honest and trustworthyIndependent Skilled administratorRisk taker Team integratorSelf-sacrificing Cultural Beliefs about Ideal Leader Attributes

7 The value dimensions to be discussed include: Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Individualism or collectivism Gender egalitarianism Performance orientation Humane orientation

8 Eastern europe Albania Georgia Greece Hungary Kazakhstan Poland Russia Slovenia Germanic Europe austria Germany Netherlands Switzerland Latin america Argentina Bolivia Brazil Colombia Costa rica Ecuador El salvador Guatemala Mexico Venezuela Nordic europe Denmark Finland Sweden Anglo Australia Canada Ireland New zealand South africa (white) United kingdom USA Middle east Egypt Kuwait Morocco Qatar Turkey Confucian asia China Hongkong Japan Singapore South korea Taiwan Latin europe France Israel Italy Portugal Spain Switzerland (french) Southern asia India Indonesia Iran Malaysia Philippines Thailand Sub-saharan africa Namibia Nigeria South africa (black) Zambia Zimbabwe The GLOBE researchers grouped 60 countries into 10 clusters based on regional proximity and similarity in language, ethnic background. and religions.

9 Examples of relevant questions for future cross-cultural research on leadership include the following: 1.How does actual behavior of leaders differ across cultural value clusters and for different countries? 2.How are leader values and behaviors jointly influenced by personality (and developmental experiences), company culture, and national culture? 3.How useful is the distinction between actual and ideal cultural values for understanding implicit theories of leadership and patterns of leadership behavior? 4.How difficult is it to change an organization's cultural values when they are not consistent with the societal values where the organization's facilities are located? 5.How fast are cultural values changing, and what are the primary determinants of culture changes that are relevant for leadership? 6.What types of leadership traits, skills, and developmental experiences are most useful to prepare someone for a leadership assigment in a different culture?

10 Sex-based discrimination Explanations for the glass ceiling Theories of feminine advantage Findings in research on gender differences Limitations of research on gender differences Identifying causes and reducing discrimination Summary of leader gender research

11 Some factors that underlie the occurrence of sex-based discrimination : - implicit theories - stereotype gender - role expectation

12 Ragins 1998 Lack of opportunity to gain experience and visibility in types of positions that would facilitate advancement Higher standard", of performance for women than for men Exclusion of women from informal networks that aid advancement Lack of encouragement and opportunity for developmental activities Lack of opportunity for effective mentoring Lack of strong efforts to gain access to leadership positions Difficulties created by competing family demands A lack of strong action by top management to ensure equal opportunity, Bias to select and promote individuals who are similar to the managers who make the decisions Intentional efforts by some men to retain control of the most powerful positions for themselves

13 Causes of Gender Discrimination : 1.Cultural factors in society 2.Legal factors Ways to Reduce Gender Discrimination : 1.Understand some gender differences are apparent reason 2.The need for skills in a particular position and situation 3.The decision in the selection of leaders based on the qualifications and competence of the relevant 4.The decision of selection and promotion should be fair 5.Provide training and personal development relevant to equal opportunities

14 Diversity can include many forms including race, identity, ethnic, age, gender, education, socioeconomic level, and sexual orientation. Thus, the management of diversity is an important responsibility but trouble for leaders in the twenty-first century.

15 1.Men and women have different viewpoints 2.Gender diversity provides access to multiple resource 3.Workers diversity facilitate companies serve an increasingly diverse customer demands 4.Companies that have gender diversity is more attractive for talented women

16 1.Fostering appreciation and tolerance Actions for encourage appreciation and tolerance in diversity Training on diversity The structural mechanism to uncover discrimination and foster tolerance 2.Provide equal opportunities Managing Diversity

17 Guidelines for managing diversity : Set an example in your own behavior of appreciation for diversity. Encourage respect for individual differences. Promote understanding of different values, beliefs, and traditions. Explain the benefits of diversity for the team or organization. Encourage and support others who promote tolerance of diversity. Discourage use of stereotypes to describe people. Identify biased beliefs and role expectations for women or minorities. Challenge people who make prejudiced comments. Speak out to protest against unfair treatment based on prejudice. Take disciplinary action to stop harassment of women or minorities

18 Globalization and economic development, making cross-cultural leadership become an important topic to be researched and implemented Discrimination based on sex in the selection and promotion of leaders continues to be a serious problem in large organizations. An important responsibility for the leaders in this new century is the management of diversity, which can take many forms. Which might be expected that the company is advancing due to the implementation of workforce diversity CONCLUSION

19 Madison, Jones, and Conklin Laura Kravitz menerima pekerjaan di Madison, Jone, and Conklin setelah lulus dari perguruan tinggi. Pada perusahaan menengah sebagai accounting dan consulting project. Setelah sukses pada posisi tersebut, Laura di promosikan sebagai manager dengan tanggung jawab yang lebih luas. Laura yakin dengan kualifikasinya dan manager dan klien perusahaan juga sangat respek pada Laura. Laura berharap akan menjadi partner atau bagian dari perusahaan tersebut, walaupun Laura hanya seorang Manager Perempuan di dalam perusahaan yang didominasi oleh laki-laki, dan dia tahu akan ada banyak sekali hambatan kedepannya. Laura merasa beberapa manager masih mempunyai pemikiran yang kolot dan tidak menyukai persamaan. Pada sebuah meeting, beberapa manager tidak memperhatikan ketika dia berbicara dan tidak menerima sarannya.

20 Laura tidak mempunyai seorang mentor pada perusahaan tersebut untuk mengembangkan kemampuannya dan membantu karirnya. Selain itu, dia juga tidak merasa diterima pada jaringan informal pada perusahaan tersebut yang menyediakan kesempatan untuk berinteraksi dengan Senior Managernya. Dan pada kegiatan-kegiatan perusahaan dia tidak pernah diikutsertakan. Laura merasa Tugas pada Project tersebut tidak jelas dan tugas tersebut seharusnya untuk Manager Laki-laki. Dia berbicara kepada atasan dan kliennya karena dia tidak mendapatkan keuntungan pada posisi tersebut dan memberikan saran sebaiknya posisi tersebut diperuntukkan bagi manager laki-laki. Karena frustasi dengan kondisi di perusahaan tersebut, Laura bertemu dengan Pemimpin perusahaan untuk membicarakan tentang karirnya. Dan pimpinan merasa sangat terkejut dengan penuturannya bahwa dia tidak senang dengan promosi di perusahaan tersebut. Pimpinan perusahaan tersebut berusaha meyakinkan Laura untuk bertahan. Setelah beberapa lama bertahan, Laura pun mengundurkan diri dari perusahaan tersebut. Dan bekerja di tempat lain dan mendapatkan kesuksesan di tempat lain.

21 Question: 1.Bentuk diskriminasi apa yang terjadi dari pengalaman Laura? Selalu tidak diperhatikaan disaat meeting bersama. Saran yang dia berikan juga jarang didengar. Tidak diberi mentor oleh manager senior untuk mengembangkan kemampuan dan karirnya. Dia juga tidak merasa diterima pada jaringan informal pada perusahaan tersebut yang menyediakan kesempatan untuk berinteraksi dengan Senior Managernya. Tidak pernah diikut sertakan dalam kegiatan-kegiatan perusahaan oleh manager seniornya. 2.Apa yang bisa Laura lakukan untuk mengatasi hambatan yang ditemuinya? Laura tidak boleh menyerah,dalam menghadapi diskriminasi yang dia terima dan tunjukan kepada manager laki-laki bahwa dia mampu menyelesaikan setiap pekerjaannya walau sesulit apapun itu. Apabila dia sudah lakukan semampu dia namun tetap tidak ada hasil, maka jalan satu- satunya yang terbaik adalah resign. 3.Apa yang bisa dilakukan presiden untuk menciptakan kesempatan yang sama diperusahaan ini? Merubah pola pikir manager laki-laki yang masih berfikiran kolot bahwa manager perempuan tidak bisa melakukan pekerjaan manager laki laki. Menetapkan bagian-bagian dalam perusahaan yang sebaiknya ditempati oleh laki - laki dan mana yang harus ditempati oleh perempuan.


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