1STRUKTUR MODAL SLIDE BRIGHAM DIMODIFIKASI OLEH DR. KHAIRA AMALIA F, SE.AK, CA, MBA, MAPPI (CERT)
2CAPITAL STRUCTUREBauran hutang dan ekuitas untuk pendanaan perusahaanBauran debt dan equity (Brigham dan Daves, 2004)Hutang jangka pendek yang bersifat permanen, hutang jangka panjang, dan modal sendiri (preferen dan saham biasa)
3CAPITAL STRUCTURE VS FINANCIAL STRUCTURE CS = noncurrent liabilities + preferred equity + common equityFS = Capital Structure + Current liabilities(Keown et al)
4Hubungan dengan Biaya Modal Struktur modal mempengaruhi biaya modal (cost of capital)Perhitungan Coc diperlukan untuk:Maksimalisasi Nilai Perusahaan yang memerlukan biaya modal minimumKeputusan Penganggaran Modal (Capital Budgeting)
5Struktur Modal dan Nilai Perusahaan Nilai perusahaan bila dijualNilai dicerminkan harga sahamAda beberapa model
6Who are Modigliani and Miller (MM)?* They published theoretical papers that changed the way people thought about financial leverage.They won Nobel prizes in economics because of their work.MM’s papers were published in 1958 and Miller had a separate paper in The papers differed in their assumptions about taxes.
7What assumptions underlie the MM and Miller models?* Firms can be grouped into homogeneous classes based on business risk.Investors have identical expectations about firms’ future earnings.There are no transactions costs.(More...)
8All debt is riskless, and both individuals and corporations can borrow unlimited amounts of money at the risk-free rate.All cash flows are perpetuities. This implies perpetual debt is issued, firms have zero growth, and expected EBIT is constant over time.(More...)
9Asumsi MM tanpa pajakTidak ada pajak pribadi maupun pajak perusahaanResiko bisnis dapat diukur dengan deviasi standar EBITSeluruh investor memiliki estimasi yang sama tentang EBIT perusahaan di masa yang akan datang
10Saham dan obligasi diperdagangkan di pasar modal yang sempurna Hutang perusahaan dan individu tanpa resiko, sehingga suku bunga hutang adalah suku bunga bebas resikoSeluruh aliran kas adalah perpetuitas, dengan kata lain
11Pertumbuhan perusahaan adalah nol atau EBIT selalu konstan
12MM’s first paper (1958) assumed zero taxes. Later papers added taxes. No agency or financial distress costs.These assumptions were necessary for MM to prove their propositions on the basis of investor arbitrage.
13rsL = rsU + (rsU - rd)(D/S). MM with Zero Taxes (1958)Nilai perusahaan tidak tergantung pakai hutang or not atau tidak tergantung struktur modalProposition I:VL = VU.Proposition II:rsL = rsU + (rsU - rd)(D/S).
14VL = VU = EBIT = EBITWACC KSUNilai PerusahaanV = D + SDalam dunia tanpa pajak WACC = KSUrsL = rsU + (rsU - rd)(D/S).
15Given the following data, find V, S, rs, and WACC for Firms U and L. Firms U and L are in same risk class.EBITU,L = $500,000.Firm U has no debt; rsU = 14%.Firm L has $1,000,000 debt at rd = 8%.The basic MM assumptions hold.There are no corporate or personal taxes.
161. Find VU and VL.EBITrsU$500,0000.14VU = = = $3,571,429.VL = VU = $3,571,429.Questions: What is the derivation of the VU equation? Are the MM assumptions required?
172. Find the market value of Firm L’s debt and equity. VL = D + S = $3,571,429$3,571,429 = $1,000,000 + SS = $2,571,429.
194. Proposition I implies WACC = rsU. Verify for L using WACC formula.WACC = wdrd + wcers = (D/V)rd + (S/V)rs= ( )(8.0%)+( )(16.33%)= 2.24% % = 14.00%. Rsu tadi 14.00% juga kan…$1,000,000$3,571,429$2,571,429$3,571,429
20Graph the MM relationships between capital costs and leverage as measured by D/V. Without taxesCost of Capital (%)2620148rsWACCrdDebt/Value Ratio (%)
21Sjahrial p.130:Pada saat keseimbangan, nilai perush U dan L serta WACC sama. Proses arbitrase terjadi karena jika nilai L tinggi sahamnya akan dijual dan harga saham akan turun. Pembelian saham U akan menyebabkan nilainya naik. So, nilai pasar kedua perusahaan akan sama
22The more debt the firm adds to its capital structure, the riskier the equity becomes and thus the higher its cost.Although rd remains constant, rs increases with leverage. The increase in rs is exactly sufficient to keep the WACC constant.
23Graph value versus leverage. Value of Firm, V (%)4321VUVLFirm value ($3.6 million)Debt (millions of $)With zero taxes, MM argue that value is unaffected by leverage.
25Apabila perusahaan tidak berhutang maka biaya modal sendiri KSU = 12% bila berhutang Kd = 8%, dan uang pinjaman digunakan untuk membeli kembali saham, dkl bila hutang bertambah sebesar X maka modal sendiri akan berkurang sebesar X pula sehingga aktiva atau nilai perusahaan konstan
30VL = VU + TD. rsL = rsU + (rsU - rd)(1 - T)(D/S). MM dengan PajakWACC u > WACC L UT nilai <Find V, S, rs, and WACC for Firms U and L assuming a 40% corporate tax rate.With corporate taxes added, the MM propositions become:Proposition I:VL = VU + TD.Proposition II:rsL = rsU + (rsU - rd)(1 - T)(D/S).
31Notes About the New Propositions 1. When corporate taxes are added, VL VU. VL increases as debt is added to the capital structure, and the greater the debt usage, the higher the value of the firm.2. rsL increases with leverage at a slower rate when corporate taxes are considered.
321. Find VU and VL. EBIT(1 - T) rsU $500,000(0.6) 0.14 Note: Represents a 40% decline from the no taxes situation.VL = VU + TD = $2,142, ($1,000,000)= $2,142,857 + $400,000= $2,542,857.
332. Find market value of Firm L’s debt and equity. VL = D + S = $2,542,857$2,542,857 = $1,000,000 + SS = $1,542,857.
35WACCL = (D/V)rd(1 - T) + (S/V)rs = ( )(8.0%)(0.6) +( )(16.33%) 4. Find Firm L’s WACC.WACCL = (D/V)rd(1 - T) + (S/V)rs= ( )(8.0%)(0.6)+( )(16.33%)= 1.89% % = 11.80%.When corporate taxes are considered, the WACC is lower for L than for U.$1,000,000$2,542,857$1,542,857$2,542,857
36MM relationship between capital costs and leverage when corporate taxes are considered. Cost of Capital (%)rs2620148WACCrd(1 - T)Debt/Value Ratio (%)
37MM relationship between value and debt when corporate taxes are considered. Value of Firm, V (%)4321VLTDVUDebt(Millions of $)Under MM with corporate taxes, the firm’s value increases continuously as more and more debt is used.
38Contoh UT 6.11Ada pajakEBIT = T=40%, D=0 data lain samaVu = EBIT(1 - T)rsUVu = (1-40%) / 0.12Vu = Rp
43the Miller modelAda pajak perusahaan, pajak pribadi atas penghasilan saham, dan pajak pribadi atas penghasilan hutangJika tidak ada pajak pribadi, Miller = MM dengan pajakUt 6.16MM dengan pajak gain dari leverage, misal 0.341DMiller, gain dari leverage 0.22D
44Lebih hemat MM dengan pajak Pajak pribadi menutup beberapa keuntungan penggunaan hutang perush
45Assume investors have the following tax rates: Tc=40%; Td = 30% and Ts = 12%. What is the gain from leverage according to the Miller model?Miller’s Proposition I:VL = VU + [ ]D.Tc = corporate tax rate.Td = personal tax rate on debt income.Ts = personal tax rate on stock income.(1 - Tc)(1 - Ts)(1 - Td)
46Tidak ada hutang -> hanya resiko bisnis Model HamadaUT.6.12Tidak ada hutang -> hanya resiko bisnisAda hutang =resiko bisnis dan resiko keuanganKombinasi CAPM + MMrsl= risk free rate + business risk premium + financial risk premiumrsl = rf + (rm-rf) bu + (rm-rf)bu (1-T)(D/S)bu =beta perusahaan unleverage
47Model Trade-OffUT.6.17Apabila cost of financial distress dan agency cost dipertimbangkanSemakin besar hutang semakin besar beban tetap biaya bunga dan semakin besar probabilitas perusahaan mengalami financial distress
48Financial DistressKesulitan keuangan biasanya dialami oleh perusahaan yang memiliki hutang. Semakin besar hutang yang digunakan semakin besar probabilitas perusahaan tersebut mengalami penurunan penghasilan yang akan menuju ke FD.
49Biaya FDBiaya-biaya yang berhubungan dengan kesulitan keuangan, misalnyaMenjual dengan harga murah, proyek yang tidak jadi dijalankan, kegiatan manajerial yang tidak optimal seperti biaya yang dibebankan ke pelanggan, pemasok, dan kreditur
50Model Trade-OffUT.6.17Agency costAntara stockholder dan bondholderMasalah agensi muncul karena perusahaan menggunakan hutang, dan menginvestasikannya pada proyek beresiko tinggi. Kreditur bisa rugiShg mrk bebankan biaya monitor.
51UT.6.20GrafikAda titik tttStruktur modal optimal diperoleh dengan menyeimbangkan keuntungan penggunaan hutang dengan biaya financial distress dan biaya keagenan
52Hipotesis Pecking Order dan Signaling Model Dana internal yaitu laba ditahan dan depresiasi aliran kasSampai ke yang beresikoSignal : kalau ngeluarin saham berarti sinyal burukManajer punya informasi yang lbh baik dari investor. Tindakan terbaik tentu u p saham sedia ada, bukan yg baru
53Problems 15-2 p. 548Companies U is unleveredCompanies L has $10 million of 5% bonds outstandingEBIT - $2Mrs = 10%a. MM without taxesVu = VL = EBIT/WACC = 2M/10%=20M
60Tc = 40%, Td = 30%, and Ts = 12%.*VL = VU + [ ]D= VU + ( )D= VU D.Value rises with debt; each $100 increase in debt raises L’s value by $25.( )( )( )
61If only corporate taxes, then VL = VU + TcD = VU + 0.40D. How does this gain compare to the gain in the MM model with corporate taxes?If only corporate taxes, thenVL = VU + TcD = VU D.Here $100 of debt raises value by $40. Thus, personal taxes lowers the gain from leverage, but the net effect depends on tax rates.(More...)
62If Ts declines, while Tc and Td remain constant, the slope coefficient (which shows the benefit of debt) is decreased.A company with a low payout ratio gets lower benefits under the Miller model than a company with a high payout, because a low payout decreases Ts.
63When Miller brought in personal taxes, the value enhancement of debt was lowered. Why? 1. Corporate tax laws favor debt over equity financing because interest expense is tax deductible while dividends are not.(More...)
642. However, personal tax laws favor equity over debt because stocks provide both tax deferral and a lower capital gains tax rate.3. This lowers the relative cost of equity vis-a-vis MM’s no-personal-tax world and decreases the spread between debt and equity costs.4. Thus, some of the advantage of debt financing is lost, so debt financing is less valuable to firms.
65What does capital structure theory prescribe for corporate managers? 1. MM, No Taxes: Capital structure is irrelevant--no impact on value or WACC.2. MM, Corporate Taxes: Value increases, so firms should use (almost) 100% debt financing.3. Miller, Personal Taxes: Value increases, but less than under MM, so again firms should use (almost) 100% debt financing.
66Do firms follow the recommendations of capital structure theory? Firms don’t follow MM/Miller to 100% debt. Debt ratios average about 40%.However, debt ratios did increase after MM. Many think debt ratios were too low, and MM led to changes in financial policies.
67How is all of this analysis different if firms U and L are growing? Under MM (with taxes and no growth)VL = VU + TDThis assumes the tax shield is discounted at the cost of debt.Assume the growth rate is 7%The debt tax shield will be larger if the firms grow:
687% growth, TS discount rate of rTS Value of (growing) tax shield =VTS = rdTD/(rTS –g)So value of levered firm =VL = VU + rdTD/(rTS – g)
69What should rTS be?The smaller is rTS, the larger the value of the tax shield. If rTS < rsU, then with rapid growth the tax shield becomes unrealistically large—rTS must be equal to rU to give reasonable results when there is growth. So we assume rTS = rsU.
70Levered cost of equityIn this case, the levered cost of equity is rsL = rsU + (rsU – rd)(D/S)This looks just like MM without taxes even though we allow taxes and allow for growth. The reason is if rTS = rsU, then larger values of the tax shield don't change the risk of the equity.
71Levered betaIf there is growth and rTS = rsU then the equation that is equivalent to the Hamada equation isL = U + (U - D)(D/S)Notice: This looks like Hamada without taxes. Again, this is because in this case the tax shield doesn't change the risk of the equity.
72Relevant information for valuation EBIT = $500,000T = 40%rU = 14% = rTSrd = 8%Required reinvestment in net operating assets = 10% of EBIT = $50,000.Debt = $1,000,000
73Calculating VU NOPAT = EBIT(1-T) = $500,000 (.60) = $300,000 Investment in net op. assets= EBIT (0.10) = $50,000FCF = NOPAT – Inv. in net op. assets= $300,000 - $50,000= $250,000 (this is expected FCF next year)
74Value of unlevered firm, VU VU = FCF/(rsU – g)= $250,000/(0.14 – 0.07)= $3,571,429
75Value of tax shield, VTS and VL VTS = rdTD/(rsU –g)= 0.08(0.40)$1,000,000/( )= $457,143VL = VU + VTS= $3,571,429 + $457,143= $4,028,571
76Cost of equity and WACCJust like with MM with taxes, the cost of equity increases with D/V, and the WACC declines.But since rsL doesn't have the (1-T) factor in it, for a given D/V, rsL is greater than MM would predict, and WACC is greater than MM would predict.
78What if L's debt is risky?If L's debt is risky then, by definition, management might default on it. The decision to make a payment on the debt or to default looks very much like the decision whether to exercise a call option. So the equity looks like an option.
79Equity as an optionSuppose the firm has $2 million face value of 1-year zero coupon debt, and the current value of the firm (debt plus equity) is $4 million.If the firm pays off the debt when it matures, the equity holders get to keep the firm. If not, they get nothing because the debtholders foreclose.
80Equity as an optionThe equity holder's position looks like a call option withP = underlying value of firm = $4 millionX = exercise price = $2 milliont = time to maturity = 1 yearSuppose rRF = 6% = volatility of debt + equity = 0.60
81Use Black-Scholes to price this option V = P[N(d1)] - Xe -rRFt[N(d2)].d1 = td2 = d1 - t.ln(P/X) + [rRF + (2/2)]t
83= $2.196 Million = Value of Equity N(d1) = N(1.5552) =N(d2) = N(0.9552) =Note: Values obtained from Excel using NORMSDIST function.V = $4(0.9401) - $2e-0.06(0.8303)= $ $2(0.9418)(0.8303)= $2.196 Million = Value of Equity
84Value of DebtThe value of debt must be what is left over:Value of debt = Total Value – Equity= $4 million – million= $1.804 million
85This value of debt gives us a yield Debt yield for 1-year zero coupon debt= (face value / price) – 1= ($2 million/ million) – 1= 10.9%
86How does affect an option's value? Higher volatility means higher option value.
87Managerial Incentives When an investor buys a stock option, the riskiness of the stock () is already determined. But a manager can change a firm's by changing the assets the firm invests in. That means changing can change the value of the equity, even if it doesn't change the expected cash flows:
88Managerial Incentives So changing can transfer wealth from bondholders to stockholders by making the option value of the stock worth more, which makes what is left, the debt value, worth less.
90Bait and SwitchManagers who know this might tell debtholders they are going to invest in one kind of asset, and, instead, invest in riskier assets. This is called bait and switch and bondholders will require higher interest rates for firms that do this, or refuse to do business with them.
91If the debt is risky coupon debt If the risky debt has coupons, then with each coupon payment management has an option on an option—if it makes the interest payment then it purchases the right to later make the principal payment and keep the firm. This is called a compound option.