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SISTEM PEREDARAN DARAH. Dikendalikan jantung Dikendalikan jantung Fungsi jtg : Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan gas, air,

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Presentasi berjudul: "SISTEM PEREDARAN DARAH. Dikendalikan jantung Dikendalikan jantung Fungsi jtg : Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan gas, air,"— Transcript presentasi:

1 SISTEM PEREDARAN DARAH

2 Dikendalikan jantung Dikendalikan jantung Fungsi jtg : Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan cairan darah Mengedarkan gas, air, mineral (darah) serta hasil buangan metabolisme yg bbtk larutan dan terlarut dlm darah Mengedarkan gas, air, mineral (darah) serta hasil buangan metabolisme yg bbtk larutan dan terlarut dlm darah Pd insang tjd pertukaran O dr air & CO dr darah, & pengeluaran kotoran bernitrogen Pd insang tjd pertukaran O dr air & CO dr darah, & pengeluaran kotoran bernitrogen Organ lain yang mengeluarkan kotoran dr darah adalah ginjal Organ lain yang mengeluarkan kotoran dr darah adalah ginjal Volume darah di dlm peredaran di tubuh ikan + 2,5-3% berat tubuh Volume darah di dlm peredaran di tubuh ikan + 2,5-3% berat tubuh

3 ORGAN PEMBENTUK DARAH Pembuluh darah embrio & dewasa Pembuluh darah embrio & dewasa Limpha: pd submucosa & pencernaan (ik. Lamprey) Limpha: pd submucosa & pencernaan (ik. Lamprey) Limpha: yg dpt membentuk erythrocyte & sel darah Limpha: yg dpt membentuk erythrocyte & sel darah Mesonephros: membentuk Thrombocyte Mesonephros: membentuk Thrombocyte Submucosa: esophagus (Elasmobranchi) Submucosa: esophagus (Elasmobranchi) Usus spiral: (Elasmobranchi & Diphnoi; membentuk sel darah putih) Usus spiral: (Elasmobranchi & Diphnoi; membentuk sel darah putih) Jaringan di luar jantung: (Lepidosiren, polyodom & acipencer; mbtk lymphocyte & granulocyte) Jaringan di luar jantung: (Lepidosiren, polyodom & acipencer; mbtk lymphocyte & granulocyte) Tl. Rawan Cranial: membentuk bermcm sel darah putih (Squaliformes, Lepisosteus & Amia) Tl. Rawan Cranial: membentuk bermcm sel darah putih (Squaliformes, Lepisosteus & Amia)

4 CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM Jantung  Letak : cranioventral, dibelakang insang  dari rongga perut oleh sebuah sekat  pny 2 ruang, tetapi tdd 4 bagian : sinus venosus: ruang penerima darah dr seluruh tubuh (dr pembuluh vena) sinus venosus: ruang penerima darah dr seluruh tubuh (dr pembuluh vena) atrium: ruangan dg otot cardiac yg lunak, memompa dg lemah atrium: ruangan dg otot cardiac yg lunak, memompa dg lemah ventricle: bag. depan memiliki katup, berdinding tebal (2 lapis otot cardiac), selalu berdenyut u/ memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh (pompa utama) ventricle: bag. depan memiliki katup, berdinding tebal (2 lapis otot cardiac), selalu berdenyut u/ memompa darah ke seluruh tubuh (pompa utama) bulbus arteriosus: fibroelastis dg katup utk mencegah aliran kembali ke ventrikel; berfungsi sbg pengatur tekanan untuk menjaga pembuluh2 di insang bulbus arteriosus: fibroelastis dg katup utk mencegah aliran kembali ke ventrikel; berfungsi sbg pengatur tekanan untuk menjaga pembuluh2 di insang

5 venous blood to heart venous blood to heart –hepatic portal system –renal portal system heart to gills heart to gills –via ventral aorta gills to body gills to body –via dorsal aorta

6 Circulation mirip pd mamalia ; jtg  respiratory system (insang) u/ pertukaran gas  tubuh mirip pd mamalia ; jtg  respiratory system (insang) u/ pertukaran gas  tubuh Deoxygenated blood mengalir dr jtg  ventral aorta  insang Deoxygenated blood mengalir dr jtg  ventral aorta  insang Oxygenated blood mengalir dr insang  dorsal aorta  tubuh. Oxygenated blood mengalir dr insang  dorsal aorta  tubuh. Darah Venous tdd 2 sistim. Darah Venous tdd 2 sistim. a. Dr bag. ekor berjln melewati ginjal  jtg (renal portal system). b. Dr usus berjln melewati hati  jtg (hepatic portal system).

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8 Siklus peredaran darah ikan Ventral aorta insang Dorsal aorta Kepala, Bag. Tbh Yg lain Hati/ginjal jantung

9 DARAH Susunan darah Plasma darah Plasma darah (cairan jernih mineral t’larut,hsl pencernaan terserap, hsl buangan jaringan, antibodi, gas t’larut & enzim [lipase + carbonic anhidrasel, ) Butiran darah Butiran darah

10 Butiran/sel darah Butiran darah erythrocyte Butiran darah erythrocyte leucocyte granulocyte leucocyte granulocytelymphocyte monocytes thrombocytes Granulocyte : dibedakan berdasarakan penyerapan thd zat warna a. Neutrofil menyerang bakteri b. Acidofil (asam) c. Basofil (Fungsi??)

11 Red blood cells elongated and elliptical elongated and elliptical with an oval, centrally-located, nucleus with an oval, centrally-located, nucleus Immature erythrocytes are called polychromatocytes Immature erythrocytes are called polychromatocytes polychromatocytes no bone marrow no bone marrow Blood volume is 2-4 ml/kg for teleosts Blood volume is 2-4 ml/kg for teleosts main source main source –head kidney

12 Bentuk sel darah merah ikan a.sudah masak adl. oval Φ7-36 b.blm masak bulat Pengangkutan zat asam dlm darah dilakukan o/ pigmen pernafasan (haemoglobin) terdpt dlm btr darah merah Pengangkutan zat asam dlm darah dilakukan o/ pigmen pernafasan (haemoglobin) terdpt dlm btr darah merah Pengangkutan O o/ darah sangat tergantung pd jumlah erytrocyte Pengangkutan O o/ darah sangat tergantung pd jumlah erytrocyte Darah ikan dpt mengikat zat asam x dibanding air, shg haemoglobin sgt efisien dlm mengikat oksigen Darah ikan dpt mengikat zat asam x dibanding air, shg haemoglobin sgt efisien dlm mengikat oksigen Mature erythrocyte Immature erythrocyte

13 White blood cells / Leucocytes mirip mammalia mirip mammalia tdd neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes & macrophages  msg2 pny ciri spesifik tdd neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes & macrophages  msg2 pny ciri spesifik no lymph nodes no lymph nodes lymphocytes > neutrophils lymphocytes > neutrophils lymphoid tissues lymphoid tissues –Thymus  primary sources –head kidney  primary sites of antibody production –Spleen –melanomacrophage centers

14 Jml leucocytes pd ikan  cth kisaran lymphocytes (tipe leucocyte yg terbyk), pd salmonid/Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),  antara 7.8 & 20.9 x 103 cells/ mm3 Jml leucocytes pd ikan  cth kisaran lymphocytes (tipe leucocyte yg terbyk), pd salmonid/Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss),  antara 7.8 & 20.9 x 103 cells/ mm3 JmlWBC dibanding jml sel darah yang bersirkulasi: JmlWBC dibanding jml sel darah yang bersirkulasi: Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 3.5% of blood cells Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 3.5% of blood cells White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 3.5% of blood cells White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 3.5% of blood cells Saupe (Sarpa salpa)2% of blood cells Saupe (Sarpa salpa)2% of blood cells Pd vertebrata tk ↑ spt mamalia, pbtk WBC ditentukan bone marrow, the spleen and the lymph nodes. Pd vertebrata tk ↑ spt mamalia, pbtk WBC ditentukan bone marrow, the spleen and the lymph nodes. Pd ikan, organs spt kidney, spleen and thymus take part in haematopoeisis Pd ikan, organs spt kidney, spleen and thymus take part in haematopoeisis Melanomacrophage center  mrpk klpk macrophages & melanocytes ditemukan di hati, limpha, & ginjal.  mengandung melanin, lipofuscin, & phagocytized material, & mengalami hyperplasia and hypertrophy saat sakit, kelaparan, atau pd lingkungan yg terpolusi Melanomacrophage center  mrpk klpk macrophages & melanocytes ditemukan di hati, limpha, & ginjal.  mengandung melanin, lipofuscin, & phagocytized material, & mengalami hyperplasia and hypertrophy saat sakit, kelaparan, atau pd lingkungan yg terpolusi

15 LYMPHOCYTE FUNGSI : membentuk antibodi  to mediate the humoral(HT6B3.3) & cellular immune response FUNGSI : membentuk antibodi  to mediate the humoral(HT6B3.3) & cellular immune response Lymphocytes  spherical cells (btk bola/bulat) Lymphocytes  spherical cells (btk bola/bulat)spherical cellsspherical cells spherical cells immature lymphocytes

16 fish lymphocytes dibagi 2 sub-populations yg fungsinya mirip B and T lymphocytes pd mammals. fish lymphocytes dibagi 2 sub-populations yg fungsinya mirip B and T lymphocytes pd mammals. Saat kontak dg antigen  tjd proliferation of lymphocytes  then secrete large quantities of immunoglobulin antibody. Saat kontak dg antigen  tjd proliferation of lymphocytes  then secrete large quantities of immunoglobulin antibody. proportion lymphocytes yg mrpk leucocytes ± 85% pd bbrp jenis ikan. proportion lymphocytes yg mrpk leucocytes ± 85% pd bbrp jenis ikan. Pd juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), % Lymphocytenya mrpk leucocytes. Estimasi jml lymphocytes dlm darah ikan agak sulit krn sulit dibedakan dg thrombocytes. Pd juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), % Lymphocytenya mrpk leucocytes. Estimasi jml lymphocytes dlm darah ikan agak sulit krn sulit dibedakan dg thrombocytes. Percentage of i) WBC & ii) lymphocytes pd sel darah : Percentage of i) WBC & ii) lymphocytes pd sel darah : % WBC % pd sel darah % WBC % pd sel darah Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 90%3.15% Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 90%3.15% White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 70%2.45% White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 70%2.45% Saupe (Sarpa salpa) 88% 1.76% Saupe (Sarpa salpa) 88% 1.76%

17 Pny struktur khusus, dikenal sbg Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. cytoplasm pny sejml granula halus. Pny struktur khusus, dikenal sbg Polymorphonuclear (PMN) leucocytes. cytoplasm pny sejml granula halus.cytoplasm Granulocytes  3 sub-populations berbeda tgt staining characteristics dr granula stl diberi histological dyes (eg. Romanowsky dyes). Granulocytes  3 sub-populations berbeda tgt staining characteristics dr granula stl diberi histological dyes (eg. Romanowsky dyes). 3 tipe granulocytes di ikan: neutrophils & eosinophils  plg byk, basophils  jarang 3 tipe granulocytes di ikan: neutrophils & eosinophils  plg byk, basophils  jarang Granulocytes dibutuhkan dlm mekanisme pertahanan non- specific, yi. Bertgg jwb thd keberadaan benda asing dlm tbhtp tidak mengenali specific antigens. Sel ini bermigrasi ke bagian tbh yg diserang & merusak benda asing melalui phagocytosis / direct killing (cytotoxic response). Proses ini menyebabkan inflammatory response (peradangan) Granulocytes dibutuhkan dlm mekanisme pertahanan non- specific, yi. Bertgg jwb thd keberadaan benda asing dlm tbhtp tidak mengenali specific antigens. Sel ini bermigrasi ke bagian tbh yg diserang & merusak benda asing melalui phagocytosis / direct killing (cytotoxic response). Proses ini menyebabkan inflammatory response (peradangan) Granulocytes

18 NEUTROPHIL: leucocyte tdk pny afinitas u/ acid or basic dyes, but stainable by neutral dyes. Jmlnya plg byk; dpt keluar dr darah & msak jar. Tbh u/ menelan bacteria. NEUTROPHIL: leucocyte tdk pny afinitas u/ acid or basic dyes, but stainable by neutral dyes. Jmlnya plg byk; dpt keluar dr darah & msak jar. Tbh u/ menelan bacteria. EOSINOPHIL: special WBC (polymorphonuclear leucocyte) yg dpt di stained dg acid dyes dpt as eosin. Dibutuhkan u/ merusak internal parasites & dlm pengaturan reaksi peradangan krn alergi EOSINOPHIL: special WBC (polymorphonuclear leucocyte) yg dpt di stained dg acid dyes dpt as eosin. Dibutuhkan u/ merusak internal parasites & dlm pengaturan reaksi peradangan krn alergi BASOPHIL: Substansi / or tissue element yg menunjukkan affinity u/ basic dyes; (mrpk granulocytes yg dpt mencerna micro-organisms). Dlm darah normalnya jmlnya sgt ↓. Di ikan kebeadaanya msh dipertanyakan BASOPHIL: Substansi / or tissue element yg menunjukkan affinity u/ basic dyes; (mrpk granulocytes yg dpt mencerna micro-organisms). Dlm darah normalnya jmlnya sgt ↓. Di ikan kebeadaanya msh dipertanyakan Granulocytes berkisar 4-60% dr leucocytes ikan, jumlahnya bervariasi in different species of fish. Granulocytes berkisar 4-60% dr leucocytes ikan, jumlahnya bervariasi in different species of fish. Granulocytes diperkirakan 1-9% dr total WBC in juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Granulocytes diperkirakan 1-9% dr total WBC in juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Percentage of i) WBC and ii) granulocytes dlm sel darah Percentage of i) WBC and ii) granulocytes dlm sel darah % WBC % granulo dlm sel darah Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 8%0.28% Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 8%0.28% White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 28%0.98% White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 28%0.98% Saupe (Sarpa salpa)12%0.24% Saupe (Sarpa salpa)12%0.24%

19 Monocytes Monocytes  sel yg besar, dg nucleus besar  antara ⅓ - ½ dr cell. Monocytes  sel yg besar, dg nucleus besar  antara ⅓ - ½ dr cell. cytoplasm mengandung granula kecil yg tersebar cytoplasm mengandung granula kecil yg tersebar Monocytes  precursors of macrophages. Monocytes  precursors of macrophages. Monocytes berfungsi merespon infeksi.  berperan pd non-specific immunity & inflammatory response. Monocytes lbh bersifat phagocytic dp granulocytes Monocytes berfungsi merespon infeksi.  berperan pd non-specific immunity & inflammatory response. Monocytes lbh bersifat phagocytic dp granulocytes Monocytes Monocytes ditemukan dlm jml besar pd ginjal, diduga berasal dr stem cells ginjal Monocytes ditemukan dlm jml besar pd ginjal, diduga berasal dr stem cells ginjal

20 Pd ikan, darah mengandung jml monocytes yg bervariasi, tp umumnya sedikit. Pd ikan, darah mengandung jml monocytes yg bervariasi, tp umumnya sedikit. Cth. pd Plaice ± 0.1% dr total leucocytes. Cth. pd Plaice ± 0.1% dr total leucocytes. Pd Catfish ± 1-8% dr leucocytes. Pd Catfish ± 1-8% dr leucocytes. Percentage of i) WBC ii) monocytes dlm sel darah Percentage of i) WBC ii) monocytes dlm sel darah % (i) % (ii) % (i) % (ii) Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 2%0.07% Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) 2%0.07% White Bream (Diplodus sargus) 2%0.07% Saupe (Sarpa salpa) 0%0%

21 thrombocytes Ada 4 btk thrombocytes yg umumnya ditemui ; oval, spindle-shaped, spiked & fragmented. Ada 4 btk thrombocytes yg umumnya ditemui ; oval, spindle-shaped, spiked & fragmented.ovalspindle-shaped spikedfragmentedovalspindle-shaped spikedfragmented The oval or spindle-shaped cells  dianggap btk normal thrombocytes in vivo, & sangat mirip dg lymphocytes. The oval or spindle-shaped cells  dianggap btk normal thrombocytes in vivo, & sangat mirip dg lymphocytes. Thrombocytes berperan dlm pembekuan darah. Thrombocytes berperan dlm pembekuan darah. The source of thrombocytes  spleen  seen in large numbersin mammal The source of thrombocytes  spleen  seen in large numbersin mammal thrombocytes  precursors dr sel platelets, yg bersirkulasi dlm darah & bertgg jwb pd pembekuan darah. thrombocytes  precursors dr sel platelets, yg bersirkulasi dlm darah & bertgg jwb pd pembekuan darah. Mammalian thrombocytes jarang ditemui dlm sirkulasi, tp di ikan thrombocytes bersirkulasi dlm darah Mammalian thrombocytes jarang ditemui dlm sirkulasi, tp di ikan thrombocytes bersirkulasi dlm darah

22 ada disagreement thd jml thrombocytes yg ada dlm peripheral blood of fish,  ini disebabkan sulit dibedakan dari lymphocytes. ada disagreement thd jml thrombocytes yg ada dlm peripheral blood of fish,  ini disebabkan sulit dibedakan dari lymphocytes. DISAGREEMENT: Pd juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, thrombocytes dihitung sebesar 1- 6% of total leucocytes. DISAGREEMENT: Pd juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, thrombocytes dihitung sebesar 1- 6% of total leucocytes. Ratio lymphocytes dg thrombocytes pd Rainbow Trout  25:1, tapi pd jenis yg sama diukur rasionya 2:1. Ratio lymphocytes dg thrombocytes pd Rainbow Trout  25:1, tapi pd jenis yg sama diukur rasionya 2:1. % leucocytes : thrombocytes pd Carp (Carassius auratus), ± 70% dilaporkan bbrp peneliti, sdgk lainnya menyebutkan hanya 3-13%. % leucocytes : thrombocytes pd Carp (Carassius auratus), ± 70% dilaporkan bbrp peneliti, sdgk lainnya menyebutkan hanya 3-13%.

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