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Segmentation, Targeting and, and Positioning Marketing Management a Relationship Approach and Marketing Strategy And Competitive Positioning.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Segmentation, Targeting and, and Positioning Marketing Management a Relationship Approach and Marketing Strategy And Competitive Positioning."— Transcript presentasi:

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2 Segmentation, Targeting and, and Positioning Marketing Management a Relationship Approach and Marketing Strategy And Competitive Positioning

3 2 LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1. Memahami pentingnya dan arti market segmentation 2. Menjelaskan prinsip STP 3. Mengidentifikasi berbagai dasar segmentasi B2C dan B2B 4. Menjelaskan bagaimana perusahaan memlih pasar sasaran 5. Menjelaskan berbagai cara pendekatan kepada pasar sasaran undifferentiated, differentiated, dan concentrated 6. Memeprtimbangkan penggunaan positioning produk atau jasa terhadap pesaing 7. Menjelaskan perbedaan antara postioning untuk B2G dan B2B

4 3 Pendahuluan Segmentasi dimulai 1956 oleh Smith, dlaam journal of marketing. Tiga alasan segmentasi 1.Pertumbuhan melambat, banyak merek telah “mature” sehingga dibutuhkan perluasan untuk kategori baru. 2.Segmentasi didasarkan kepada kondisi mikro 3.Pertumbuhan masyarakat dengan pendapatan yang membaik, kebutuhan yang lebih kompleks, sehingga pemasar memikirkan ulang siapa dan bagaimana cara memenuhi kebutuhan.

5 4 Kendala Segmentasi 1.Segmentasi adalah deskriptif bukan prediktif 2.Proses segmentasi mengasumsikan homogenitas 3.Proses segmentasi mengasumsikan tidak ada persaingan pada segmen yang dipilih 4.Dimungkinkan salah mendefinisikan segmen.

6 5 PROSES SEGMENTASI

7 6 Pendorong dan Penghambat Segmentasi Didapat perbedaan kebutuhan, keinginan, khususnya bila pasar produk bisa disatndardisasi. Penghambat. 1)Pembeli besar, mereka menjadi pembeli utama 2)Pasar demikian kecil sehingga tidak bisa dipilah-pilah lagi.

8 7 Persyaratan Segmentasi Ukuran yang cukup 1.Dapat diukur 2.Dapat diakses 3.Responsiveness 4.Compatibility

9 8 Segmentasi B2B and B2G

10 9 Segmentasi dan Pasar Industri

11 10 Key issues chika Competition positioning Market segmentation Customer needs

12 11 Competitive positioning and market segmentation Howcustomersperceivealternative How marketers identify groups of customers Market segmentation Competitive positioning Customer needs Market offerings Market

13 12 Positioning and segmentation Market segmentation Choice of target markets Competitive positioning Iteration

14 13 Principles of competitive positioning Positioning adalah tindakan merancang produk perusahaan dan image sehingga produknya mendapat tempat yang berarti dan berbeda dengan produk yang lain.

15 14 Prinsip Posisi yang berdayasaing Prinsip daripada posisi yang berdaya saing adalah berkaitan dengan bagaimana pelanggan dan bagian pasar lainnya mempersepsi perusahaan yang bersaing, produk maupun merek. Positioning dapat terjadi pada berbagai tingakatan Perusahaan (companies) Barang dan jasa (Products and services) Brands (Merek)

16 15 Criteria to create differentiation Importance Distinctive and pre-emptive Superior Communicable Affordable Profitable Cara Postioning

17 16 The four pillars of company’s distinctive value proposition : D i r e c t Hassle free Peace of mind C o u r t e s y

18 17 Kesalahan Utama Positioning Under-positioning Over-positioning Confused positioning Doubtful positioning

19 18 Positioning risk and errors Uniqueness claimed Credibility NarrowBroad Believable Over-positioning Too exclusive or narrow Under-positioning Nothing special Less believable Doubtful positioning Improbable claims Confused positioning Unclear what the position is

20 19 THE UNDERLYING PREMISES OF MARKET SEGMENTATION Tiga Proposisi Dasar 1.Differ from one another 2.Identified by measurable characteristics 3.Isolate

21 20 Major issues in market segmentation 1.The methodology of market segmentation 2.The criteria for testing segments as robust market targets 3.The strategic segmentation decision itself 4.The implementation of segmentation strategy in the company

22 21 Segmenting consumer markets 1.Background customer characteristics 2.Customer attitudes 3.Customer behaviour Objective measuresSubjective measures Non-marketing specific Demographics Sex, age, geography, subculture, etc. Socio economics Occupation, income, education Psychographics Personality inventories Marketing specific Consumer life cycle ACORN media usage lifestyle

23 22 The Warner index of status characteristics Class name DescriptionConsumption characteristics Upper- upper Elite social class with inherited social position Expensive, irrelevant, but purchase decision not meant to impress; conservative Lower- upper Nouveau riche; highly successful business and professional; position acquired through wealth Conspicuous consumption to demonstrate wealth, luxury cars, large estates, etc. Upper- middle Successful business and professional Purchases directed at projecting successful image Lower- middle White-collar workers, small businesspeople Concerned with social approval; purchase decisions; conservative; home and family oriented Upper- lower Blue-collar workers, technicians, skilled workers Satisfaction of family roles Lower- lower Unskilled labour, poorly educated poorly off Attraction to cheap, ‘flashy’, low- quality items; heavy exposure to TV

24 23 Stages of the family life cycle StageFinancial Circumstances And Purchasing Characteristics BachelorFew financial burdens, recreation oriented; holidays; entertainment outside home Young, single, not living at parental home Newly wedBetter off financially, two incomes; purchase home, some consumer durables Young couples, no children Full nest 1Home purchasing peak; increasing financial pressures, may have only one income earner; purchase of household ‘necessities’ Youngest child under 6 Full nest IIFinancial position improving; some working spouses Youngest child over 6 Full nest IIIFinancial position better still; update household products and furnishings Older married couples with dependent children Empty nest IHome ownership peak; renewed interest in travel and leisure activity; buy luxuries Older married couples, no children at home Empty nest IIDrastic cut in income; medical services bought Older couples, no children at home, retired Solitary survivorIncome good, but likely to sell home Still in labour force Solitary survivorSpecial needs for medical care, affection and security Retired

25 24 Customer attitudinal characteristics for segmentating markets Benefit segmentation Perceptions and preferences Summary of attitudinal bases of segmentation

26 25 Customer behavioural characteristics for segmenting markets Purchase behaviour Innovators Brand loyalty Consumtion behaviour Communication behaviour Response to element of the marketing mix Relationship – seeking characteristic * Summary of behavioural bases for segmentation

27 26 Relationship – seeking characteristic * VariablesSegments Relationship seekersDeal-makers Relationship exploiters Price-seekers Loyal buyersBrand loyalists Arm’s – length transaction customers Luxury innovator

28 27 Segmenting business markets Background company characteristics Industry type Company size Customer location Company technology Customer capabilities Purchasing organisation Power structures Purchasing policies Product application Attitudinal characteristics Behavioural characteristics Buyer-seller similarity Buyer motivation Buyer risk perceptions Summary of bases for segmenting business markets

29 28 Identifying and describing market segments First order and second order segmentation The benefits of segmenting markets Segmentation is a particularly useful approach to marketing for the smaller company It helps to identify gaps in market In mature or declining markets it may be possible to identify specific segments that are still in growth Segmentation enables the marketer to match the product or service more closely to the needs of the target market The dangers of not segmenting the market when competitors do should also be emphasised

30 29 IMPLEMENTING MARKET SEGMENTATION 1.The scope and purpose of market segmentation Levels of segmentation Marketing planning, budgeting and resource allocation Operational sales, marketing and distribution management Strategic intent, vision and mission

31 30 IMPLEMENTING MARKET SEGMENTATION 2. Strategic, managerial and operational levels of segmentation Strategic segmentation Managerial segmentation Operational segmentation

32 31 IMPLEMENTING MARKET SEGMENTATION 3. Sources of implementation problems Organisation structure Internal politics Corporate culture Information and reporting Decision-making processes Corporate capabilities Operational systems

33 32 MARKET SEGMENT ATTRACTIVENESS AND ORGANISATIONAL RESOURCE STRENGTH Organisational resource strength Market segment attractiveness HighLow High Best prospects Attractive segments that fit well with organisational resources Build strength first Attractive markets but with poor fit with organisational resources Low Poor prospects Unattractive segments that fit well with organisational resources Worst prospects Unattractive segments with a poor fit with organisational resources

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