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Soemarno, Nopember 2013. ONTOLOGI “Ontologi ilmu” membatasi diri pada ruang lingkup kajian keilmuan yang dapat dipikirkan manusia secara rasional dan.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Soemarno, Nopember 2013. ONTOLOGI “Ontologi ilmu” membatasi diri pada ruang lingkup kajian keilmuan yang dapat dipikirkan manusia secara rasional dan."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Soemarno, Nopember 2013

2 ONTOLOGI “Ontologi ilmu” membatasi diri pada ruang lingkup kajian keilmuan yang dapat dipikirkan manusia secara rasional dan yang dapat diamati melalui panca indera manusia (dengan atau tanpa alat bantu). Beberapa aliran dalam ilmu kajian lingkungan adalah realisme, naturalisme, empirisme. Ontologi membahas tentang apa yang diketahui oleh manusia, yaitu suatu realitas. Realitas (kenyataan) adalah segala sesuatu yang ada di dunia nyata, lingkungan hidup manusia. Untuk memudahkan pemahaman manusia, kenyataan (fakta atau fenomena) diidentifikasi menjadi dua hal yaitu kenyataan yang dapat diukur oleh manusia dan yang tidak dapat diukur oleh manusia. Hal-hal yang dapat diukur secara kuantitatif oleh manusia disebut sebagai “kenyataan material”, sedangkan kenyataan yang tidak dapat diukur secara kuantitatif disebut sebagai “kenyataan nonmaterial”. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

3 “Materi” dapat dipandang sebagai “kenyataan” yang dapat diindera dan “nonmateri” adalah kenyataan yang tidak dapat diindera. Realitas material mempunyai banyak ciri-ciri yaitu: 1.Sistem yang terdiri atas “komponen-komponen” nya; 2.Ada batasannya ruang dan waktu; 3.Dapat dianalisis dan disintesis; Memiliki ukuran kuantitatif (dapat diukur secara kuantitatif). Contoh dari “realitas material” adalah lahan, air, hutan, rumah, udara, dan lainnya. Realitas “non-material” mempunyai ciri kebalikan dari “materi”. Contoh dari realitas “nonmaterial” adalah persepsi, akal, jiwa, pikiran dll. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

4 Pentingnya pembahasan ontologis ini berkaitan dengan pembuktian kebenaran tentang “konsep teoritis” atau hipotesis”. Apakah sebuah pengetahuan yang dihipotesiskan sesuai dengan realitas atau tidak. Jika tidak, maka pengetahuan tersebut “bernilai salah”. Selain itu ontologi juga digunakan untuk menetapkan batas-batas dari ilmu yang sedang dibahas. Jika obyeknya adalah material, maka batasannya juga harus material. Jika obyeknya non-material, maka batasannya juga non-materi. Dengan mengetahui hakikat dari apa yang dikaji maka kita dapat menghukumi kajian itu dengan hakikat yang diketahui. Jika kita membahas tentang “sumberdaya hutan”, maka kita dapat menghukumi “hutan” dengan hakikat-hakikat “hutan” itu. Misalnya : 1.Hutan itu mempunyai luasan; 2.Hutan terdiri atas lahan, flora, fauna; dan 3.Permasalahan hutan dapat dianalisis dan disintesis untuk mencari alternatif solusinya. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

5 IKL membatasi ruang lingkup kajian-kajian lingkungan yang dapat dipikirkan manusia secara rasional dan yang dapat diamati melalui panca indera manusia, baik secara langsung atau dengan menggunakan alat bantu. IKL merupakan bagian dari serangkaian pengetahuan yang dapat ditemukan dan dipelajari serta dibutuhkan untuk mengatasi berbagai permasalahan di dunia nyata, khususnya yang berkaitan dengan permasalahan lingkungan hidup dan pembangunan. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

6 Kajian lingkungan (kuantitatif, kualitatif dan mix-method) merupakan instrumen ilmiah yang efektif untuk melakukan kajian-kajian ilmiah tentang lingkungan hidup manusia, memberikan informasi, pembelajaran dan dapat untuk memotivasi komunitas pembangunan, serta mengarahkan kehidupan masa depan yang ramah lingkungan dan berkelanjutan (Sustainable Development )‏; Pembelajarannya dilakukan melalaui cara-cara menyisipkan wawasan dan konsep-konsep tentang kajian-lingkungan secara luas, mendalam dan futuristik mengenai IPTEK dan permasalahan lingkungan dan pembangunan, baik yang berdimensi local, nasional dan global, serta alternative solusinya; 1.Penanaman pengetahuan (keahlian), persepsi, sikap dan kesadaran, rasa tanggung- jawab dan kemampuan (dan ketrampilan) kepada mahasiswa untuk dapat berkontribusi lebih baik bagi pengembangan IPTEK lingkungan dan pembangunan berkelanjutan; 2.Pengembangan kapasitas mahasiswa untuk mampu merencanakan, mengembangkan dan meng-implementasikan rencana kegiatan-kegiatan yang ramah lingkungan dan sustainable development, dengan mempertimbangkan perspektif eco-system, antara lain: Pengembangan SDM yang berkeseimbangan IPTEK dan IMTAQ, Konservasi lingkungan dan pengelolaan biodiversitas Keadilan sosial - ekonomi Keselarasan dan kelestarian lingkungan fisik dan budaya Keseimbangan produksi dan konsumsi sumberdaya alam. Program Dokor Ilmu Kajian Lingkungan (Environmental Studies):

7 Aspek-aspek yang dapat diangkat dalam penelitian disertasi IKL antara lain: 1.Etika lingkungan, integrasi sains dan agama dalam kajian-kajian permasalahan realitas lingkungan hidup 2.Kebijakan pembangunan ekonomi yang ramah lingkungan a.l.: Ekonomi Hijau, PDRB Hijau, Subsidi Hijau, Green-taxes, Clean and renewable energy, Green water Policy. 3.Pengelolaan sumberdaya alam untuk pembangunan berkelanjutan, a.l. Pengelolaan hutan lestari, Sistem Pertanian Sehat, Pengelolaan sumberdaya air dan DAS, Penataan ruang ramah lingkungan, Ekowisata dan wisata alam. 4.Teknologi rekayasa lingkungan, a.l. Teknologi Biodiversitas, Pengelolaan limbah dan sampah (3R: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle)‏, Carbon sequestration, Sanitasi Lingkungan, Rehabilitasi dan restorasi lahan, Mitigasi dampak global warming. 5.Adaptasi dan Mitigasi Impacts of Global Climate Change, a.l. Sistem produksi pangan organic, Konservasi Hutan dan Penghijauan (Carbon ‘sink’)‏, Pengurangan emisi (Reduction of Emission from Deforestration and Degradation = REDD)‏. 6.Ketahanan Pangan dan Energi, a.l. Sistem produksi pangan yang adaptif, Konservasi dan rehabilitasi lahan pangan, Diversifikasi pangan dan energi alternatif, Energi ramah lingkungan (Geothermal, Solar, Coastal, Wind, Microhydro)‏, Substitusi BBM (yang praktis dan aman).‏ ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

8 Epistemologi Ilmu Kajian Lingkungan Epistemologi juga disebut “teori pengetahuan” (theory of knowledge); berasal dari kata Yunani episteme, yang berarti “pengetahuan”, “pengetahuan yang benar”, “pengetahuan ilmiah”, dan logos = teori. Epistemologi dapat didefinisikan sebagai cabang filsafat yang mempelajari asal mula atau sumber, struktur, metode dan sahnya (validitas) pengetahuan. Persoalan-persoalan dalam epistemologi IKL adalah: 1.Apakah kajian lingkungan itu ?; 2.Bagaimana caranya mahasiswa dapat mempelajari dan mengetahui lingkungan ?; 3.Darimana pengetahuan tentang lingkungan itu dapat diperoleh ?; 4.Bagaimana validitas pengetahuan itu dapat dievaluasi ?; 5.Apa perbedaan antara pengetahuan a priori (pengetahuan pra-pengalaman) dengan pengetahuan a post priori (pengetahuan purna pengalaman) ?; 6.Apa perbedaan di antara: kepercayaan, pengetahuan, pendapat, fakta, kenyataan, kesalahan, imaginasi, gagasan, kebenaran, peluang, kepastian ? ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

9 Aspek Epistemologi IKL lazimnya disebut dengan “metode ilmiah”. Metode ilmiah dalam IKL merupakan prosedur sistematik dalam mendapatkan pengetahuan ilmiah. Syarat-syarat yang harus dipenuhi agar suatu pengetahuan dapat disebut ilmu tercantum dalam apa yang dinamakan dengan metode ilmiah. Langkah dalam epistemologi IKL antara lain berpikir deduktif dan induktif. Berpikir deduktif memberikan sifat yang rasional kepada pengetahuan ilmiah dan bersifat konsisten dengan pengetahuan yang telah dikumpulkan sebelumnya. Secara sistematik dan kumulatif pengetahuan ilmiah disusun setahap demi setahap dengan menyusun argumentasi mengenai sesuatu yang baru berdasarkan pengetahuan yang telah ada. Secara konsisten dan koheren maka ilmu mencoba memberikan penjelasan yang rasional kepada objek yang berada dalam fokus penelaahan IKL. Penjelasan yang bersifat rasional ini dengan kriteria kebenaran koherensi tidak memberikan kesimpulan yang bersifat final, sebab sesuai dengan hakikat rasionalisme yang bersifat pluralistik, maka dimungkinkan disusunnya berbagai penjelasan terhadap suatu objek analisis tertentu.. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

10 Proses kegiatan ilmiah dapat dimulai ketika mahasiswa mengamati sesuatu obyek penelitiannya. Mengapa mahasiswa mengamati atau memperhatikan sesuatu ?; Hal ini berarti mahasiswa tersebut menghadapi (atau mempunyai) “masalah atau kesukaran” yang dirasakan pada saat dia menemukan sesuatu dalam pengalamannya yang menimbulkan pertanyaan. Pertanyaan ini timbul disebabkan oleh adanya kontak manusia dengan dunia empiris yang menimbulkan berbagai ragam permasalahan. Dengan demikian dapat diartikan bahwa kalau “ada masalah baru”, maka dimulailah proses berpifir baru ; dan karena masalah ini berasal dari dunia empiris, maka proses berpikir tersebut diarahkan pada pengamatan objek empiris. Masalah atau pertanyaan seperti inilah yang kemudian disebut “masalah penelitian” atau “pertanyaan penelitian”. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

11 Alur berpikir yang tercakup dalam metode ilmiah dapat dijabarkan dalam beberapa langkah yang mencerminkan tahap-tahap dalam kegiatan ilmiah. Kerangka berpikir ilmiah yang berintikan proses logico-hypothetico-verifikasi ini pada dasarnya terdiri dari langkah-langkah sebagai berikut : 1.Perumusan masalah yang merupakan pertanyaan mengenai objek empiris “system lingkungan hidup” yang jelas batas-batasnya serta dapat diidentifikasikan faktor- faktor dan komponen-komponen yang ada di dalamnya; 2.Penyusunan kerangka berpikir dalam pengajuan hipotesis yang merupakan argumentasi yang menjelaskan hubungan yang mungkin terdapat antara berbagai faktor yang saling mengkait dan membentuk konstelasi permasalahan penelitian. Kerangka berpikir ini disusun secara rasional berdasarkan premis-premis ilmiah yang telah teruji kebenarannya dengan memperhatikan faktor-faktor empiris yang relevan dengan permasalahan penelitian; dan 3.Perumusan hipotesis yang merupakan pengumpulan fakta-fakta yang relevan dengan hipotesis yang diajukan untuk memperlihatkan apakah terdapat fakta-fakta yang mendukung hipotesis tersebut atau tidak. 4.Penarikan kesimpulan yang merupakan penilaian apakah sebuah hipotesis yang diajukan itu ditolak atau diterima. Sekiranya dalam proses pengujian terdapat fakta yang cukup yang mendukung hipotesis maka hipotesis itu diterima. Sebaliknya sekiranya dalam proses pengujian tidak terdapat fakta yang cukup mendukung hipoteis maka hipotesis itu ditolak.. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

12 Dalam IKL, kegiatan-kegiatan kajian ilmiahnya selain untuk mengembangkan IPTEK yang ada, diharapkan juga berorientasi pada “problem solving masalah realitas lingkungasn hidup. Problem solving merupakan suatu proses intelektual dalam menemukan masalah dan memecahkan berdasarkan data dan informasi yang akurat, sehingga dapat diambil kesimpulan yang tepat dan cermat. Problem solving juga merupakan suatu pendekatan dengan cara problem identifikation hingga ke tahap synthesis; kemudian analisis masalah hingga mencapai tahap aplikasinya; selajutnya komprehension untuk mendapatkan alternatif solusi dalam penyelesaian masalah. Problem solving merupakan taraf yang harus dianalisis dengan cara memahami sejumlah disiplin ilmu yang relevan dan ketrampilan-ketrampilan yang terkait. Dengan demikian yang dimaksud dengan problem solving dalam penelitian adalah hasil kajian terhadap satu masalah-penelitian dapat menghasilkan banyak alternative jawaban yang realistik. ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN

13 Tiga langkah penting dalam problem-solving adalah: 1.Mengidentifikasi masalah secara tepat. Secara konseptual suatu masalah (M) didefinisikan sebagai kesenjangan atau gap antara Kinerja actual dan target kinerja (T) yang diharapkan, sehingga secara simbolik dapat dituliskan bersamaan; M = T – A. 2.Menentukan sumber dan akar penybab dari masalah, misalnya dengan metode Fish-Bone analysis atau Root Cause analysis (RCA). Suatu solusi masalah yang efektif, apabila kita berhasil menemukan sumber-sumber dan akar-akar masalah, kemudian mengambil tindakan untuk menghilangkan masalah-masalah tersebut. 3.Menyusun alternatif solusi masalah secara efektif dan efisien.

14 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Langkah-langkah mencari alternatif solusi yang efektif dan efisien yaitu: 1.Mendefinisikan alternative solusi secara tertulis 2.Membangun diagram sebab akibat yang dimodifikasi untuk mendefinisikan : (a) akar penyebab dari masalah itu, (b) penyebab- penyebab yang tidak dapat dikendalikan, namun dapat diperkirakan 3.Setiap akar penyebab dari masalah dimasuskkan ke dalam diagram sebab akibat; sedangkan penyebab yang tidak dapat diperkirakan, didaftarkan secara tersendiri 4.Mendefiisikan alternatif solusi yang efektif dengan memperhatikan dan mempertimbangkan: (a) pencegahan terulang atau muncul kembali penyebab –penyebab itu, (b) alternative tindakan yang diambil harus terkendali, dan (c) memenuhi tujuan dan target yang ditetapkan. 5.Menerapkan atau implementasi alternative solusi yang diajukan.

15 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Metode problem solving ini menekankan pada penemuan dan pemecahan masalah secara berkelanjutan. Kelebihan metode ini mendorong mahasiswa untuk berpikir secara ilmiah, praktis, intuitif dan bekerja atas dasar inisiatif sendiri, menumbuhkan sikap objektif, jujur dan terbuka. Sedangkan kelemahannya memerlukan waktu yang cukup lama, tidak semua materi kajian memerlukan perencanaan yang teratur dan matang, dan tidak efektif bagi mahasiswa yang pasif.

16 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN MIXED-METHODOLOGY Ilmu Kajian Lingkungan mempunyai lingkup kajian yang luas, sehingga memerlukan beragam metode-metode ilmiah sesuai dengan disiplin ilmu yang relevan. Seringkali diperlukan penggabungan beberapa metode ilmiah yang sinergistik dalam suatu “Mixed-methodology” atau “mixed research method”. Akhir-akhir ini muncul kecenderungan baru untuk menggunakan dua metodologi penelitian, kuantitatif dan kualitatif dalam satu penelitian. Kecenderungan ini tentunya didasari oleh keinginan untuk menghadirkan hasil penelitian yang mencukupi terhadap kepentingan penjelasan dan pemahaman yang lebih komprehensif. Penggabungan dua metode ilmiah tersebut tidak berarti keduanya dicampur-aduk sembarangan, sebab kedua metode ini secara ontologis, epistemologis dan aksiologis memang berbeda.

17 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Penggabungan kedua metode ilmiah tersebut harus dilakukan secara berurutan terintegrasi, misalnya metode kuantitatif dulu baru kemudian dilanjutkan dengan metode kualitatif, disebut sebagai explanatory research design; atau metode kualitatif dulu baru kemudian dilanjutkan dengan metode kuantitatif, disebut exploratory research design. Design penelitian biasanya diartikan sebagai prosedur pengumpulan data, analisis data, interpretasi dan pelaporan data dalam suatu penelitian. Desain penelitian merupakan sebagian saja dari metode penelitian. “Mixed Research Method” lebih merupakan desain-riset dalam suatu metode penelitian.

18 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Explanatory Research Design Di dalam explanatory research design, maka yang perlu diperhatikan adalah bagaimana seorang peneliti melakukan penelitian kuantitatif terlebih dahulu dan setelah selesai melakukannya maka dilanjutkan dengan melakukan penelitian kualitatif terhadap sesuatu yang dianggap sangat memerlukan penggambaran secara lebih mendalam. Secara prosedural, maka Desain Riset Eksplanatori adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Pengumpulan data Kuantitatif 2.Analisis data Kuantitatif 3.Pembuktian Kuantitatif 4.Melakukan identifikasi pembuktian untuk tindak lanjut 5.Koleksi data kualitatif 6.Analisis data kualitatif 7.Pembuktian Kualitatif 8.Interpretasi Kuantitatitif dan Kualitatif.

19 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Exploratory Research Design Di dalam desain penelitian eksploratori, maka peneliti akan melakukan penelitian dengan mengumpulkan data kualitatif terlebih dahulu dan kemudian ditindaklanjuti dengan penelitian kuantitatif. Penelitian kualitatif akan menghasilkan rumusan-rumusan proposisi dan kemudian diuji dengan penelitian kuantitatif. Secara prosedural adalah sebagai berikut: 1.Pengumpulan data kualitatif 2.Analisis data kualitatif 3.Pembuktian secara kualitatif 4.Pengembangan instrument kuantitatif 5.Pengumpulan data kuantitatif 6.Analisis data kuantitatif 7.Pembuktian secara kuantitatif 8.Analisis kualitatif dan kuantitatif.

20 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Triangulation design: Data Transformation Model Untuk penelitian yang menggunakan desain triangulasi yang bermodel transformasi data, maka dilakukan dengan prosedur sebagai berikut: Pengumpulan data kuantitatif Analisis data kuantitatif Pengumpulan data kualitatif Analisis data kualitatif Transformasi data kualitatif ke kuantitatif Membandingkan dan mengkorelasikan dua set data Interpretasi berdasar data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Ada banyak contoh model mixed methodology di dalam literatur Ilmu Kajian Lingkungan.

21 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN (IKL) Aksiologi Ilmu Kajian Lingkungan Aksiologi berasal dari kata “axios” yakni dari bahasa Yunani yang berarti “nilai” dan “logos” yang berarti “teori”. Aksiologi diartikan sebagai nilai-nilai (manfaat) yang berkaitan dengan kegunaan dari pengetahuan yang diperoleh. Aksiologi membahas tentang nilai (manfaat) suatu pengetahuan dan hasil-hasil kajiannya, nilai dari sesuatu tergantung pada tujuannya. Sehingga pembahasan tentang nilai pengetahuan tidak dapat dipisahkan dari tujuannya. Semua pengetahuan memiliki tujuan obyektif. Tujuan dari IKL adalah untuk mendapatkan kebenaran tentang hasil-hasil kajian lingkungan. Kebenaran yang didapatkan dari kajian lingkungan tentu saja dimanfaatkan untuk mensolusi, mengelola, memperbaiki atau melestarikan lingkungan hidup.

22 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Dalam Encyclopedia of philosophy dijelaskan bahwa aksiologi disamakan dengan value dan valuation. Ada tiga bentuk value dan valuation, yaitu : Nilai, dalam arti abstrak-sempit “menyatakan sesuatu yang baik, menarik, dan bagus”, sedangkan dalam arti luas “merupakan kewajiban, kebenaran dan kesucian”. Dalam kaitan ini, aksiologi sebagai bagian dari etika, alat untuk mencapai tujuan. Nilai sebagai kata benda konkret, seringkali dipakai untuk merujuk kepada sesuatu yang bernilai, seperti nilainya, nilai dia, dan sistem nilai. Kemudian dipakai untuk apa-apa hal-hal yang memiliki nilai atau bernilai itu. Nilai, sebagai kata kerja “valuasi”, mengandung makna “menilai, memberi nilai dan dinilai”. Menilai sama dengan evaluasi, dan biasanya digunakan untuk menilai perbuatan, termasuk kegiatan dan karya ilmiah. “Menilai” mempunyai dua makna, yaitu “menghargai” dan “mengevalusi”.

23 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Aspek aksiologi IKL juga mempunyai beberapa pertanyaan: Untuk apa pengetahuan ilmiah IKL itu digunakan? Bagaimana kaitan antara cara penggunaan pengetahuan ilmiah IKL dengan kaidah-kaidah moral? Bagaimana penentuan objek IKL yang ditelaah berdasarkan pilihan- pilihan moral? Bagaimana kaitan metode ilmiah IKL yang digunakan dengan norma- norma moral dan profesional?

24 ILMU KAJIAN LINGKUNGAN Nilai-nilai yang harus melekat pada lulusan PDIKL: 1.Nilai teori: lulusan PDIKL dalam kaitannya dengan nilai teori dicirikan oleh cara berpikir rasional, orientasinya pada ilmu dan teknologi, serta terbuka terhadap ide-ide dan pengalaman baru (open mind). 2.Nilai sosial : dalam kaitannya dengan nilai sosial, lulusan PDIKL dicirikan oleh sikap menghargai profesionalisasi, menghargai prestasi, bersikap positif terhadap permasalahan dunia nyata, dan menghargai hak-hak asasi sesama makhluk hidup; 3.Nilai ekonomi : dalam kaitannya dengan nilai ekonomi, lulusan PDIKL dicirikan oleh tingkat produktivitas yang tinggi, efisien menghargai waktu, terorganisasir dalam perilaku, dan penuh perhitungan; 4.Nilai pengambilan keputusan: Lulusan PDIKL dalam kaitannya dengan nilai ini dicirikan oleh sikap demokratis dalam kehidupannya bermasyarakat, dan keputusan yang diambil berdasarkan pada pertimbangan pribadi yang mendalam; 5.Nilai Religi: dalam hubungannya dengan nilai agama, lulusan PDIKL dicirikan oleh sikapnya yang tidak fatalistik, analitis, penalaran dan inovatif.

25 Environmental science is the study of interactions among physical, chemical, and biological components of the environment. It is an interdisciplinary science overlapping the categories in Natural sciences, Engineering sciences and Social sciences. In nature, Environmental science focuses on pollution and degradation of the environment related to human activities and their impact on biodiversity and sustainability. As an interdisciplinary field, environmental science also applies knowledge from economics, law and social sciences. It can be applied to cyberspace environment also. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

26 In nature, Physics is used to understand the flux of material and energy interaction and construct mathematical models of environmental phenomena. Chemistry is applied to understand the molecular interactions among natural systems. Biology is fundamental to describing the effects within the plant and animal kingdoms. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

27 Environmental science came alive as a substantive, active field of scientific investigation in the 1960s and 1970s. This was driven by the need for a large multi-disciplined team to analyze complex environmental problems, the arrival of substantive environmental laws requiring specific environmental protocols of investigation, and growing public awareness of a need for action in addressing environmental problems. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

28 Environmental science encompasses issues such as climate change, conservation, biodiversity, groundwater and soil contamination, use of natural resources, waste management, sustainable development, air pollution and noise pollution. Due to the interdisciplinary nature of environmental science, teams of professionals commonly work together to conduct environmental research or to produce Environmental Impact Statements, as required by the National Environmental Policy or under state laws. Other professional organizations engender work in environmental science and aid in communication among the diverse sciences. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

29 SUB-CATEGORIES Atmospheric sciences examines the new phenomenology of the Earth's gaseous outer layer with emphasis upon interrelation to other systems. Atmospheric sciences comprises meteorological studies, greenhouse gas phenomena, atmospheric dispersion modeling of airborne contaminants, sound propagation phenomena related to noise pollution, and even light pollution. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

30 Taking the example of the global warming phenomena, physicists create computer models of atmospheric circulation and infra-red radiation transmission, chemists examine the inventory of atmospheric chemicals and their reactions, biologists analyze the plant and animal contributions to carbon dioxide fluxes, and specialists such as meteorologists and oceanographers add additional breadth in understanding the atmospheric dynamics. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

31 Ecology studies typically analyze the dynamics among an interrelated set of populations, or a population and some aspect of its environment. These studies could address endangered species, predator/prey interactions, habitat integrity, effects upon populations by environmental contaminants, or impact analysis of proposed land development upon species viability. ECOLOGY STUDIES

32 An interdisciplinary analysis of an ecological system which is being impacted by one or more stressors might include several related environmental science fields. For example one might examine an estuarine setting where a proposed industrial development could impact certain species by water pollution and air pollution. For this study biologists would describe the flora and fauna, chemists would analyze the transport of water pollutants to the marsh, physicists would calculate air pollution emissions and geologists would assist in understanding the marsh soils and bay muds. INTERDISCIPLINARY ANALYSIS

33 Environmental chemistry is the study of chemical alterations in the environment. Principal areas of study include soil contamination and water pollution. The topics of analysis involve chemical degradation in the environment, multi-phase transport of chemicals (for example, evaporation of a solvent containing lake to yield solvent as an air pollutant), and chemical effects upon biota. ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMISTRY

34 As an example study, consider the case of a leaking solvent tank which has entered the soil upgradient of a habitat of an endangered species of amphibian. Physicists would develop a computer model to understand the extent of soil contamination and subsurface transport of solvent, chemists would analyze the molecular bonding of the solvent to the specific soil type and biologists would study the impacts upon soil arthropods, plants and ultimately pond dwelling copepods who are the food of the endangered amphibian. COMPUTER MODEL

35 Geosciences includes environmental geology, environmental soil science, volcanic phenomena and evolution of the earth's crust. In some classification systems it can also embrace hydrology including oceanography. As an example study of soils erosion, calculations would be made of surface runoff by soil scientists. Hydrologists would assist in examining sediment transport in overland flow. Physicists would contribute by assessing the changes in light transmission in the receiving waters. Biologists would analyze subsequent impacts to aquatic flora and fauna from increases in water turbidity. GEO-SCIENCE

36 "Environmental science" and "ecology" are different fields of study, although there is some overlap due to the multidisciplinary nature of environmental science. Ecology is the study of the interrealtions of living organisms, whether at the population, community, or ecosystem level. In contrast, environmental science is a broad area of study including diverse areas such as meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, soil chemistry, water chemistry, pollution studies, and biological responses of systems to anthropogenic influence. TERMINOLOGI

37 Environmental studies is the academic field which systematically studies human interaction with the environment. It is a broad interdisciplinary field of study that includes the natural environment, built environment, and the sets of relationships between them. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

38 Environmental studies, encompasses study in the basic principles of learning of the subjects, such as: Kebijakan, politik, hukum, ekonomi, sociologi dan aspek- sosial, perencanaan, pencemaran, Sumberdaya alam, dan Interaksi manusia dan lingkungan sekitarnya. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

39 An interdisciplinary field is a field of study that crosses traditional boundaries between academic disciplines or schools of thought, as new needs and professions have emerged. Originally the term interdisciplinary is applied within education and training pedagogies to describe studies that use methods and insights of several established disciplines or traditional fields of study. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

40 Current environmental problems have evolved into a complex set of interdisciplinary issues involving ecological, political, economic, social, as well as physical and biological considerations. ENVIRONMENTAL PROBLEMS

41 Modern environmental studies must include the study of the urban environment as well as the natural environment. Environmental studies encompasses several fields. Environmental studies is a distinct from ecological science and environmental science. ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

42 Interdisciplinari ty involves researchers, students, and teachers in the goals of connecting and integrating several academic schools of thought, professions, or technologies -- along with their specific perspectives -- in the pursuit of a common task. Interdisciplinary research has a collaborative focus and blends and integrates research between disciplines. Researchers from two or more disciplines work together and create a shared discourse about the research problem. Sometimes this offers a vantage point from which to interrogate the core assumptions of a discipline and to trace or even redraw its boundaries. Recent decades have seen the birth of 'interdisciplines – such as ecological economics and climate adaptation – where an interdisciplinary research project has consolidated to the point of creating a new discipline. Diunduh dari: …….. 26/12/2012

43 "Interdisciplinary studies" is an academic program or process seeking to synthesize broad perspectives, knowledge, skills, interconnections, and epistemology in an educational setting. Interdisciplinary programs may be founded in order to facilitate the study of subjects which have some coherence, but which cannot be adequately understood from a single disciplinary perspective (for example, women's studies or medieval studies). More rarely, and at a more advanced level, interdisciplinarity may itself become the focus of study, in a critique of institutionalized disciplines' ways of segmenting knowledge. INTERDISCIPLINARY ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES

44 Ilmu Lingkungan : An interdisciplinary academic field that integrates physical and biological sciences (including physics, chemistry, biology, soil science, geology, and geography) to the study of the environment, and the solution of environmental problems. Environmental science provides an integrated, quantitative, and interdisciplinary approach to the study of environmental systems.

45 Environmental scientists work on subjects like the understanding of earth processes, evaluating alternative energy systems, pollution control and mitigation, natural resource management, and the effects of global climate change. Environmental issues almost always include an interaction of physical, chemical, and biological processes. Environmental scientists bring a systems approach to the analysis of environmental problems. Key elements of an effective environmental scientist include the ability to relate space and time relationships as well as quantitative analysis. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES

46 Lintas Disiplin Ilmu multidisciplinary - researchers in separate disciplines work independently within their own disciplinary perspective, to address a common problem interdisciplinary - researchers work jointly, but from each of their respective disciplinary perspectives, to address a common problem transdisciplinary - researchers work jointly using a shared conceptual framework that draws together discipline-specific theories, concepts, and approaches, to address a common problem (Rosenfield, 1992) Firm boundaries Permeable boundaries No or blurred boundaries Source: Dan Stokols, 2004

47 Interdisciplinary Starts with disciplines and looks for lines of interest that connect them. Transdisciplinary Starts with complex problems and looks for new conceptualizations that transform understanding of theory and practice.

48 Arguments for Transdisciplinarity The problems we face transcend the disciplinary knowledge we practice. Universities should be communities of scholars – incubators and testing laboratories of ideas – not confederations of turfdoms. It’s not either/or! We need disciplinary, interdisciplinary, AND transdisciplinary programs in Higher Education.

49 A Cautionary Tale: The Interdisciplinary Program Builder The captain of the javelin team who won the “toss” and elected to receive.

50 Advantages Advantages of Transdisciplinary Collaboration Greater Explanatory Power Increased Capacity for Synthesis (not just analysis) Better Integration of Science, Management, and Policy Methodological Pluralism Promotes Coupling of Models Builds Foresight Capacity

51 Disadvantages Disadvantages of Transdisciplinary Collaboration Labor Intensive – Educationally DemandingLabor Intensive – Educationally Demanding Cooperation Hard to Sustain (turfdoms)Cooperation Hard to Sustain (turfdoms) Administratively ComplexAdministratively Complex Breadth vs. Depth TradeoffsBreadth vs. Depth Tradeoffs Diffuse vs. Focused Conceptual ModelsDiffuse vs. Focused Conceptual Models Few Professional Incentives (tenure hurdles, less rewards for team contributions)Few Professional Incentives (tenure hurdles, less rewards for team contributions) Weak or Negative Incentive Structures!

52 NEEDED: A Science of Integration

53 Science ManagementPolicy Politics Ethics Economics Env. Context History, Literature, Psychology, Geog., Sociology, etc.

54 The Redlands Approach The Redlands Approach Center for Environmental Studies Facilitating Interdisciplinary Work 1.Tenure-Track Faculty lines in Natural Science, Social Science, and Humanities 2.Conceptual Framework: Sustainability (Ecol/Econ/Equity) 3.Tools of Integration: GIS – spatial literacy 4.Heuristics: Ecological Footprint Analysis 5.Team Research: Design Studios & Policy Clinics 6.Experiential Learning: “Glocal” Program (community service learning plus travel courses and study abroad) 7.Setting Examples on Campus: Green Buildings/Design

55 Human activities (fishing) Freshwater habitat (water quality, quantity & timing) Estuarine habitat (water quality, mixing processes) Ocean habitat Climate change (altered water cycle) Human activities (resource & land use) Human activities (aquaculture, development) Climate change (sea level rise & ocean mixing) Health & Viability of PNW salmon Integrated Watershed Analysis Climate change

56 2000 UN Millenium Summit Halve Extreme Poverty Universal Primary Education Empowerment of Women/ gender equality Reduce <5 mortality by 2/3 Reduce maternal mortality by 3/4 Reverse spread of diseases, esp. HIV/AIDS, Malaria Ensure Environmental Sustainability Form a Global Development Partnership for aid, trade, debt relief Millenium Development Goals by 2015 Background/ History cont’d…

57 Sustainable Development Sustainable Development is the process by which we move towards sustainability “…development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (World Commission on Environment and Development, 1987) This was endorsed in 1992 at the Earth Summit in Rio Diunduh dari: png

58 Sustainable Development In May 1999 the UK’s Sustainable Development Strategy was published & defined sustainable development in terms of four objectives – Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone – Effective protection of the environment – Prudent use of natural resources – Maintenance of high & stable levels of economic growth & employment Sustainable development triangle – key elements and interconnections (corners, sides, center). (Source: adapted from Munasinghe [1992a, 1994a]) Diunduh dari: mental_elements_of_development

59 Conservation & Protection Fresh Water Management Biodiversity Sustainable Production & Consumption Key Themes…

60 Gender Equality Poverty Alleviation Peace & Int’l Understanding Imp. of Info. & Comm. Technology for ESD Human Rights Health Promotion Key Themes (cont’d)…

61 “Sustainable Development – is development that meets the needs of the present without compro-mising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” Sustainable Development Diunduh dari: vignettes/L384xH242/SUSTAINABLE_DEVELOPMENT_-_DIMENSIONS-d4b26.jpg

62 PILAR PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN Economic Development – poverty eradication Social Development – active participation of women; education; good governance Environmental Protection – prevent environmental degradation and patterns of unsustainable development At the local, national, regional, and global levels What is Sustainability? Diunduh dari:

63 PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI Poverty eradication Halve, by 2015, the proportion of the world’s people with income less than $1/day Basic health services for all, reduce health threats Increase food availability Combat desertification, mitigate effects of drought and floods Provision of clean drinking water Enhance industrial productivity

64 Changing Unsustainable Patterns of Consumption and Production Cleaner production technologies Developing cleaner, more efficient energy technologies Maintain urban air quality and health, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions Sound management of chemicals throughout their life cycle, and of hazardous wastes

65 LIMA AGENDA PRIORITAS DUNIA 1. AIR DAN SANITASI 2. ENERGI 3. KESEHATAN 4. PERTANIAN – PERKEBUNAN- KEHUTANAN-PETERNAKAN- PERIKANAN 5. BIODIVERSITYAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM

66 Water and Sanitation “Water is not only the most basic of needs but is also at the center of sustainable development.” Around 1.2 billion people still have no access to clean drinking water Around 2.4 billion people do not have adequate sanitation. Sustainable sanitation system Diunduh dari:

67 AIR DAN SANITASI Beberapa Issue Kunci: Prevent water pollution to reduce health hazards Protect ecosystems Introduce technologies for affordable sanitation, industrial and domestic wastewater treatment River basin, watershed and groundwater management Support desalination of seawater, water recycling Marine environmental protection - oceans, seas, islands and coastal areas are essential components of the Earth’s ecosystem

68 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR IAEA-supported projects worldwide using nuclear techniques: Isotope techniques for water resources development and management Automatic tracer flow gauging stations in ephemeral rivers Investigating dam and reservoir leakages and safety Pengolahan air-limbah dengan Electron- beam

69 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR Nuclear power plants are used for saltwater de- salination Seawater Desalination Process Diunduh dari:

70 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA AIR RCA Projects: –Isotope Techniques for Groundwater Contamination Studies in the Urbanized and Industrial Areas –Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas –Use of Isotopes in Dam Safety and Dam Sustainability

71 ENERGI “Some 2 billion people lack access to electricity and rely on traditional fuel sources such as firewood, kerosene, or biomass for their cooking and heating.” PRODUKSI KAYU BAKAR diunduh dari:

72 ENERGI Some key issues: Focus on access to energy in rural areas Energy conservation and energy efficiency – building design & management, better mass transportation, advanced and innovative cleaner technologies Promotion of renewable energy Action on climate change – ratification by countries of the Kyoto Protocol

73 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI Nuclear Power – reduces emission of greenhouse gases Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Comparative studies on natural gas and nuclear power Uranium resources development Operational and safety issues of nuclear power plants Nuclear power plants for saltwater desalination

74 Electron beam purification of flue gases Isotopic techniques to study climate change and predict future global changes resulting from greenhouse gases Rational exploitation of geothermal sources Isotope hydrology and geochemistry in geothermal fields Quality control and inspection of pipelines by NDT TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI

75 RCA Projects: –Process Diagnostics and Optimization in Petrochemical Industry –Role of Nuclear Power and other Energy Options in Competitive Electricity Market TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN ENERGI THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DIUNDUH dari:

76 KESEHATAN “Good health is vital for eradicating poverty and achieving sustainable development.” Some key issues: –Reduce mortality rates in 2015: by 66.7% for children & infants under 5; by 75% for maternal mortality rates –Control & eradicate communicable diseases, reduce HIV prevalence, combat malaria, tuberculosis –Ensure that chemicals are not used and produced in ways that harm human health –Reduce air pollution –Improve developing countries’ access to environmentally sound alternatives to ozone depleting chemicals

77 Some IAEA-supported projects worldwide: Use of radioisotopes in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of diseases –Upgrading of radiotherapy services –Production of Tc-99m Gel Generators for Nuclear Medicine –Early diagnosis and treatment of cervical cancer –Screening of newborns for neonatal hypothyroidism –Nuclear medical techniques in preventive nephrology TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN

78 –Isotopes for control of human communicable diseases (SIT for Tsetse eradication & control of malaria) –Molecular biology techniques using radionuclide methods (e.g. Polymerase chain reaction or PCR) for diagnosis of infectious diseases such as hepatitis B & C, tuberculosis –Rapid diagnosis of dengue fever infection –Early detection of congenital diseases in children TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN

79 Applications of radiation technology –Radiation sterilization of health care products –Cyclotron for short lived medical radioisotopes –Radiation sterilization of human tissue grafts for transplantation (bone, skin & other tissues) Nutrition –Nuclear techniques to address problems of malnutrition such as micro-nutrient deficiencies, energy expenditure, nutrient absorption & utilization TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN

80 RCA Projects: –Strengthening Medical Physics in Asia and the Pacific region –Brachytherapy in Treating Cervical Cancer –Distance-assisted Training (DAT) in Radiation Oncology –Distance-assisted Training (DAT) for Nuclear Medicine Technicians –Management of Liver Cancer using Transarterial Radioconjugate Therapy –Treatment with Unsealed Radioactive Source: Radiosynovectomy –Osteoporosis and Serum Turn Over by RIA and DEXA –Improved Information of Urban Air Quality Mgt. TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN KESEHATAN

81 PERTANIAN “Agriculture is central to sustainable development. About 70% of the poor in developing countries live in rural areas and depend in one way or another on agriculture for their survival.” Some key issues: –Address serious soil fertility problems –Diversification of crops –Increase water-use productivity –Apply R&D to increase productivity in crops and livestock

82 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN Mutation breeding to produce new varieties in different crops and ornamental plants Many Cattleya orchid hybrids are not only big and showy, but also wonderfully fragrant. Diunduh dari: festival/

83 Crop productivity –Control of insect pests by Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) –Biofertilizers to increase crop production –Optimization of water and fertilizer use for crops –Saline groundwater and wastelands for crop production TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN Induced Mutations (Successful nuclear techniques) designed to change the genetic makeup of a given plant variety without crossing with another variety. With this approach, a variety retains all its original attributes but is upgraded in one or two changed characteristics. This approach is based on radiation-induced genetic changes. Scientific methods, mainly the use of radiation, can increase by a hundred thousand times the likelihood of beneficial changes in plants grown for man’s use, and provide a tool to break through present limitations in variability. Already there are examples of better crops of wheat, barley, rice, oats, peanuts, soybean and other plants. Diunduh dari: food-agriculture-crop-improvement-edited-dr-mir-f-ali/ …… 26/12/2012http://intuitech.biz/chapter-20-nuclear-energy-applications- food-agriculture-crop-improvement-edited-dr-mir-f-ali/

84 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN Increasing food security –Food irradiation for food preservation Livestock development –Sustainable animal production –Improving productivity of goats –Feed supplementation for increasing livestock production –Improving cattle fertility and disease diagnosis –Eradicating rinderpest, screwworm

85 TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR DAN PERTANIAN RCA Projects: –Restoration of Soil Fertility and Sustenance of Agriculture Productivity –Production of Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) Antigen and Antibody ELISA Reagent Kit –Enhancement of Genetic Diversity in Food, Pulses and Oil Crops & Establishment of Mutant Germplasm Network –Better Management of Feeding and Reproduction of Cattle –Application of Food Irradiation for Food Security, Safety and Trade

86 BIODIVERSITAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM “Biodiversity and the ecosystems they support are the living basis of sustainable development.”

87 BIODIVERSITAS DAN PENGELOLAAN EKOSISTEM Some key issues: –Significantly reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 –Reverse the trend in natural resource degradation –Restore fisheries to their maximum sustainable yields –Protection of the marine environment from land based sources of pollution Relationship between biodiversity, ecological engineering and stakeholders engineering-to-farmers/

88 BIODIVERSITAS DAN TEKNOLOGI NUKLIR Nuclear techniques are used: –To trace the fate of pollutants, and study sedimentation rates in pollution studies –To identify pathways of pesticides & agrochemicals in the environment RCA Projects: –Enhancing the Marine Coastal Environment –Applications of nuclear and modeling techniques to sustainable development in the coastal zone –Investigating Environmental and Water Resources in Geothermal Areas

89 PENELITIAN INTERDISIPLIN DALAM KLP Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah “mode of research” yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspectives, concepts, dan / atau theories dari dua atau lebih disiplin ilmu untuk “to solve problems” yang solusinya berada di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu. Contoh Jurnal Internasional: 1.IJMRA: International Journal of Mixed Research Approach 2.JESS: Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences 3.JIER: Journal Interdisciplinary Environmental Review 4.JIES: Journal of Integrative Environmental Sciences 5.JERAD: Journal of Environmental Research And Development 6.Dll.

90 In a mixed model research, quantitative and qualitative approaches are mixed across at least two of the stages of research.

91 KAJIAN INTERDISIPLIN Pembangunan berkelanjutan tidak dapat terwujud hanya dnegan pembangunan ekonomi, tetapi juga diperlukan lingkungan yang baik, kualitas pendidikan yang bagus, dan keadilan manfaat pembangunan bagi semua warna negara. Banyak permasalahan dalam pembangunan- masyarakat yang tidak dapat diselesaikan secara teknis saja, tetapi juga memerlukan pemahaman yang mendalam dan pertimbangan-pertimbangan “humanity, society and nature”.

92 RISET INTERDISIPLIN Interdisciplinary research (IDR) adalah suatu mode riset oleh tim atau individual yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, techniques, tools, perspektif, konsep, dan /atau theori, dari dua atau lebih disiplin atau bodies of specialized knowledge, untuk mengembangkan pemahaman yang mendasar atau menyelesaikan masalah yang “penyelesaiannya” di luar lingkup suatu disiplin ilmu.

93 Karakteristik IDR yang baik: 1.flexibility, adaptability, creativity 2.curiosity about, and willingness to learn from, other disciplines 3.an open mind to ideas coming from other disciplines and experiences 4.good communication and listening skills 5.an ability to bridge the gap between theory and practice 6.a good team worker : Kesatuan antara mahasiswa pembimbing dan penguji

94 Multi-metodologi Multimetodologi = mixed methods research, adalah suatu pendekatan penelitian yang mengkombinasikan metode pengumpulan dan analisis data kuantitatif dan kualitatif. Istilah 'multimethodology' lebih banyak digunakan dalam “operations research”. Pendekatan ini menjadi populer semenjak tahun 1980-an

95 Mixed-Method Research (MMR) Mengkombinasikan metode-metode kuantitatif dan kualitatif menjadi suatu idea yang bagus. Menggunakan pendekatan multiple ini dapat memperkuat keunggulan masing-masing pendekatan dan mengatasi kelemahannya masing-masing. Pendekatan ini juga dapat menyediakan jawaban yang lebih komprehensif terhadap “research questions”, menerobos keterbatasan suatu pendekatan tunggal.

96 Multi-Method Studies (MMS) Multi-method studies menggunakan berbagai metode pengumpulan data dan analisis data di dalam suatu “single research paradigm”. Misalnya, anda melakukan penelitian kualitatif, dimana anda melakukan observasi sebagai seorang partisipan, dan anda juga melakukan wawancara dengan orang-orang. Atau dalam penelitian kuantitatif anda melakukan survei perilaku siswa, dan anda juga mengumpulkan informasi dari catatan komputer tentang frequensi ‘hits’ dalam penggunaan bahan ajar berbasis web. Dengan kata lain, anda menggunakan metode-metode yang secara luas-kompatibel di dalam suatu paradigm (atau a set of beliefs and values).

97 Proposal penelitian interdisiplin yang baik Specify clearly why an interdisciplinary approach is needed, which type of interdisciplinary approach is envisaged and which disciplines should be involved. Describe how the disciplines involved will be integrated and how this relates to the type of interdisciplinarity involved; demonstrate how the quality of integration will be assured Summarise the interdisciplinary skills of the researchers involved Describe how interdisciplinarity will be reflected in the research questions, research objectives, outputs and outcomes.

98 Bagaimana Eutrofikasi mempengaruhi biomasa dan komposisi spesies algae sistem perairan tawar dan pantai Response of algal biomass to nitrogen and phosphorus availability in aquatic ecosystem. The species composition of algal communities inhabiting the water column to respond to nutrient loading. Coastal marine ecosystems will respond positively to nutrient loading control efforts. Ekosistem Akuatik Dinamika Populasi. BIOLOGI PERAIRAN Eutrophication of freshwater and coastal marine ecosystems a global problem. Val H Smith. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2003, Volume 10, Number 2, Pages

99 To analyze the groundwater quality of Imphal West district, Manipur, India, and assess its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural use. Model analisis multivariate (PCA) sangat bermanfaat Kontaminasi As dan Konsentrasi Na tinggi menjadi kendala bagi pemanfaatannya Dampak kesehatan manusia tidak nyata. Statistik multivariate Dampak kesehatan masyarakat KUALITAS AIR Groundwater quality in Imphal West district, Manipur, India, with multivariate statistical analysis of data Elangbam J. K. Singh, Abhik Gupta and N. R. Singh. Environmental Science and Pollution Research. 2012

100 Forest is considered as one of the most important and most attractive recreation resources in nature which is the destination of most of the nature tourists. Perencanaan Wanawisata lestari? The 7 forest areas with total area of 6.3 ha are suitable for intensive outdoor recreation and remaining areas of this region (2476 ha) could be used for extensive outdoor recreation. Sumber air menjadi faktor pembatas penghembangan wanawisata. Pengelolaan Hutan Lestari Valuasi Ekologi- Ekonomi Valuasi Wanawisata Ecological Based Planning of Forest Outdoor Recreation Case Study: Traditional Span of Mandj in Lordegan Forests-Iran Beytollah Mahmoudi, Naghmeh Sharifi, Rahim Maleknia, Reza Ahmadeian and Amin Haghsetan Res. Jour. of Environmental and Earth Sciences Vol. 4, (7):

101 Evaluation of an interdisciplinary, experiential service-learning project that combined environmental studies and marketing. Students in environmental studies were able to identify and apply ways in which marketing tools can be employed to promote social causes and effect positive environmental behavioral change. Marketing students applied marketing concepts to a real-life situation, while gaining a greater awareness of environmental issues and the role of businesses in environmental stewardship. Environmental Services valuation Perilaku Konsumen Green Marketing Integrating Marketing and Environmental Studies Through an Interdisciplinary, Experiential, Service-Learning Approach Nila M. Wiese, and Daniel J. Sherman. Journal of Marketing Education April 2011 vol. 33 no

102 The use of food crops such as corn grain to produce ethanol raises major nutritional and ethical concerns. Using food grains to produce biofuels is already causing food shortages for the poor of the world. Growing crops for biofuel not only ignores the need to reduce fossil energy and land use, but exacerbates the problem of malnourishment worldwide. Agroteknologi tanaman serealia. Ekonomi Pangan dan Ekonomi Energi. Ekonomi Sumberdaya Food Versus Biofuels: Environmental and Economic Costs David Pimentel, Alison Marklein, Megan A. Toth, Marissa N. Karpoff and Gillian S. Paul. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p.1-12

103 Pola-pola akumulasi kesejahteraa n dan pengaruhnya terhadap deforestasi hutan oleh smallholder The main factors explaining the relationship between the farming systems and deforestation were: 1.years of residence on the lot, 2.distance of the lot to main market and 3.the amount of day labor hired. Ekonomi RUMAHTANGGA Pengelolaan Hutan PERHUTANAN SOSIAL Smallholder Livelihoods, Wealth and Deforestation in the Eastern Amazon. Pablo Pacheco. Human Ecology. Volume 37, Number 1 / February p Volume 37

104 Urbanization can increase or decrease species richness, depending on several variables. Some of these variables include: taxonomic group, spatial scale of analysis, and intensity of urbanization. Species richness tends to be reduced in areas with extreme urbanization (i.e., central urban core areas). Biodiversitas Urbanisasi. EKOSISTEM PERKOTAAN Effects of urbanization on species richness: A review of plants and animals Michael L. McKinney. Urban Ecosyst (2008) 11:161–176

105 Abstract Phosphorus (P) in rivers in the Mississippi River basin (MRB) contributes to hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and impairs local water quality. We analyzed the spatial pattern of P in the MRB to determine the counties with the greatest January to June P riverine yields and the most critical factors related to this P loss. Using a database of P inputs and landscape characteristics from 1997 through 2006 for each county in the MRB, we created regression models relating riverine total P (TP), dissolved reactive P (DRP), and particulate P (PP) yields for watersheds within the MRB to these factors. Riverine yields of P were estimated from the average concentration of each form of P during January to June for the 10-yr period, multiplied by the average daily flow, and then summed for the 6- mo period. The fraction of land planted in crops, human consumption of P, and precipitation were found to best predict TP yields with a spatial error regression model (R 2 = 0.48, n = 101). Dissolved reactive P yields were predicted by fertilizer P inputs, human consumption of P, and precipitation in a multiple regression model (R 2 = 0.42, n = 73), whereas PP yields were explained by crop fraction, human consumption of P, and soil bulk density in a spatial error regression model (R 2 = 0.49, n = 61). Overall, the Upper Midwest's Cornbelt region and lower Mississippi basin had the counties with the greatest P yields. These results help to point out specific areas where agricultural conservation practices that reduce losses to streams and rivers and point source P removal might limit the intensity or spatial occurrence of Gulf of Mexico hypoxia and improve local water quality. A Spatial Analysis of Phosphorus in the Mississippi River Basin Linda M. Jacobson, Mark B. David and Laurie E. Drinkwater. JEQ Vol. 40 No. 3, p

106 Abstract Four local-scale sites in areas with similar corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] agriculture were studied to determine the effects of different hydrogeologic settings of the Northern Atlantic Coastal Plain (NACP) on the transport of nutrients and pesticides in groundwater. Settings ranged from predominantly well-drained soils overlying thick, sandy surficial aquifers to predominantly poorly drained soils with complex aquifer stratigraphy and high organic matter content. Apparent age of groundwater, dissolved gases, N isotopes, major ions, selected pesticides and degradates, and geochemical environments in groundwater were studied. Agricultural chemicals were the source of most dissolved ions in groundwater. Specific conductance was strongly correlated with reconstructed nitrate (the sum of N in nitrate and N gas) (R 2 = 0.81, p < ), and is indicative of the relative degree of agricultural effects on groundwater. Trends in nitrate were primarily related to changes in manure and fertilizer use at the well-drained sites where aquifer conditions were consistently oxic. Nitrate was present in young groundwater but completely removed over time through denitrification at the poorly drained sites where there were variations in chemical input and in geochemical environment. Median concentrations of atrazine (6-chloro-N-ethyl-N′-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5- triazine-2,4-diamine), metolachlor (2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-1- methylethyl)acetamide), and some of their common degradates were higher at well-drained sites than at poorly drained sites, with concentrations of degradates generally higher than those of the parent compounds at all sites. An increase in the percentage of deethylatrazine to total atrazine over time at one well- drained site may be related to changes in manure application.. Trends and Transformation of Nutrients and Pesticides in a Coastal Plain Aquifer System, United States Judith M. Denver, Anthony J. Tesoriero and Jeffrey R. Barbaro. JEQ Vol. 39 No. 1, p

107 Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing interest in how changes in agricultural practice associated with the introduction of particular genetically modified (GM) crops might indirectly impact the environment. There is also interest in any effects that might be associated with recombinant and novel combinations of DNA passing into the environment, and the possibility that they may be taken up by microorganisms or other live biological material. From the current state of knowledge, the impact of free DNA of transgenic origin is likely to be negligible compared with the large amount of total free DNA. We can find no compelling scientific arguments to demonstrate that GM crops are innately different from non-GM crops. The kinds of potential impacts of GM crops fall into classes familiar from the cultivation of non-GM crops (e.g., invasiveness, weediness, toxicity, or biodiversity). It is likely, however, that the novelty of some of the products of GM crop improvement will present new challenges and perhaps opportunities to manage particular crops in creative ways. Potential for the environmental impact of transgenic crops Philip J. Dale, Belinda Clarke & Eliana M.G. Fontes. Nature Biotechnology 20, (2002)

108 Abstract Cities are growing inexorably, causing many to think that inevitably their environmental impact will worsen. In this paper, three approaches to understanding the environmental impact of cities are analyzed, namely population impact, Ecological Footprint and sustainability assessment. Although the population impact model provides some perspective on local impact, and the Ecological Footprint model on global impact, only the sustainability assessment approach allows us to see the positive benefits of urban growth and provides policy options that can help cities reduce their local and global impact while improving their live-ability and opportunity, which continue to drive their growth. This approach is then applied in the city of Sydney. The environmental impact of cities Peter Newman. Environment and Urbanization October 2006 vol. 18 no

109 Abstract Exposure to high levels of air pollution can cause a variety of adverse health outcomes. Air quality in developed countries has been generally improved over the last three decades. However, many recent epidemiological studies have consistently shown positive associations between low-level exposure to air pollution and health outcomes. Thus, adverse health effects of air pollution, even at relatively low levels, remain a public concern. This paper aims to provide an overview of recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges in this field and to identify future research directions for air pollution epidemiological studies. Health effects of ambient air pollution – recent research development and contemporary methodological challenges Cizao Ren and Shilu Tong. Environmental Health 2008, 7:56.

110 Abstract To inform family physicians about the health effects of air pollution and to provide an approach to counseling vulnerable patients in order to reduce exposure. MEDLINE was searched using terms relevant to air pollution and its adverse effects. We reviewed English-language articles published from January 2008 to December Most studies provided level II evidence. Outdoor air pollution causes substantial morbidity and mortality in Canada. It can affect both the respiratory system (exacerbating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and the cardiovascular system (triggering arrhythmias, cardiac failure, and stroke). The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) is a new communication tool developed by Health Canada and Environment Canada that indicates the level of health risk from air pollution on a scale of 1 to 10. The AQHI is widely reported in the media, and the tool might be of use to family physicians in counseling high-risk patients (such as those with asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cardiac failure) to reduce exposure to outdoor air pollution. Family physicians can use the AQHI and its health messages to teach patients with asthma and other high-risk patients how to reduce health risks from air pollution. Health effects of outdoor air pollution Approach to counseling patients using the Air Quality Health Index Alan Abelsohn. Canadian Family Physician August 2011 vol. 57 no

111 The significance of the irradiance reductions for building radiation climate A taller tree with a longer clear bole on the south produced more favorable ratios of cooling season to heating season insolation reductions than the tree with the short clear bole on the south. Teori Fotosintesis. Neraca Energi Pohon: Ekologi Pohon URBAN ECOLOGY Effects of individual trees on the solar radiation climate of small buildings Gordon M. Heisler. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages

112 Analisis Vegetasi Plant - Soil – water relationship. URBAN HYDROLOGY Urban vegetation impacts on the hydrology of Dayton, Ohio Ralph A. Sanders. Urban Ecology. Volume 9, Issues 3– Pages The specific role of vegetation in lessening urban impacts on runoff The existing tree canopies alone work to lower potential runoff by about 7%. This could be increased to nearly 12% by modestly increasing canopy coverage of the land surface.

113 Ecosystem Services. Landuse changes. Land Conversion Valuasi ekologi- ekonomi Land use change and its effects on the value of ecosystem services along the coast of the Gulf of Mexico Ecological Economics Vol. 82. No.1. Pages G. Mendoza-González, M.L. Martínez, D. Lithgow, O. Pérez-Maqueo, P. Simonin to analyze land use changes and calculate the value of these changes in terms of lost ecosystem services. Land use change may seem economically profitable. However, after losing ecosystem services, the apparent gains from urban development are lost. Land use and policy making should consider ecosystem service losses so that ecosystems are preserved and society benefited..

114 Teori Partisipasi. Perhutanan Sosial. PERANAN GENDER Factors affecting women's participation in forestry in Turkey Ecological Economics Volume 60, Issue 4, Pages Erdoğan Atmiş, İsmet Daşdemir, Wietze Lise, Ömür Yıldıran Studi ini menganalisi s partisipasi perempuan dalam kehutanan The estimated game theoretic model on women's participation indicates that the sharing of forest benefits among women in Turkey is considerably harmonious, while there is scope for improving the Forest Organisation, namely by stimulating participation towards a more effective management of the Turkish forests..

115 Ekologi Hutan Management Hutan. VALUASI EKONOMI Willingness to pay for forest amenities: The case of non-industrial owners in the south central United States Ecological Economics Volume 56, Issue 1. Pages Ronald Raunikar, Joseph Buongiorno Kita menganalisis WTP (willingness to pay) untuk nilai non-kayu (NTV) oleh pengusaha suasta hutan non-industri (NIPF) pada hutan campuran di USA selatan Many NIPF owners maintain a more diverse and natural stand structure than that of a more profitable even-aged industrial plantation. The average NIPF owner was willing to forego 60% of the timber profit for the NTV of their more natural stands compared to a less diverse industrially managed even-aged plantation.

116 Mikrobiologi Lingkungan. Kimia Lingkungan. Pengolahan Limbah Cair….. Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Wastewater Treatment and Water Reclamation Plants in Southern California Amy Townsend-Small, Diane E. Pataki, Linda Y. Tseng, Cheng-Yao Tsai and Diego Rosso. JEQ Vol. 40 No. 5, p Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) is a long- lived and potent greenhouse gas produced during microbial nitrification and denitrification. This treatment a potentially large source of N 2 O in urban areas. Our results suggest that wastewater treatment that includes biological nitrogen removal can significantly increase urban N 2 O emissions..

117 Teknologi aplikasi pupuk. Agrohidrologi. Pencucian unsur hara pupuk dari lahan….. Nitrate Leaching from Nitrogen-Fertilized and Manured Corn Measured with Zero- Tension Pan Lysimeters John M. Jemison and Richard H. Fox JEQ. Vol. 23 No. 2, p Excessive N fertilization increases the potential for nitrate (NO − 3 ) leaching, but no research has evaluated NO − 3 leaching from corn (Zea mays L.) receiving economic optimum N rates (EON). In the nonmanured corn, the 3-yr average amount of NO 3 -N leached was 107 kg ha −1 or 36% of the N applied at EON. Total mass of NO 3 -N in the 1.2-m soil profile following harvest was useful to predict annual flow-weighted average leachate NO 3 - N concentrations, but this is not practical in most soils of the Northeast..

118 Nutrients Root absorption Metal reactions in aquatic environment. Fitoremediasi Air Limbah….. Phytostabilization of iron ore tailings through Calophyllum inophyllum L. Nilima Chaturvedi, N K Dhal, Palli Sita Rama Reddy International Journal of Phytoremediation 12/2012; 14(10): The phytostabilization of waste material generated during mining and processing of iron ore through Calophyllum inophyllum L. have been investigated. Iron ore tailings and its varying composition with garden soil were taken to study plant growth, chlorophyll content and metal uptake pattern of Calophyllum inophyllum L.. Removal of more than 30% of the most of the heavy metal like Fe, Pb, and Cu & Zn has been observed in all the treatments during one year of observation. The overall study clearly suggests that the plant can be used as an efficient tool for restoration of mining wastes and other similarly contaminated sites..

119 Pemupukan fosfat. Penyerapan hara oleh akar tumbuhan. Fitoremediasi tanah yang tercemar….. Phytoremediation of arsenic contaminated soil by Pteris vittata L. I. Influence of phosphatic fertilizers and repeated harvests. Asit Mandal, T J Purakayastha, A K Patra, S K Sanyal International journal of phytoremediation. 14(10): A greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of diammonium phosphate (DAP), single superphosphate (SSP) and two growing cycles on arsenic removal by Chinese Brake Fern (Pteris vittata L.) from an arsenic contaminated Typic Haplustept of the Indian state of West Bengal.. Two successive harvests with DAP as the phosphate fertilizer emerged as the promising management strategy for amelioration of arsenic contaminated soil of West Bengal through phyotoextraction by P. vittata..

120 Teori Motivasi dan Partisipasi Sosial Ekonomi Sumberdaya Hutan. PERHUTANAN SOSIAL International Journal of Social Forestry (IJSF), 2010, 3(2): STATUS OF JOINT FOREST MANAGEMENT IN INDIA: SOCIO-ECONOMIC DETERMINANTS OF FOREST PARTICIPATION IN A DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION SETTING Soumyendra Kishore Datta and Krishanu Sarkar Perlindungan sumberdaya hutan mensyaratkan partisipasi aktif masyarakat sekitar hutan. Partisipasi aktif dalam aktivitas konservasi hutan memerlukan komitmen dan motivasi masyarakat di sekitar dan di dalam hutan. Grant of permanent tenurial right to forest dependent people, mitigating the fear of eviction, extension of various support facilities and ensuring a cohesive trust between forest department and forest protection committees seem most urgent for ensuring meaningful participation.

121 Tata-kelola Usaha Sustainable BUSINESS FIRM. TANGGUNG-JAWAB SOSIAL KORPORASI Corporate social responsibility and corporate governance in Italian SMEs: towards a 'territorial' model based on small 'champions' of CSR? Mara Del Baldo. International Journal of Sustainable Society Vol. 2 No. 3. p Adakah hubungan positif antara budaya tanggung-jawab sosial dg sistem tata-kelola yang ada? Seberapa besar signifikansi korelasi tersebut pada UKM dan usaha sekala besar ?. The concluding reflections trace the features of a territorial model of socially responsible orientation centred on the best practices of SMEs, 'convivial enterprises' who are excellent examples of 'spirited businesses‘.

122 Produksi Bersih Sustainable consumption. SISTEM PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN Designing Environmental Management System for promoting sustainable consumption Shirish Sangle. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2008 Vol.1, No.1, pp Ide tentang konsumsi-lestari telah menjadi isu global. Sejaklan dnegan upaya pemerintah untuk mmenerapkan ide ini, diperlukan peran-serta industri dalam menciptakan pola-pola konsumsi yang lebih lestari. Pendekatan untuk mengelola isu-isu kelestarian telah menjadi konstruksi dalam “Environmental Management System (EMS)” berbasis standar ISO The implications of this model for structuring salient elements of EMS are then discussed. The audit would measure the extent to which an organisation has a management system competent to make consumption pattern more sustainable..

123 Green Industry Manajemen Perusahaan ECO- EFFICIENCY Conditional eco-efficiency measure from the perspective of pollution emission firms Feng Yang, Sheng Ang, Liang Liang, Dujun Zhai. Int. J. of Sustainable Society, 2011 Vol.3, No.3, pp Penerapan eko-efisiensi menghadapi kendala sasaran profit dan polusi dari perspektif emisi polusi perusahaan. Different from the previous eco- efficiency measures, our technique admits the selfish motives of pollution emission firms which have little motivation to minimise the pollution emission. As a result, the current approach can be accepted by pollution emission firms for providing feasible strategies in performance improvement..

124 DAMPAK GLOBAL POLUSI UDARA Kerjasama internasional. PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN GLOBAL Atmospheric Pollution as a Global Policy Problem Tapani Vaahtoranta. Journal of Peace Research May 1990 vol. 27 no Polusi udara telah menjadi permasalahan global, pengendaliannya mensyaratkan adanya kolaborasi banyak negara. Kerjasama terkendala oleh fakta bahwa negara-negara di dunia tidak mengalami dampak yang sama dan minat perlindungan lingkungannya juga beragam Three changes in particular contributed to the emergence of atmospheric pollution controls: 1.the imperatives of ecological interdependenc e, 2.technological developments, and 3.growing public pressure on policy-makers..

125 Polusi lalu-lintas jalan raya Epidemiologi: Analisis regresi KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Traffic air pollution and mortality from cardiovascular disease and all causes: a Danish cohort study Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Steen Solvang Jensen, Matthias Ketzel, Mette Sørensen, Johnni Hansen, Steffen Loft, Anne Tjønneland and Kim Overvad. Environmental Health 2012, 11:60 Polusi udara kota akibat lalu-lintas jalan raya telah dihubungkan dg “cardiovascular mortality”, yang diduga diakibatkan oleh paparan polusi udara dan biring lalu-lintas. Karakter personal dan gaya hidup diduga mempengaruhi hubungan tersebut Traffic air pollution is associated with mortality from cardiovascular diseases and all causes, after adjustment for traffic noise. The association was strongest for people with a low fruit and vegetable intake..

126 POLUSI Udara Kota Epidemiologi: Analisis Multivariate KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Air pollution and infant health: Lessons from New Jersey Janet Currie, Matthew Neidell, Johannes F. Schmieder Journal of Health Economics 28 (2009) 688–703 Kita mengkaji dampak dari tiga kriteria pencemar udara terhadap kesehatan bayi di New Jersey pada 1990 dengan jalan mengkombinasi- kan informasi tempat tinggal ibu dan informasi dari data pemantauan kualitas udara. We find consistently negative effects of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), both during and after birth, with effects considerably larger for smokers and older mothers. Since automobiles are the main source of carbon monoxide emissions, our results have important implications for regulation of automobile emissions..

127 Ekologi Pohon. Hujan asam HUTAN KOTA Acid Rain, Air Pollution, and Tree Growth in Southeastern New York L. J. Puckett. JEQ Vol. 11 No. 3, p Apakah analisis dendro-ekologis dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi perubahan hubungan pertumbuhan pohon dg iklim, sebagai akibat dari paparan kronis terhadap komponen- komponen hujan asam dan polusi udara. Temporally, the shift in growth response appears to correspond with the suspected increase in acid rain and air pollution. This change could be the result of physiological stress induced by components of the acid rain-air pollution complex, causing climatic conditions to be more limiting to tree growth..

128 Pencemaran udara. Fisiologi tanaman. The experiment was designed as a split-split plot with six replications.….. Field Testing Soybeans for Residual Effects of Air Pollution and Seed Size on Crop Yield R. K. Howell, L. P. Rose and R. C. Leffel JEQ. Vol. 9 No. 1, p Mean seed weights (g/100 seeds) for four soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], cultivass grown in 1973 and 1974 in cylindrical open- top field chambers that provided carbon-filtered air were significantly greater than from plants grown in nonfiltered air in chambers, or in conventional plots without chambers. Differences in seed size observed for different air qualities did not significantly affect yields. In general, there was no significant yield advantage for plants grown from a selected seed size as compared with the original lot seed..

129 Rekayasa Instrumen pemanasan Teori pembakaran. KONSERVASI ENERGI Emissions and Energy Conservation in Residentdal Oil Heating A.C.S. Hayden, R.W. Braaten & T.D. Brown Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, 1978 Emisi dari pembakaran minyak pada peralatan pemanas di permukiman dapat dikurangi dengan jalan memperbaiki efisiensi siklis dan “steady running”. Teknik-teknik yang mereduksi kebutuhan pemanasan (thermostat cut- back) atau mereduksi kehilangan panas dapat mereduksi emisi SO 2 dan NO sebanding dengan hemat bahan bakar. Improved burner performance, with combustion at low excess air, offers the largest fuel savings, with commensurate reductions in SO 2 and NO, and greater reductions in CO and particulates..

130 Kualitas Udara Indoor & outdoor Dinamika partikulat dalam udara ambient. PENCEMARAN UDARA Indoor/Outdoor Air Pollution Exposure Continuity Relationships Marc Halpern Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association. Volume 28, Issue 7, pages Hubungan kontinyuitas pencemaran udara indoor- outdoor dikaji untuk menemukan parameter utamanya. Hipotesis keseimbangan homeostatis antara pencemar indoor dan outdoor diuji dg menggunakan indeks kontaminan partikulat Pb. The results of this study demonstrate the importance of considering parameters other than outdoor pollutant levels in determining indoor air quality.

131 Solar Radiation budget. Ekofisiologi tumbuhan. The role of trees and grass in reducing regional and local temperatures in urban areas. ….. The effect of tree shade and grass on surface and globe temperatures in an urban area D. Armson, P. Stringer, A.R. Ennos. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages The process of urbanisation alters the thermal balance of an area resulting in an urban heat island effect where cities can be several degrees centigrade warmer than the surrounding rural landscape. This increased heat can make cities uncomfortable places and, during heat waves, can pose serious health risks. Grasses and trees can effectively cool surfaces and so can provide regional cooling, helping reduce the urban heat island in hot weather. Grasses has little effect upon local air or globe temperatures, so should have little effect on human comfort, whereas tree shade can provide effective local cooling..

132 Analisis citra dan Fotografi. Analisis Kenyamanan Lingkungan MANAJEMEN HUTAN KOTA Analysing recreational values and management effects in an urban forest with the visitor-employed photography method Erik Heyman Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3. Pages Pengelolaan hutan kota memerlukan “trade-offs” antara konservasi biodiversitas dengan promosi nilai-nilai wisata- kota. Kajian preferensi membuktikan bahwa masyarakat lebih menyenangi hutan-kota semi- terbuka dnegan sedikit tumbuhan- bawah dibandingkan dngan hutan-kota yang masif dengan tumbuhan bawah yang rapat. This study has shown that the visitor employed photography method can be used as a quantitative method to evaluate perceptions about forest vegetation and management in urban woodlands, and could serve as a valuable complement to conventional methods in preference research.

133 Teori persepsi dan preferensi kONSUMEN Valuasi jasa-jasa lingkungan. PERENCANAAN KOTA Perceptions of parks and urban derelict land by landscape planners and residents Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages Mathias Hofmann, Janneke R. Westermann, Ingo Kowarik, Elke van der Meer Persepsi masyarakat dan pelaku usaha belum diintegrasikan dalam proses perencanaan kota Perencanaan RTH kota berbasis persepsi masyarakat dan kualitas lahan dan lingkungan.

134 Analisis Persepsi, sikap dan perilaku. Analisis pengambilan keputusan publik Perilaku Konsumen Attitude and willingness toward participation in decision- making of urban green spaces in China Xi-Zhang Shan Urban Forestry & Urban Greening Volume 11, Issue 2. Pages Urban green spaces serve a variety of residents with various perceptions, preferences and demands. Their effective governance and precision provision increasingly require public input. Due to the unique political regime, public decision- making in China has long been controlled by governments with the public neglected.. The positive attitudes and strong willingness toward participation despite socioeconomic variations, fitting into a global trend of increasing civic consciousness and strengthening the theoretical base of public participation. This positive findings lay a sound social foundation for the participatory decision- making in decision- making of urban green spaces..

135 Kesehatan Ibu & Anak. KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN Ekologi Kuantitatif An ecological quantification of the relationships between water, sanitation and infant, child, and maternal mortality June J Cheng, Corinne J Schuster-Wallace, Susan Watt, Bruce K Newbold and Andrew Mente Environmental Health 2012, 11:4 Akses air bersih dan sanitasi berhubungan erat dnegan kesehatan ibu, anak dan kelahiran. Seberapa jauh upaya perbaikan akses air bersih dan sanitasi mempengaruhi mortalitas ibu, anak dan bayi ?. Our analyses suggest that access to water and sanitation independently contribute to child and maternal mortality outcomes. If the world is to seriously address the Millennium Development Goals of reducing child and maternal mortality, then improved water and sanitation accesses are key strategies..

136 Abstrak Salah satu ruangan yang berpotensi tinggi untuk mengalami masalah polusi udara dalam ruang adalah ruang perpustakaan. Di antara berbagai polutan yang memiliki peran penting terhadap kesehatan adalah terdapatnya kapang di dalam udara ruangan. Gangguan kesehatan akibat kapang di dalam ruangan perpustakaan dapat dialami oleh orang-orang yang beraktivitas di dalam perpustakaan, misalnya petugas perpustakaan, dosen, dan mahasiswa. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah melakukan identifikasi terhadap kapang di dalam udara ruang perpustakaan di tiga fakultas (FA, FB, dan FC) di lingkungan Universitas “X”. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional. Data yang dikumpulkan meliputi keberadaan kapang, serta kualitas fisik dan kimiawi udara dalam ruang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa suhu udara dalam ruang di ketiga perpustakaan berada di atas standar peraturan. Intensitas cahaya sangat rendah di perpustakaan FB dan FC, sementara konsentrasi debu di perpustakaan FA sangat tinggi. Di perpustakaan FA ditemukan kapang pathogen, yaitu Aspergillus fumigatus, sementara di perpustakaan FB ditemukan Scopulariopsis candida, dan Fusarium verticilloides di perpustakaan FC. Secara umum, kualitas fisik, kimiawi, dan mikrobiologi udara dalam ruang di ketiga perpustakaan telah melebihi ambang batas.. KUALITAS UDARA DALAM RUANG PERPUSTAKAAN UNIVERSITAS ”X” DITINJAU DARI KUALITAS BIOLOGI, FISIK, DAN KIMIAWI Laila Fitria, Ririn Arminsih Wulandari, Ema Hermawati, Dewi Susanna MAKARA, KESEHATAN, VOL. 12, NO. 2, DESEMBER 2008: 76-82

137 Abstract Permasalahan yang saat ini menjadi isu di lingkungan perumahan adalah peningkatan pencemaran udara dan kebisingan. Sumber kebisingan yang dominan di lingkungan perumahan adalah berasal dari lalulintas kendaraan bermotor. Jumlah kendaraan bermotor di Indonesia semakin tahun semakin meningkat, akibatnya lingkungan perumahan di Perkotaan menjadi bising. Kebisingan sendiri terkait dengan kepadatan lalulintas. Kondisi ini ditambah dengan penyediaan sarana jalan yang tidak memadai menjadikan lingkungan perumahan menjadi jalan pintas dari dan ke jalan umum. Hal ini semakin menimbulkan kebisingan di lingkungan perumahan. Penelitian yang dilakukan di Kota Yogyakarta dan DKI Jakarta memperlihatkan bahwa tingkat kebisingan yang terjadi di lingkungan perumahan telah berada diatas ambang baku mutu yang disyaratkan. Kebisingan yang terjadi di lingkungan perumahan sudah saatnya memerlukan penanganan yang serius, mengingat pengaruh buruk dari kebisingan terhadap kesehatan manusia pada akhirnya akan mempengaruhi kualitas hidup masyarakat. Berbagai penanganan kebisingan telah banyak dilakukan terutama terkait pada 3 (tiga) hal, yaitu pada sumber suara, media suara dan penerima. Penanganan secara arsitektural lebih tepat ditujukan pada penanganan media perambatan suara. Pengolahan ‘jalan’ bunyi yang dalam hal ini bertujuan untuk mengurangi kebisingan yang diterima oleh penerima dapat dilakukan dengan cara: Pertama, memperpanjang jalannya media perambatan dengan cara menjauhkan antara sumber suara dengan penerimanya. Ke dua, memberi penghalang antara sumber dengan penerima, penghalang dapat berupa dinding penghalang, barier tanaman, maupun fasa di bangunan itu sendiri. Penanganan secara non Arsitektural dapat dilakukan dengan cara membuat kendaraan bermotor yang lewat lingkungan perumahan menurunkan kecepatannya sampai kurang lebih 20 km/jam.. TINGKAT KEBISINGAN PADA PERUMAHAN DI PERKOTAAN Moch Fathoni Setiawan. Jurnal Teknik Sipil dan Perencanaan. Vol 12, No 2 (2010)

138 Abstract Karbon monoksida (CO) merupakan salah satu zat polusi udara yang bersifat racun dan dihasilkan dari sektor transportasi dan industri. Sensor gas MQ-135 memiliki kepekaan yang relatif tinggi, low cost dan relatif lebih tahan lama dapat digunakan sebagai alternatif dalam pengukuran polusi udara. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk membuat rancang bangun alat pengukur konsentrasi gas Karbon Monoksida (CO) menggunakan sensor gas MQ-135 berbasis Mikrokontroler dengan komunikasi serial USART dan untuk mengetahui output pengukuran berdasarkan regresi jika dibandingkan dengan alat ukur standar ECOM J2KN. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah membuat hasil rancangan alat rancang bangun alat pengukur konsentrasi gas karbon monoksida (CO) dengan mikrokontroler ATMega32, sensor gas MQ-135, IC MAX 232, serta konektor DB9. Sumber tegangan yang digunakan 18 V kemudian difilter oleh LM7805 menjadi 5 V untuk tegangan referensi ADC mikrokontroler. Sedangkan tampilan hasil pengukuran ditampilkan dengan menggunakan LCD dan Interface pada Laptop dengan program visual basic 6.0. Analisis data digunakan uji regresi. Penelitian dilakukan menggunakan bahan penghasil asap yang bersumber dari kertas yang dibakar kemudian diukur kadar CO-nya dan dikalibrasi menggunakan, ECOM J2KN. Dari hasil penelitian dan berdasarkan hasil uji regresi diperoleh koefisien determinasi (R 2 ) sebesar 0,949. Hal ini berarti bahwa terdapat faktor yang mempengaruhi hasil konsentrasi gas CO selain resistansi sensor sebesar 5,1%. Faktor tersebut antara lain suhu gas, kelembaban gas, dan tekanan gas. Komunikasi serial yang dipakai adalah jenis serial USART dengan mode Asynchronous data dengan baud rate Kata kunci: Sensor gas MQ-135, Mikrokontroler, komunikasi serial USART Rancang Bangun Alat Pengukur Konsentrasi Gas Karbon Monoksida(CO) Menggunakan Sensor Gas MQ-135 Berbasis Mikrokontroller Dengan Komunikasi Serial USART Elly Indahwati, Nurhayati Jurnal Teknik Elektro Vol 1, No 1 (2012).

139 Abstract Metal containing wastes/byproducts of various industries, used consumer goods, and municipal waste are potential pollutants, if not treated properly. They may also be important secondary resources if processed in eco-friendly manner for secured supply of contained metals/materials. Bio-extraction of metals from such resources with microbes such as bacteria, fungi and archaea is being increasingly explored to meet the twin objectives of resource recycling and pollution mitigation. This review focuses on the bioprocessing of solid wastes/byproducts of metallurgical and manufacturing industries, chemical/petrochemical plants, electroplating and tanning units, besides sewage sludge and fly ash of municipal incinerators, electronic wastes (e-wastes/PCBs), used batteries, etc. An assessment has been made to quantify the wastes generated and its compositions, microbes used, metal leaching efficiency etc. Processing of certain effluents and wastewaters comprising of metals is also included in brief. Future directions of research are highlighted. Bio-processing of solid wastes and secondary resources for metal extraction – A review Jae-chun Lee, Banshi Dhar Pandey. Waste Management 32 (2012) 3–18

140 Abstract We investigated the relationships between the light environment beneath a forest canopy and stand attributes, i.e., culm density and total basal area, in a stand of bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens. Mazel exHouz. based on a thinning experiment. A 15 m × 15 m plot was established in the stand and 10 successive thinning regimes were performed, so that thinning ratio by the number of culm for each thinning was approximately 5%. The digital hemispherical photographs were taken before and after each thinning, and the sky factor was computed as a measure of light environment from the photographs. The light environment became brighter and homogeneous as the thinning regimes progressed. The culm density was a good predictor of the light environment, and the relationship between sky factor and culm density could be well expressed by an exponential equation. Because of the larger culm sizes and total leaf area, the change in light environment with thinning was more sensitive in the P. pubescens stand than Phyllostachys bambusoides Sieb. et Zucc. stands examined in previous studies. This suggested that species characteristics should be carefully considered when elaborating culm density control for Improving light environment in bamboo stands. Relationships of light environment to stand attributes in a stand of bamboo, Phyllostachys pubescens Akio Inoue, Haruka Tateishi, Kotaro Sakuta, Kazukiyo Yamamoto, Nobuya Mizoue, Fumiaki Kitaharad. Ecological Engineering 38 (2012) 135– 139

141 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 INTERDISIPLIN PENDUGAAN DAMPAK LINGKUNGAN

142 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 Effects of Ozone Air Pollution on Plants Ground-level ozone causes more damage to plants than all other air pollutants combined. This web page describes the ozone pollution situation, shows classical symptoms of ozone injury and shows how ozone affects yield of several major crops..

143 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 Visibility Effects of Air Pollution Visibility is one of the primary air-related attributes that people associate with national parks. Many visitors come to parks to enjoy the spectacular vistas.

144 Diunduh dari: of.html ………….. 26/12/2012 ADVANTAGE AND DISADVANTAGES OF BIOREMEDIATION Bioremediation is also attractive because of several advantages that its application has over more conventional technology. For instance, bioremediation techniques are typically more economical than more traditional methods. It is estimated that bioremediation would cost one-third to one-half that of incineration. In addition, in some cases pollutants can be treated at the site, thus reducing the risk exposure to cleanup personnel and potentially wider exposure as a result of transportation accidents (Gabriel, 1991).

145 Diunduh dari: Webpage/Phyto%20of%20AMD.htm………….. 26/12/2012 PHYTOREMEDIATION is the use of plants to remove pollutants from the environment to render them harmless (Salt et al., 1998). Phytoremediation is divided into the following areas: phytodegradation, phytoextraction, rhizofiltration, phytostabilization, phytostimulation, and phytovolatilization

146 Diunduh dari: 26/12/2012 EUTROFIKASI Eutrophication refers to an excessive amount of nutrients in a body of water, usually caused by runoff of nutrients (mainly phosphorous in freshwater and nitrogen in saltwater) from the land, which causes a dense growth of plant life, leading to a decrease in oxygen supply, which causes the death of animals.

147 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 Sick Building Syndrome Indoor air quality has become a huge concern over the past decade. The EPA has acknowledged indoor air quality as one of the top five environmental health risks. This is compounded further by the fact that we spend the majority of our time indoors: whether we are in school, at work, or at home. These indoor environments often emit and harbor harmful particles and vapors that frequently cause what is referred to as "sick building syndrome". Prolonged exposure to indoor environments often results in occupants complaining about fatigue, headaches, nausea, and irritation- all due to the off- gassing of many common products such as carpeting, household cleaners, and furniture

148 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 Sustainable Development with reference to Different forms of Capital Figure shows that the body of knowledge may be referred to the different forms of capital that are essential for sustainable development. A major premise motivating the evolution of the Encyclopedia is that economic and other development policies should be based on the principles of sustainability, namely: intergenerational equity; intragenerational equity, and precautionary principle (risk aversion strategies) and conservation of biodiversity. The broad framework has received wide acceptance: 1.Natural Resources or Natural Capital (The Environmental Dimension) 2.Economic Resources or Built Capital (The Economic Dimension) 3.Social Resources or Social Capital (The Social Dimension) 4.Institutional Resources or Institutional Capital (The Institutional Dimension )

149 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 URBAN STORMWATER BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The study is based largely on existing literature and data on best management practices (BMPs) that are used to control urban storm water runoff. Topics covered include: BMP performance measures and measurable goals, availability of measurement methods, design criteria, monitoring issues, costs and cost minimization opportunities, and the benefits and economic impacts of constructing and operating BMPs. The discussion of BMP performance includes structural BMPs such as infiltration devices, ponds, filters and constructed wetlands; and the effectiveness of non- structural BMPs, low impact development practices and management measures such as maintenance practices, street sweeping, public education and outreach programs.

150 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 BARRIERS TO AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR SUSTAINABLE FORESTRY IN THE BRAZILIAN AMAZON Deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon has principally been attributed to the transformation of the forest into agricultural land. Forestry in Amazonia was slow to get underway primarily because of the high cost and technical difficulties associated with timber extraction in tropical ecosystems. Now however, forestry is becoming ever more prevalent in the development of the region. The major trends emerging from this sector are: selective logging, plantations, sustainable yield management and very recently, sustainable forest management. This paper presents the most important barriers, along with possible opportunities for achieving sustainable forestry, in five categories: environmental, technological, sociological, economic and political. It concludes that the most important challenges are political in nature and that these should be prioritized if forestry is to contribute to the sustainable development of the region.

151 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 PARTICIPATORY MODELING AND ANALYSIS FOR SUSTAINABLE FOREST MANAGEMENT Casual loop diagram of management of forest as perceived by its stakeholders.

152 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012. Future Demands on Nile River Water and Egyptian National Security by Hans Cathcart Environment- Conflict Link and Dynamics

153 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 EMERGY-BASED EVALUATION OF PERI-URBAN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES Shu-Li Huang, Yu-Hwa Chen, Fei-Yu Kuo, Szu-Hua Wang Ecological Complexity, Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2011, Pages 38–50 Energy diagram of water resources in the greater Taipei area.

154 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012. THE TRANSITION TO AN URBANIZING WORLD AND THE DEMAND FOR NATURAL RESOURCES Shu-Li Huang, Chia-Tsung Yeh, Li-Fang Chang. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability, Volume 2, Issue 3, August 2010, Pages 136–143 Conceptual diagram of urban ecological economic system.

155 Diunduh dari: ………….. 26/12/2012 DIAGRAM OF OCCEAN ACIDIFICATION

156 TOPIK-TOPIK KAJIAN DISERTASI

157 PENELITIAN KESEHATAN LINGKUNGAN DAN MAL-NUITRISI

158 EKSEKUTIF-LEGISLATIF PERUMUSAN KEBIJAKAN PROSES PERUMUSAN LEGIS- LATIF Masya-rakat EKSEKUTIF Masyarakat lebih berdaya berpartisipasi dlm perumusan kebijakan A1 A2 A1.1 B1 C1

159 PENELITIAN PENGELOLAAN SUMBERDAYA EKONOMI RUMAH TANGGA PEDESAAN

160 PENELITIAN PENGELOLAAN SDAL DENGAN GIS DAN REMOTE SENSING

161 Penelitian Optimasi polatanam berbasis padi dengan Intergrated Multiple Goal Linear Programming (IMGLP)

162 PENELITIAN SISTEM USAHATANI TERNAK DAN LINGKUNGANNYA

163 PENELITIAN SISTEM INDUSTRI MINYAK JARAK

164 PENELITIAN POLA TANAM PERTADU

165 PENELITIAN MODEL OPTIMASI PENGGUNAAN LAHAN PERTANIAN

166 PENELITIAN SUSTAINABLE AGROFORESTRY DI WILAYAH PEDESAAN

167 PENEKLITIAN PERILAKU KONSUMEN HASIL PERTANIAN

168 PENELITIAN RESPON PRODUKTIVITAS AGROEKOSISTEM

169 PENELITIAN MODEL OUTBREAK HAMA DALAM EKOSISTEM PERTANIAN

170 PENELITIAN DAMPAK PERUBAHAN IKLIM TERHADAP PERTANIAN

171 The appropriateness of approaches to solve selected problems in sustainable agriculture.

172 PENGEMBANGAN KAWASAN AGROPOLITAN BERBASIS AGRIBISNIS

173 PENELITIAN MODEL PENGELOLAAN EUTROFIKASI EKOSISTEM AKUATIK

174 PENELITIAN MODEL PENDUGAAN KARBON EKOSISTEM DARAT

175 PENELITIAN MODEL NERACA AIR DAS

176 PENELITIAN MODEL HIDRO-GEOLOGI ZONE RESAPAN MATA AIR

177 MODEL PENDUGAAN RUNOFF BERBASIS HUJAN HARIAN

178 KAJIAN MODEL PENGELOLAAN TANAH DAN AIR LAHAN PERTANIAN

179 Land-use Evolution and Impact Assessment Model

180 FACILITATING INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH --- RISET INTERDISIPLIN

181 Interdisciplinary research (IDR) : Suatu mode riset yang mengintegrasikan informasi, data, teknik, tools, perspectif, konsep, dan / atau teori-teori dari dua disiplin ilmu atau lebih guna mendapatkan pemahaman yang komprehensif atau untuk menyelesaikan permasalahan yang solusinya berada di luar jangkauan satu disiplin ilmu tertentu.

182 When IDR Works Well IDR akan berhasil kalau ia merespon permasalahan atau proses yang berada di luar jangkauan suatu disiplin ilmu tertentu. Misalnya, astrobiology, inisiatif NASA, untuk mengkaji asal-usul dan distribusi kehidupan, memerlukan partisipasi banyak disiplin ilmu.

183 WHEN IDR is LESS SUCCESSFUL Kegagalan IDR biasanya disebabkan oleh karena tim peneliti tidak dapat menyatu secara fungsional. Hal ini dapat terjadi karena beberapa alasan: 1.Anggota tim terlalu mementingkan dirinya sendiri di atas kepentingan tim, meremehkan kontribusi anggota tim lainnya, atau lemahnya kepemimpinan tim. 2.Anggota tim kurang paham kontribusinya dalam tim 3.Kurangnya pemahaman oleh anggota tim yang senior 4.Kurangnya waktu untuk dapat berkerjasama dalam penelitian.

184 GRADUATE STUDENTS Many researchers begin serious involvement in IDR as graduate students. For doctoral students working in an IDR team environment, fulfilling the requirements for a PhD qualifying examination or dissertation in the home department may require extra planning and coordination between DISCIPLINES. There may be barriers to entry, such as admissions policies, that are biased against students whose undergraduate degree is not in the same discipline as the proposed graduate degree.

185 POSTDOCTORAL SCHOLARS A postdoctoral experience often provides the best opportunity for researchers to train deeply in a new discipline. The STUDY provided in postdoctoral years can provide skills and knowledge beyond those acquired by graduate students, which are focused on the home discipline. Despite committee interviews that indicate heightened interest in IDR among postdoctoral scholars, progress toward interdisciplinary expertise may be slowed by a relative shortage of interdisciplinary postdoctoral fellowships. Moreover, a potential fellow may not be sufficiently knowledgeable about the secondary discipline to be useful to a potential mentor.

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189 FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI WAKTU-TUNGGU

190 Implementing a quality maintenance system FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI TINGKAT LAYANAN

191 Quality audit experience for excellence in healthcare FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI WAKTU-TUNGGU PASIEN

192 The interconnectedness between environmental degradation and progressive impact of natural disasters can be illustrated by the case of the Yangtze River Basin, in China, where concerns related to environmental vulnerability have been incorporated in watershed management KAJIAN RISIKO BENCANA DAN DEGRADASI LINGKUNGAN

193 Risk mitigation in offshoring of business operations

194 Service failure and recovery strategies in the restaurant sector FAKTOR-FAKTOR YANG MEMPENGARUHI KEGAGALAN LAYANAN

195 Technology Management for Small Business

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