AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013.
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Presentasi berjudul: "AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013."— Transcript presentasi:
AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013 AGROEKOSISTEM KENTANG RAMAH LINGKUNGAN Dikoleksi : Smno.psdl.pdkl.ppsub2013
EKOLOGI KENTANG Kentang dapat tumbuh dan berproduksi dengan baik bila ditanam pada kondisi lingkungan yang sesuai dengan persyaratan tumbuhnya. Keadaan iklim dan tanah merupakan hal penting yang perlu diperhatikan, di samping faktor penunjang lainnya. Kentang dapat tumbuh dengan baik di dataran tinggi antara m dpl., lokasi yang terbaik adalah pada ketinggian m dpl dengan suhu relatif sekitar 20°C. Selain, dengan curah hujan mm setiap bulan atau mm selama masa pertumbuhan kentang. Tanah yang baik untuk kentang adalah tanah yang subur, dalam, drainase baik, dan pH antara 5-6,5. Pada tanah yang pHnya rendah, biasanya akan dihasilkan kentang yang mutunya jelek. Tanaman kentang termasuk dikotil semusim dan berbentuk semak/herba. Batangnya yang berada di atas permukaan tanah, berwarna hijau, kemerah- merahan, atau ungu tua. Warna batang ini juga dipengaruhi oleh umur tanaman dan kondisi lingkungan tumbuhnya. Pada tanah yang subur dan lebih kering, biasanya warna batangnya lebih tua dan lebih menyolok. Bagian bawah batangnya bisa berkayu. Sedangkan batang tanaman muda tidak berkayu sehingga tidak terlalu kuat dan mudah roboh.
USAHATANI KENTANG Biaya produksi dalam usahatani kentang sangat bervariasi dari satu tempat ke tempat lain, demikian juga biaya produksi antar petani di suatu lokasi sangat beragam. Penggunaan pupuk dan pestisida sangat beragam, mahalnya harga bahan-bahan tesebut membuat petani berimpropisasi dan menyesuaikannya dengan kemampuan finansialnya masing-masing. Biaya total per hektar beragam mulai dari sekitar Rp 15 juta hingga hampir Rp 30 juta. Besarnya penerimaan usahatani kentang sangat tergantung pada produktifitasnya, berkisar antara Rp 30 hingga lebih dari Rp 50 juta. Petani kentang tampaknya masih menerima keuntungan cukup tinggi yaitu berkisar antara Rp 12 juta hingga lebih Rp 30 juta; atau dengan ukuran profil margin antara 40 persen sampai sekitar 60 persen. Berikut ini contoh Analisis Usaha Tani: KAJIAN PASAR KENTANG IIIah Sailah, Maret 1999 Kerjasama Antara Canadian Cooperative Association dengan: Jurusan Teknologi Industri Pertanian (TIN), FTP IPB 1998/1999 Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
USAHATANI KENTANG MENGUNTUNGKAN ANALISIS USAHATANI KENTANG PER HEKTAR/MUSIM TANAM BIAYA TENAGA KERJA: 1. Pengolahan tanah Rp Penanaman Rp Penyiangan, pembumbunan I Rp Penyiangan, pembumbunan II Rp Pengendalian hama tanaman72 HOKRp Pemanenan 50 HOKRp Pengangkutan hasil panen 50/Kg X KgRp Jumlah tenaga kerjaRp B. SARANA PRODUKSI 1. Bibit kentang 2000 kg X Rp 6000Rp Pupuk kandang Kg x Rp 300Rp Pupuk buatan: - ZA Rp SP Rp 1.600Rp KCL500 Rp 1.750Rp NPK 250 Rp 2.500Rp kapur pertanian Rp 400Rp Pestisida : - Fungisida Rp Insektisida10 Rp Rp Jumlah biaya sarana produksiRp C. BIAYA LAIN_LAIN 1.Sewa lahanPermusimRp Hansprayer 5 Rp , usia ekonomis 5 tahunRp ¾ inchi , usia ekonomis 5 tahun penyusutannya per musimRp Drum plastik 200 Lt 3 Rp , usia ekonomis 5 thnRp Karung 700 Rp 2000 usia aekonomis 2,thnRp Jumlah Biaya lain-lainRp Total biaya produksi (A + B + C)Rp D. PENERIMAAN Hasil produksi Rp 2.500Rp E. KEUNTUNGANRp R/C = 1,59 BT Rp BEP = = = Rp ,39 1- BV/Sales 1 - Rp / BT Rp BEP = = = Kg Price - BV per unit Rp 2500/Kg - Rp.1.512,40/Kg BEP harga = Total biaya produksi/ hasil produksi =Rp / = Rp 1.576,12/Kg Sumber: xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/.../usahatani+kentang.doc….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
USAHATANI KENTANG Keberhasilan usahatani kentang sangat ditentukan oleh kualitas lingkungan tumbuh kentang, dan teknologi budidayanya. Beberapa faktor yang mendukung stabilitas harga umbi kentang: 1.Kentang termasuk komoditas sayuran yang dapat disimpan 2.Permintaan kentang terus meningkat secara signifikan 3.Pasokan kentang meningkat lambat. 4.Pengembangan kentang skala besar di Indonesia masih menghadapai banyak kendala. Hal ini menjadi penyebab utama pasokan umbi kentang di pasaran terkendali, sehingga harga umbi kentang di pasaran relatif stabil. Produksi merupakan kombinasi antara factor-faktor produksi yang dibutuhkan untuk memproduksi satuan-satuan produksi. Dapat disimpulkan bahwa produksi adalah proses transformasi (merubah) dari input (faktor-faktor produksi) menjadi output (hasil produksi) yang siap untuk diperdagangkan. Dalam kegiatan usahatani, produksi dan produktivitas tidak dapat dipisahkan. Produksi dan produktivitas per hektar ditentukan oleh kualitas tanah dan agroklimat, varietas yang ditanam, pupuk yang digunakan, dan teknologi pemupukan. Ukuran dari keberhasilan suatu usahatani adalah produktivitas dari usahatani itu sendiri. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Petani Kentang Gagal Panen Akibat Cuaca buruk yang terjadi di Kota Batu, petani kentang di Desa Sumber Brantas,Kecamatan Bumiaji,Kota Batu mengalami kerugian hingga puluhan juta rupiah; karena hasil panen ketangnya mengalami penurunan drastis. “ Cuaca yang buruk dengan angin yang kencang membuat daun kentang mudah rontok dan batangnya membusuk. Sehingga, kentang harus dipanen lebih awal untuk menghindari kerugian yang lebih banyak. (menurut Ngateri, petani kentang). (sumber: panen/)
VARIETAS KENTANG 1.Varietas Kentang Alpha Tanamannya berbatang kuat ‐ sedang, daunnya rimbun, bunganya berwarna ungu, dan bisa berbuah. Sangat peka terhadap penyakit Phytoptora infestans dan virus daun menggulung. Namun, tanaman ini tahan terhadap penyakit kutil. Umur varietas ini dikelompokan kedalam kentang berumur sedang ‐ tinggi. Daya hasilnya juga sedang tinggi. Umbinya bulat sampai bulat telur, mempunyai keseragaman tinggi, bermata dangkal, dan dagingnya berwarna kuning muda. 2. Catella Varietas ini berbatang kecil, agak lemah, dan berdaun rimbun. Bunganya putih dan sulit berbuah. Tanaman ini peka sekali terhadap penyakit Phytophtora infestans. Di daerah Peangalengan dan Lembang (Jawa Barat), Cattela tidak tahan pada musim hujan (iklim basah). Catella tergolong varietas genjah ‐ sedang (panen umur 100 hari). Hasilnya sedang ‐ tinggi. Umbinya bulat, seragam, bermata dangkal, dan dagingnya berwarna kuning. Pada saat panen, umbi yang tergolong jelek hanya sedikit (5%). Umbi ini cukup tahan lama dibiarkan dalam tanah (bisa mencapai 3 bulan ketahanannya). Umbi catella cukup enak, tetapi sayang kalau direbus menjadi lembek. Di daerah yang banyak hujan (seperti daerah di atas), produksi per hektarnya hanya sekitar 10 ton saja. 3. Cosima Batangnya besar, agak kuat, dan daunnya rimbun. Bunganya berwarna ungu dan tidak pernah berbuah. Tanaman agak tahan lama terhadap penyakit Phytophtora infestans, dan agak peka terhadap virus daun menggulung. Di daerah Pangalengan dan Lembang (Jawa Barat), cosima lebih tahan hujan (iklim basah) dibandingkan dengan catella. 4. Dasiree Varietas ini berbatang besar, kuat, berwarna kemerah ‐ merahan;berdaun agak rimbun; berbunga ungu; dan mudah berbuah. Tanaman peka terhadap penyakit Phytophtora infestans, penyakit layu, dan virus daun menggulung, tetapi lahan penyakit kulit. Dasiree termasuk kentang berumur sedang (100hari) dan produktivitasnya tinggi. Umbinya bulat sampai bulat telur, bermata dangkal, kulitnya berwarna merah, dan dagingnya kuning cenderung kemerahmerahan. 5. Granola Dari data yang berhasil dikumpulkan, jenis ini merupakan varietas unggul karena produktivitasnya bisa mencapai 30 ton per hektar. Dari jumlah ini, 20 ton berkualitas baik (AB), 5 ton kualitas sedang (C), 4 ton kualitas TO (campur), dan 1 ton kualitas rindil. Selain keunggulan itu, granola juga tahan terhadap penyakit kentang umumnya, misalnya bila daya serang suatu penyakit terhadap varietas kentang lain bisa 30%, tetapi granola hanya 10%. Umur panen normal 90 hari, meskipun umur 80 hari sudah bisa dipanen. 6. French fries Umbi varietas ini ada yang memanjang dan ada pula yang membulat. Umbi yang memanjang lebih cocok untuk pelengkap masakan ayam goreng (fast food), sedangkan yang membulat sangat tepat untuk keripik. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012
The Potato crop in Pakistanis affected by many pests and diseases, and of theses potato viruses, powdery scab, potato cyst nematode, aphids and white grub are the most damaging ones. Surveys done by Pakistani workers have revealed that viruses, powdery scab and aphids are wide spread, white grub are serious problems in the northern hilly areas. Diseases caused by fungi: Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Potato Crop Health Management through IPM Approach Pakissan.com. DiseasesFungi (Pathogen) Black ScurfRhizoctonia solani Earlry BlightAlternaria solani Fusarium dry rotFusarium sp Fusarium rotFusarium spp Late blightPhytophthora infestans Powdery scabSpongospora subterranean Wilt/Verticillium wiltV. albo-atrum & V. dahliae Diseases caused by Bacteria DiseasesBacteria (Pathogen) Bacterial wiltRalstonia (Pseudomonas) solanacearum Black leg and soft rotErwinia carotovora spp. carotovora and carotovora spp. atroseptica Common scabStreptomyces scabies
Control Measures for Fungal Diseases 1.Wet poorly drained areas should be avoided for potato cultivation. 2.Use disease free seed combined with seed treatment with benomyl. 3.Seed should be planted on raised beds and in well-drained soil to encourage fast growth of the seedlings. 4.Harvest the crop as soon as the tubers are mature, which can reduce the number of sclerotia on tubers. 5.Apply boric acid before storage. 6.Destroy and burn the plant debris before sowing. 7.Harvest carefully to avoid bruises and injuries to potato tubers. Pengendalian penyakit bakteri Tindakan Kuratif Disinfeksi umbi bibit. Semprotan pestisida. Recommended Control Measures for Viral Diseases 1.Use virus free, certified seed potato. 2.Control the aphid vector. 3.Use resistant varieties. 4.Roguing. 5.Heat treatment of tubers. 6.Modification of cropping procedure. 7.Chemical control of vector (Insects, nematodes and fungi) 8.Non-chemical control of vectors (barriers and reflective mulches, oil sprays, biological control by predators). 9.Plant resistant to 10.Assess the health of tuber stocks by serological tests through ELISA, after harvest Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 SARANA PENGENDALIAN PENYAKIT TANAMAN Tindakan preventif: Menggunakan umbi bibit yang sehat. Lahan tidak terinfeksi bakteri patogen. Pemusnahan sisa-sisa tanaman sakit. Praktek budiday utnuk menghentikan penyebaran penyakit. Rotasi jangka panjang. Destruksi tumbuhan inang, dll.
Principles of Farmer Led IPM 1.Grow a healthy crop 2.Understand and conserve defenders 3.Visit fields regularly 4.Farmers become experts in crop management. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT (IPM) Menanam tanaman yang sehat Growing a healthy crop is a key step in farming. Healthy plants are stronger and thus better equipped to withstand attacks by pests and diseases. Many crop management practices have an effect on the health of the crop and can thus be used to manage pest problems. For example: good variety, healthy seeds and seedlings, land preparation, correct spacing, fertilizer management, water management, crop rotation etc. Memahami dan melestarikan musuh alami hama- penyakit Biological control agents (parasites, predators, antagonists) are the defenders of the crop because they are natural enemies of the pests. IPM farmers know defenders and understand their role through regular observations of the agro-ecosystem. They will try to conserve them by avoiding pesticides and they will create field conditions that favor their development. natural enemies IPM farmers are experts in their own fields. They understand the agro-ecosystem and are capable of analyzing the field situation. They continue to improve their crop management by experimenting in their own field and share their knowledge with other farmers. Regular field visits by the farmer will keep him/her up-to-date on the condition of the crop. By knowing what is going on in the field, the farmer can take the correct decisions and take swift action when needed. Petani menjadi pakar pengelolaan tanaman Observasi lapangan secara teratur
Soil Nutrient Management and Cultural Practices Cultural practices are of value in management of nutrients, weeds, diseases, or insects. The goal is to supply adequate nutrients with optimum timing for maximum economical crop yield, while avoiding excesses that can degrade water quality or adversely affect crop or soil quality. Sumber: Diunduh 20//3/2012 Potato IPM Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a systematic approach to pest management that considers all factors affecting crop health, including plant nutrition, horticultural practices, and all suitable means of pest suppression. IPM programs are based on information obtained by sampling and monitoring, and this information is used to make management decisions. Pest management tactics may include biological, chemical, mechanical, and cultural methods. 1.Crop rotation is practiced as follows: (1) Potato field rotation for two years; (2) Potato field rotation for one year. 2.Evaluation of filed for appropriate soil test, nutrient status and pH. 3.Testing of organic matter status of field. 4.Application of fertilizer according to soil test results of filed. 5.Use of nitrogen fertilizer by split application. Some apply through the planter at planting, and some at cultivation or as a side dress. 6.If the cover crop in field was legume or legume/grass mix, its nitrogen contribution can be calculated and also possible to adjust the fertilizer for present year crop appropriately.
APLIKASI PESTISIDA Only approved and registered pesticides should be used. Records of pesticide applications including date, field identification, targeted pest, pesticide name, formulation, rate and number of acres treated should be maintained. Pesticide drift is minimized. Re-entry and pre-harvest intervals are adhered to. 1.Calibration of pesticide equipment should be calibrated at the start of the season. 2.It is must to check the calibration at least once during the season and equipment can be recalibrated as needed. 3.Records of pesticide applications should be maintained and organized. 4.Records of planting dates and stage of crop of treated fields should be maintained. 5.It is possible to use the water-sensitive spray cards for the test and coverage of leaf surfaces of potato crop. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 POTATO IPM
PENGELOLAAN PENYAKIT TANAMAN 1.Certified virus-free seed should be planted. 2.Sanitation is practiced by properly disposing of cull piles (burial or composting) and by removing volunteer potato plants. 3.Fungicide application intervals for early blight and late blight are based on potential for disease severity due to weather conditions and crop physiological age. Fields are monitored for diseases including late blight. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 POTATO IPM Helping to fight widespread potato disease Researchers have made a key discovery into the genetics of the bacteria that causes blackleg, an economically damaging disease of potatoes, that could lead to new ways to fight the disease. The scientists at the University of Cambridge, funded by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC), observed that if a particular gene is inactivated in the bacterium Erwinia carotovora, its ability to damage the plant and cause disease is severely impeded. The research was recently reported in the Journal of Bacteriology. Erwinia carotovora can cause disease in a wide range of plants, including carrots, tomatoes and onions, but is best known in temperate regions for causing blackleg and soft rot in potatoes. Its success partly lies in its ability to produce enzymes which break down its hosts cell walls. The degraded cell walls provide nutrients to the bacterium, and so aid its survival and growth. (sumber: 2007/helping-to-fight-widespread-potato-disease.html)
PENGELOLAAN HAMA It is possible to monitor the potato beetle densities weekly by scouting 25 to 50 plants per field. Insecticide resistance managements are practiced as fallow: 1.Don’t apply the same synthetic insecticide more than once per season. 2.Don’t apply the same synthetic insecticide to the same generation of the potato beetle. 3.Potato beetle egg masses can be flagged at the beginning of each potato beetle generation to determine egg hatch and proper timing of microbial insecticides. 4.Foliar application (Provado) is limited to one generation potato beetle (overwintered or summer adults) per season. Foliar application is not made where systemic application is make. 5.Soil application is made as a perimeter treatment to outer six rows or 20" in non-rotated fields or adjacent to fields previously planted to potato. 6.If soil perimeter application is used, foliar application is not made in the same year. 7.Apply microbial insecticides at least once per generation for control of potato beetle. 8.Non-chemical potato beetle control methods can be employed, such as propane flaming, delayed planting, or disruption of movement from over wintering sites. 9.Monitor the aphid densities weekly by examining 50 leaves per week. Aphid species can be identified and insecticides application will be best control of the species present. 10.Potato leafhopper densities are monitored by examining 50 leaves per week. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 POTATO IPM
PENGELOLAAN GULMA 1.Weed management includes one or more of the following points: 2.Herbicide use is supplemented by at least one cultivation or hand weeding. 3.Herbicide rates are reduced through banding of herbicides & cultivation. 4.No herbicides are applied and weeds are controlled through cultivation. Herbicide rates are reduced by delaying application until, or after, crop emergence. 5.Weeds in fields, alleys and roadways are prevented from going to seed. 6.Scouting of fields in midseason for weeds. Location and species of uncontrolled weeds are mapped and the information is used in planning for next year. 7.Outbreaks of new or problem weed species are controlled, using chemical or non-chemical means, to prevent spreading or seed production. 8.Trial plot is maintained to test a different weed management technique. 9.Plan for healthy crop of potato Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 POTATO IPM GULMA Gulma adalah tumbuhan yang kehadirannya tidak diinginkan pada lahan pertanian karena menurunkan hasil yang bisa dicapai oleh tanaman produksi. Batasan gulma bersifat teknis dan plastis. Teknis, karena berkait dengan proses produksi suatu tanaman pertanian. Keberadaan gulma menurunkan hasil karena mengganggu pertumbuhan tanaman produksi melalui kompetisi. Plastis, karena batasan ini tidak mengikat suatu spesies tumbuhan. Pada tingkat tertentu, tanaman berguna dapat menjadi gulma. Sebaliknya, tumbuhan yang biasanya dianggap gulma dapat pula dianggap tidak mengganggu.spesies Contoh, kedelai yang tumbuh di sela-sela pertanaman monokultur kentang dapat dianggap sebagai gulma, namun pada sistem tumpang sari keduanya merupakan tanaman utama. Meskipun demikian, beberapa jenis tumbuhan dikenal sebagai gulma utama, seperti teki dan alang-alang.kedelai monokulturtumpang saritekialang-alang (SUMBER: DIUNDUH 23/3/2012)http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gulma
Check List of Control Measures In order to manage a potato crop in a state of optimal health, it is necessary to understand that constitute a healthy potato plant. The potato is a member of the plant family Solanaceous, which also include tomato, egg plant and tobacco as well as weed such as nightshade, groundcherry and buffalo bur. Unlike these other crop, however, potatoes are not produced from true seeds but rather are grown vegetatively from tubers “ seed pieces (Fig 4). It is convenient to divide the growth and development of the potato plant into five distinct life stages. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM The Year Prior to Growing Potatoes 1.Select cultivars appropriate for intended markets and production conditions. Identify reputable seed potato growers and visit forms to examine seed lots and certification records. Arrange for delivery of high quality certified seed potatoes. 2.Establish an appropriate long-term crop rotation, with potatoes grown no more often than every third year. Use rotation that suppresses diseases and insects and nematodes pests, and implement rotation-wide weed control strategies. Destroy volunteer potatoes and weed that may harbor diseases or insect pests. 3.Analyze the soil hardness, irrigation, diseases and weeds of potato. Fumigate the soil and spray some pesticides. Add some nutrients for the balance of soil pH and add some nutrients in soil.
Preplanting 1.Collect and analyze soil samples for fertility, pH and other pertinent factors. Apply preplant fertilizers and soil amendments as indicated by the results of soil analysis. Establish permanent records of fertility, rotation, cultural management and pesticide use for each field. 2.Perform tillage operations necessary to manage weeds and crop residues, minimize erosion, and provide tilth for planting. In irrigated production, establish sufficient soil moisture in the root zone to provide adequate available water until the potato plants are fully emergence. 3.Properly dispose of waste potatoes left from previous crop- never in cull piles. 4.Clean and sanitize storage facilities and seed-handling equipment prior to receiving seed potatoes. 5.Examine seed tubers for diseases and defects upon delivery. Handle and store seed properly to maintain tuber health. Do not hold seed in storage areas that have been treated with a sprout inhibitors and may still be contaminated. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM
Planting 1.Manage seed-cutting and healing operations carefully to ensure healthy, uniform, properly sized pieces. Sanitize cutting equipment at least daily and before cutting each seed lot. Apply a seed piece fungicide treatment as needed. Provide conditions for cut seed to suberize properly, or plant immediately after cutting, when soil conditions permit. 2.Delay planting until soil temperatures are above 50F. As much as possible, schedule planting operations to coincide with favorable soil conditions and weather. Operate the planter so that the seed pieces are planted at the intended spacing at a depth that will ensure rapid emergence. Apply fertilizers and pesticides as appropriate. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20// Perform operation for preeemergence weed control and any practice hat reduce soil crusting and promote rapid emergence. 2.In irrigated production, do not water prior to emergence unless the soil becomes excessively dry at the depth of the seed pieces. Fase Pertumbuhan 1: Pre-emergence
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM Fase Pertumbuhan II: Vegetatif 1.In irrigated production, provide uniform soil moisture and avoid especially wet of dry soil. 2.Apply post emergence herbicide as appropriate. Complete hilling-cultivating operations well before row closure, and avoid root pruning during tillage. Apply fertilizer side- dressings prior to the last hilling. 3.Being insect scouting and disease monitoring. Delay the first insecticide or fungicide application until the action threshold for the target pest or diseases has been reached. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM Fase pertumbuhan III: Inisiasi Umbi 1.Avoid especially wet or dry soil, to minimize the development of common scab and tuber disorders. 2.Begin petiole analysis for nutritional management, if appropriate. 3.Continue insect scouting and disease monitoring, and apply pesticides as needed. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Fase pertumbuhan IV: Pembesaran Umbi 1.In irrigated production, maintain uniform adequate soil moisture. Avoid overwinterinbg, to minimize disease development and nitrate leaching. Apply nutrients through sprinklers, if appropriate. 2.Continue insect scouting and disease monitoring, and apply pesticides as needed. 3.If desired, apply sprout inhibitors to plants when most tubers are at least 2 inches in diameter. Sumber:
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM Fase Pertumbuhan V: Pemasakan Umbi 1.Reduce irrigation to promote tuber skin set, minimize tuber disease, and manage late- season weed growth. 2.Cease application of nitrogen in irrigation water 4-6 weeks before vine killing. Schedule vine-killing operation to allow complete desiccation of the vines before harvest. Continue foliar applications of fungicide and insecticide, if appropriate, until the vines are completely dead. 3.Inspect, repair, and sanitize storage facilities and harvest equipment. Make necessary modification to harvest equipment to minimize bruising. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 MTP Project 3 Output 1 Target Protocols for characterizing tuber bulking and dormancy developed and implemented for documentation and enhanced potato breeding capacity (sumber: https://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/SET/Protocol+tuber+bulking+maturity)
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM Tuber growth. The rate and duration of tuber bulking determines the yield in the potato crop. Tuber bulking rate is the slope of the linear curve described by the increase in tuber weight with time, while tuber bulking duration is the time between tuber initiation and persistence of foliage. Indeed, decline in leaf area by senescence is followed after a short time by the cessation of tuber bulking. Though both factors are important in accounting for yield differences between cultivars, tuber bulking duration is of greater importance as it seems determines final yield. For instance, an early variety with a yield advantage over a later variety during the linear phase of bulking may show a final yield lower than the later one because of earlier senescence, unless early lifting is carried out. Tuber bulking results from two basic processes, tuber initiation and tuber growth. Timing and duration depend upon geographic location, environmental factors, and cultivar. Tuber growth, which follows tuber initiation is based on the number of days to maturity or length of the growing season, thus, this stage can last from 60 to over 90 days. Tuber enlargement which takes place during this phase continues as photosynthates are translocated from the vines into the tubers. The number of hours of daylight available for photosynthesis and the day temperatures during this phase largely influence the length of this phase. Despite the observation that the major part of tuber growth occurs before maximum leaf area, higher bulking is associated with greater leaf area provided the limit at which crop growth-rate declines because of mutual shading of leaves, is not surpassed Mechanisms controlling tuber growth or re-absorption may be more important in establishing tuber size distribution at harvest than are processes controlling tuber initiation (Struik, P.C., A.A. Haverkort, D. Vreugdenhil, C.B. Bus, and R. Dankert Manipulation of tuber-size distribution of a potato crop. Potato Res 33: ). The number of tubers produced are season, soil moisture, and cultivar specific. A maturation phase follows tuber growth, which is characterized by leaf area decline and a slow rate of tuber growth. This phase may not occur in the field when a medium or long season cultivar is grown in a short production season. Only approximately percent of the total tuber weight can be obtained between the end of the tuber growth stage and the first two weeks of maturation. Sumber: https://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/SET/Protocol+tuber+bulking+maturity ….. Diunduh 23//32012https://research.cip.cgiar.org/confluence/display/SET/Protocol+tuber+bulking+maturity
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM PANEN UMBI KENTANG Train personnel for a safe. Low-bruise harvest. Conduct all harvesting, transportation, and bin-loading operations with bruise management as a primary goal. Ensure that tubers are not dropped from height of more than 6 inches. 1.Begin harvesting after the vines are completely dead, early enough in the season to avoid from damage. Coordinate harvest operation with current and expected weather conditions, so that tubers are dug when conditions are as close as possible to optimal (60-65% of available soil water and tuber pulp temperatures of 50-65F.) 2.Remove as much soil and debris as possible from tubers during harvest. 3.Trap loads in the field to protect harvested tubers from rain, direct sun, and adverse temperatures. Isolate damaged or diseased lots in separate bins for immediate grading and marketing. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 Environmental factors influencing tuber bulking Potato originated from the high altitude tropics in the Andes. Hence, tuber bulking is best promoted by short photoperiods, high light intensity and cool climates, with mean daily temperatures between 15° and 18°C as encountered in its center of origin. The meteorological factors influencing this process at a given site are basically air and soil temperatures, solar radiation, photoperiod, soil moisture, and crop water use. Sensitivity to environmental conditions varies markedly between genotypes (Brown, P.H The Canon of Potato Science: 37. Stolonization, tuber induction and tuberization. Potato Research (2007) 50:363–365). The most limiting environmental factors for potato production are heat and water stresses. Time from emergence to tuber initiation is shortened by short days and temperatures less than 20°C. Higher temperatures favor foliar development and delay tuber initiation. Crop senescence is also shortened by high temperatures, especially greater than 30°C (Midmore, 1990). Heat stress leads to a higher number of smaller tubers per plant and lower tuber specific gravity with reduced dry matter content (Haverkort, A.J Ecology of potato cropping systems in relation to latitude and altitude. Agric. Syst. 32: ). Ewing (1981) reported that in many areas the sequence of temperatures that most often brings economic damage to potato crops is warm temperatures early in the season, followed by cool temperatures that induce strong tuberization, followed in turn by another period of high temperatures. Such temperature oscillations lead to heat sprouts, chain tubers, and secondary growth of tubers. Apparently the fluctuations in tuberization stimulus cause tuber formation to alternate with more stolon-like growth. Long day adapted cultivars that produce well in full growing seasons (5-6 months) may mature too early and senesce between 60 and 70 days after planting in the equatorial highlands and consequently yield less (Haverkort,1990). On the other hand, cultivars that perform well under short days in a 3 to 4 month growing season start tuberizing late and mature too late at altitudes of 50oN. Tuber initiation is delayed by long day lengths, though day length limit is cultivar dependent. Stolon branching is increased both by high temperatures and long photoperiods, while stolon number is not affected by photoperiod but instead by temperature and moisture (Sands, P.J., C. Hackett, and H.A. Nix A model of the development and bulking of potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.). I. Derivation from well-managed field crops. Field Crops Res 2: ). Drought stress limits vine growth and reduces the number of tubers in larger size categories (Walworth and Carling, 2002). However, no differences have been observed in the dates of tuber initiation or beginning of the growth period (bulking) between irrigated and non-irrigated potatoes (Dwyer and Boisvert, 1990). In addition, time to foliage senescence is not affected in drought-stressed plants but top growth is, from early to mid season (Walworth, J.L., and D.E. Carling Tuber initiation and development in irrigated and non-irrigated potatoes Amer J of Potato Res 79: ).
AGROTEKNOLOGI KENTANG PENDUKUNG IPM 1.Manage the curing period carefully to provide appropriate conditions for wound healing (50-60F), relative 95-99%, and good air movement). 2.Monitor air movement, humidity, and temperature throughout the pile, and maintain the environmental conditions appropriate for each stage of the storage and on tubers. Continually monitor the pile for any signs of decay, and take appropriate action if decay develops. 3.If appropriate, have a chemical sprout inhibitor applied by a custom application after the curing process has been completed. 4.Before removing tubers for marketing, warm the store age to raise pulp temperatures above 50F. Manage bin-unloading operations to minimize bruising, following the same principles applied at harvest. 5.Ensure that washed or flumed potatoes are well dried before packing. Use ventilated bags. 6.Dispose of waste potatoes properly-never in cull piles. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 PENYIMPANAN UMBI KENTANG
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) INSECT MANAGEMENT Effective insect management relies on accurate identification of pests and beneficial insects, an understanding of their biology and life cycle, knowledge of economically important levels of pest damage, a familiarity with allowable control practices, and their effectiveness, in other words, Integrated Pest Management (IPM). Regular scouting and accurate pest identification are essential for effective insect management. Thresholds used for conventional production may not be useful for organic systems because of the typically lower percent mortality and shorter residual of control products allowed for organic production. The use of pheromone traps or other monitoring or prediction techniques can provide an early warning for pest problems, and help effectively focus scouting efforts. The contribution of crop rotation as an insect management strategy is highly dependent on the mobility of the pest. Crop rotation tends to make a greater impact on reducing pest populations if the pest has limited mobility. In cases where insects are highly mobile, leaving a greater distance between past and present plantings is better. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 Cultural control options available for potato insects include: 1.rotation to non-hosts (do not follow next season with potatoes, tomatoes or eggplant) 2.hand removal 3.propane flaming 4.floating row cover 5.yellow sticky traps and tape 6.trench trap around perimeter 7.trap tubers around perimeter 8.vacuum - leaf blower operated for suction 9.early or late planted trap rows of potatoes 10.remove solanaceous weeds from areas bordering potato fields 11.straw mulch
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Time for concern: Late April through vine-kill Key characteristics: The adults have alternate black and yellowish orange stripes that run lengthwise on the wing covers, five of each color on each wing. The beetles are 3/8 inch long by 1/4 inch wide and convex in shape. The eggs are yellowish orange and deposited in masses that contain between 20 and 40 eggs. Larvae are small, humpbacked, and red with two rows of black spots on each side of their body. Adults and larvae feed on leaves and stems. Adults hibernate in the ground in and near potato fields, emerge in the spring and disperse to solanaceous host plants where they feed and give rise to 1 or 2 larval generations. Risk assessment: Colorado potato beetle is a serious pest of potatoes. If left uncontrolled, it can devastate yields with reductions up to 90%. Most varieties can tolerate moderate defoliation (up to 30%) in the early season without affecting yield. Next to leafhopper, this is the most serious insect pest of potatoes. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012 Colorado Potato Beetle (CPB), Leptinotarsa decemlineata
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Aphids, Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Time for concern: June through vine-kill Adults of the potato infesting aphid species are approximately 1/25 to 2/25 inch in length and vary in color from yellow to black. They may be winged or wingless. In the fall, winged aphids are produced and mate. The eggs are black and less than 1/50 inch in length. Relative Risk: Aphids are rarely a problem on organic farms due to the higher numbers of parasites and predators, but they can transmit viruses, which will affect yield of potatoes and other crops susceptible to viruses. Virus infection is more serious for growers who save their own seed. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Aphids, Potato Aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Time for concern: Early June through August Adult is wedge-shaped, iridescent green in color, and 1/8 inch long. The body is widest at the head. Eggs are laid singly on the underside of leaves. Both adults and nymphs are very active, running forward, backward, or sideways. The potato leafhopper (PLH) feeds on plant sap in leaflets, petioles and stems and injects a toxin into the plant ‟ s vascular system in the process. PLH damage can stunt potato plants, and kill seedlings. The symptoms produced by feeding have been termed “hopperburn,” the first sign of which is whitening of the veins. These areas become flaccid and yellow in color, then desiccate, turn brown, and die. Leaf curling may occur. The entire process takes four to five days. Relative Risk: Leafhoppers are a threat every growing season. Short of late blight, leafhoppers are the most serious pest of potato. Yield reductions on susceptible varieties can be up to 50% to 90% depending on how early in the season the damage occurs. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Potato Leafhopper, Empoasca fabae Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Late Blight, Phytophthora infestans Time for concern: Throughout the growing season and in storage. High moisture and moderate temperatures (60-80oF) favor late blight development; disease will stall in hot weather. This fungus causes lesions on leaves and stems that appear as small flecks within three to five days after infection. The infected tissue is initially water-soaked but becomes brown or black in a few days. Lesions are often surrounded by a halo of light green tissue. Under high humidity, sporulation is visible as a delicate, white mold surrounding the lesion. Rain may wash spores down the stems and infect tubers. Infected tubers develop a shallow reddish-brown corky dry rot. Bacterial soft rot often follows. Late blight overwinters on infected, stored tubers or tubers left in the field. Relative Risk: This disease occurs sporadically, but is totally devastating when present. In very wet cool weather, infections can spread quickly, leading to 50% or greater reductions in yield even with copper sprays, and complete yield loss if no control measures are taken. Hot weather slows disease progress. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
Pink rot of potato, caused by Phytophthora erythroseptica, is an important storage disease of potatoes worldwide. The disease is usually associated with high soil moisture when tubers are approaching maturity and is a serious problem in poorly drained soils. Diseased plants are first observed in poorly drained parts of the field. Disease symptoms, mostly characterized by stunting and wilting, appear on the potato vines late in the growing season. Wilting starts from the base of the stem and progresses upwards causing leaf yellowing, drying and defoliation. Vascular discoloration and blackening of the underground stems may also be observed. Phytophthora erythroseptica, the causal agent of pink rot is a soil born pathogen that produces thick walled sexual spores called oospores that can survive and persist in the soil for up to seven years. Soil borne oospores are the primary source of inoculum for pink rot in potato. Transmission by infected seed tubers has always been considered of minor importance since rapid rotting and decay of tuber tissue during storage will exclude these tubers from being used as planting material. Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Pink Rot Phillip Wharton and William Kirk Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Pink Rot, Phytophthora erythroseptica Time for concern: Growing season through marketing. Disease development is favored by cool weather and excessive soil moisture. Infection occurs early in the season; symptoms appear in late August. External symptoms on tubers appear as decay around the stem end or eyes and lenticels. The infected area turns purple to dark brown with a black band. When cut, the infected tissue turns pink in a matter of minutes, then darkens to brown and finally to black. This soil borne fungus is common in many soils but causes more damage in areas that stay wet. Relative risk: Pink rot can be frequent and serious in low, wet areas. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
Penyakit busuk umbi (black dot diseases) Penyebab: jamur Colletotrichum coccodes. Gejala: daun menguning dan menggulung, lalu layu dan kering. Bagian tanaman yang berada dalam tanah terdapat bercak-bercak berwarna coklat. Infeksi akan menyebabkan akar dan umbi muda busuk. Black dot symptoms are first visible in the field in mid to late summer as yellowing and wilting of foliage in the tops of plants. These symptoms may go unrecognized because of their similarity to those caused by Fusarium and Verticillium spp. Pengendalian: pergiliran tanaman, sanitasi kebun dan penggunaan bibit yang baik. Pencegahan dengan penggunaan Natural Glio pada sebelum atau awal tanam Sclerotia surviving on the surface of infected tubers is the source of inoculum that spreads the disease into new fields. Once the disease is established, the fungus sclerotia survive on infected plant residue in the soil for long periods of time. Potato plants growing in infested soil are exposed to inoculum arising from the sclerotia. When conditions are favorable the fungus invades underground stem tissue and moves upward in the plant. Airborne spores also infect the foliage, especially when tissue is injured by windblown sand, and the disease progresses downward into the stem and roots. In late stages of disease development, new sclerotia are produced, and the fungus population again builds to a high level in the soil. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 Black Dot Disease of Potato Alexander D. Pavlista ( University of Nebraska at Lincoln, Eric D. Kerr (University of Nebraska at Lincoln Robert B. O'Keefe (University of Nebraska at Lincoln Control Measures Seed: Use certified seed, since seed is the only way known to infest a clean field. There are no resistant potato cultivars. Thin-skinned cultivars are more susceptible. Do not sterilize seed pieces. Field: Rotate crops with grains, preferably five years before replanting potatoes on infested ground. Besides potatoes, other solanaceous crops and weeds can be hosts to black dot. Examples are tomatoes, peppers, eggplant, and nightshades. Keep potato fields free of nightshades. Fields should be clean of debris where black dot can overwinter. Keep soil adequately fertilized; petiole sampling will help. Keep fields irrigationd but avoid excess watering, especially in low spots or poorly drained soils. Windbreaks may be useful on sandy soils in high wind areas. Avoid skinning or bruising tubers at harvest. Note: there are no chemical control measures for black dot. Storage: Keep relative humidity at or above 90 percent. If possible, store at 40°F. If the field was infected, wash tubers going into storage. Use good sanitary practices.
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Black Dot Root Rot, Colletotrichum coccodes Time for concern: Growing season and into storage. Disease incidence increases later in the season, when soil temperatures are high. High temperatures and moisture on tuber surfaces promotes disease in storage. This fungal disease is also referred to as “black dot” because of the numerous black, fungal structures that appear on tubers, stolons, roots, and stems both above and below ground. Root growth is reduced and appears brown to black in color. Tuber infection appears as brown to gray discoloration over a large part of the tuber surface or as round spots larger than 1/4 inch in diameter. Black dot survives up to 2 years on infected plant debris and soil. Relative risk: Black dot root rot occurs sporadically but can result in 75% yield loss in severely infected fields. Can be destructive because it causes symptoms on all plant parts. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
PRODUCTION GUIDE FOR ORGANIC POTATOES 2011 NYS IPM Publication No. 138 v2. Abby Seaman (Cornell University, New York State Agricultural Experiment Station, New York State IPM Program) Fusarium Wilt, F. oxysporum and F. solani Time for concern: Mid-season to harvest. Infection is favored by hot weather and high soil moisture. Fusarium, a soil borne fungi, can cause a variety of symptoms including tuber lesions and vascular discoloration in tuber, root and stem. Wilt symptoms result from the growth of the fungi in the water- conducting tissues of the root and stem. Wilting and chlorosis of the foliage is similar to Verticillium wilt. Laboratory isolation of the fungus is necessary for positive identification. There are no chemical control options. Relative risk: Yield loss can be up to 50 % in severely affected fields. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//3/2012
Fusarium dry rot is one of the most important diseases of potato, affecting tubers in storage and seed pieces after planting. Fusarium dry rot of seed tubers can reduce crop establishment by killing developing potato sprouts, and crop losses can be up to 25%, while more than 60% of tubers can be infected in storage. All the commonly grown potato cultivars in North America are susceptible to the pathogen, although some are less susceptible than others and several breeding lines have been reported to have a higher degree of resistance to dry rot. Fusarium dry rot is caused by several fungal species in the genus Fusarium. Fusarium sambucinum (teleomorph Giberella pulicaris) is the most common pathogen causing dry rot of stored tubers in North America, but other Fusarium species are also known to cause dry rot, particularly F. solani var. coeruleum, and F. avenaceum. In Michigan, F. sambucinum is probably the main causal agent of dry rot, but F. solani var. coeruleum may also be present. Sumber: ….. Diunduh 20//32012 Fusarium Dry Rot Phillip Wharton and William Kirk Department of Plant Pathology, Michigan State University
DISEASE: Blackleg of potato PATHOGEN: Erwinia carotovora subsp. atroseptica (Synonym: Pectobacterium atrosepticum) Blackleg disease sometimes develops early in the growing season soon after the plants emerge. This is referred to as early blackleg and is characterized by stunted, yellowish foliage that has a stiff, upright habit. Disease Cycle and Epidemiology Sumber: Diunduh 20//32012 Blackleg of potato Solke H. De Boer, Centre for Animal and Plant Health, Charlottetown, PE, Canada