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Energy (TKK-2129) 14/15 Academic Year Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M - F.13-15, oktavianrama.lecture.ub.ac.id.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Energy (TKK-2129) 14/15 Academic Year Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M - F.13-15, oktavianrama.lecture.ub.ac.id."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Energy (TKK-2129) 14/15 Academic Year Instructor: Rama Oktavian Office Hr.: M - F.13-15, oktavianrama.lecture.ub.ac.id

2 Outlines 1. Natural gas: Intro and sources 2. Natural gas: Properties 3. Natural gas: Exploration 4. Natural gas processing (overview)

3 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas? Gas obtained from natural underground reservoir Contains mostly methane (CH4) Usually contains some impurities such as H2S and CO2 As one of primary energy sources in Indonesia

4 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas?

5 Natural gas: Intro What is Natural Gas?

6 Natural gas: Intro Pollution comparison

7 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves

8 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas production

9 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas production

10 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves in Indonesia

11 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas reserves in Indonesia

12 Natural gas: Intro

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14 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas industry in Indonesia The largest of these are found in: 1. Arun, Aceh (Sumatra) 2. Bontang (East Kalimantan) 3. Tangguh (Papua) 4. Natuna Island

15 Natural gas: Intro PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP IV CILACAP KAPASITAS : 318 MTPA PT. YUDHISTIRA HAKA P. CILAMAYA, JABAR KAPASITAS : 44 MTPA * Hak Pengelolaan Sementara PT. YUDISTIRA ENERGY PONDOK TENGAH KAPASITAS 50 MTPA PT. ARUN ARUN KAPASITAS : 12,85 MMTPA PT. MARUTA BUMI PRIMA LANGKAT KAPASITAS : 17 MTPA PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP II DUMAI KAPASITAS : 68 MTPA PETROCHINA TJ. JABUNG KAPASITAS : 600 MTPA PT. MEDCO LPG KAJI KAJI KAPASITAS : 73 MTPA PT. TITS SAMPURNA PRABUMULIH KAPASITAS : 73 MTPA PT. SURYA ESA PERKASA LEMBAK KAPASITAS : 46 MTPA PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP VI BALONGAN DAN MUNDU KAPASITAS : 584 MTPA PT. SUMBER DAYA KELOLA TUGU BARAT KAPASITAS : 7 MTPA PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO)* TAMBUN KAPASITAS : 55 MTPA PT. BADAK BONTANG KAPASITAS LNG: 21,64 MMTPA KAPASITAS LPG: 1 MMTPA CHEVRON TJ. SANTAN KAPASITAS : 90 MMTPA PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP V BALIKPAPAN KAPASITAS : 91 MTPA PETROCHINA ARAR KAPASITAS : 14 MTPA KILANG LNG (42,09 MMTPA) KILANG LPG (4,12 MMTPA) RENCANA PEMBANGUNAN PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP III MUSI KAPASITAS : 131 MTPA BP TANGGUH KAPASITAS : 7,6 MMTPA PT. MEDIA KARYA SENTOSA GRESIK, JATIM KAPASITAS : 58 MTPA PT. WAHANA INSANNUGRAHA CEMARA, JABAR KAPASITAS : 37 MTPA PT. TUBAN LPG INDONESIA TUBAN KAPASITAS : 131 MTPA PT. GASUMA FEDERAL INDONESIA TUBAN KAPASITAS : 22 MTPA HESS UJUNG PANGKAH, JATIM KAPASITAS : 113 MTPA PT. E1 PERTAGAS SUNGAI GERONG KAPASITAS 259 MTPA CONOCO PHILLIPS BELANAK KAPASITAS : 525 MTPA PT. PERTAMINA (PERSERO) UP I PANGKALAN BRANDAN KAPASITAS : 44 MTPA

16 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas based on its source 1.Conventional natural gas is usually obtained from Deep reservoir 2.Natural gas usually presents in crude oil (Associated gas) 3.Natural gas in reservoirs that contain little or no crude oil (Non-associated gas) 4.Associated gas is produced with the oil and separated at the casinghead or wellhead 5.Non-associated gas is sometimes referred to as gas-wellgas or dry gas

17 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas based on its source

18 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas compositions

19 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas compositions

20 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas product specification 1.The composition of natural gas varies considerably from location to location 2.Natural gas product specification includes: - Wobbe number, - heating value, - total inerts, - water, - oxygen, -and sulfur content. The first two criteria relate to combustion characteristics. The latter three provide protection from pipeline plugging and corrosion

21 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Colorless, odorless, tasteless, shapeless, and lighter than air

22 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Specific gravity For gas mixtures: Compressibility factor Z can be function of Pr and Tr

23 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas properties Compressibility factor can be function of Pr and Tr

24 Natural gas: Intro Compressibility factor can be function of Pr and Tr

25 Natural gas: Intro Natural gas product specification

26 Natural gas: Intro Liquid product specification 1.As with gases, specifications for liquid products are based upon both composition and performance criteria 2.the performance specifications include Reid vapor pressure, water, oxygen, H 2 S, and total sulfur content 3.Safety considerations make vapor pressure especially important for the liquid products because of regulations for shipping and storage containers

27 Natural gas: Intro Liquid product specification

28 Natural gas: Properties Combustion characteristics 1.Pipeline gas is normally bought and sold (custody transfer) on the basis of its heating value, ex: MMBtu/cuft 2.Heating value: the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it 3. the heating value of a fuel involves two arbitrary but con-ventional standard states for the water formed in the reaction: -All the water formed is a liquid (gross heating value, frequently called higher heating value [HHV]) – including latent heat of vaporization -All the water formed is a gas (net heating value, frequently called lower heating value [LHV]) -the heating value is normally calculated at 60°F and 1 atm (15.6°C and 1.01 atm), standard conditions for the gas industry

29 Natural gas: Properties Wobbe Number 1.defined as the gross heating value (Btu/scf) of the gas divided by the square root of the specific gravity (the ratio of the density of the gas divided by the density of air

30 Natural gas: Exploration Photo courtesy of OSHA

31 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

32 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

33 Natural gas: Exploration Reprint permitted by the American Association of Petroleum Geologists

34 Natural gas processing

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36 LNG Processing (CO 2 removal)  CO 2 concentration in natural gas is high  It will freeze below -160 C, it will block the flow  The most commonly method is absorption  Widely used absorbents : 1. K 2 CO 3 aqueous solutions 2. MEA,DEA,TEA aqueous solutions Recent update?

37 Natural gas processing LNG Processing (H 2 O removal)  The presence of H2O can affect the LNG quality (combustion properties)  It will freeze below -160 C, it will change its state to solid and form gas hydrate, thus it will block the flow  The most commonly method is absorption and adsorption  Widely used absorbents : ethylene glycol  Widely used adsorbents : silica gel, molecular sieve

38 Natural gas processing Fractionation 1. Methane separation (C1) - Using SCRUB COLUMN (De-Methanizer). - Using SCRUB COLUMN (De-Methanizer). - To produce C1 as feed for LNG processing. - To produce C1 as feed for LNG processing. 2. Ethane separation (C2) - Using DE-ETHANIZER column - Using DE-ETHANIZER column - To produce C2 as MAKE-UP MCR REFRIGERANT - To produce C2 as MAKE-UP MCR REFRIGERANT 3. Propane separation(C3) - Using DE-PROPANIZER column - Using DE-PROPANIZER column - To produce propane as MAKE UP PROPANE REFRIGERANT and LPG. - To produce propane as MAKE UP PROPANE REFRIGERANT and LPG. 4. Butane separation(C4) - Using DE-BUTANIZER column - Using DE-BUTANIZER column - To produce butane as LPG. - To produce butane as LPG.

39 Natural gas processing Liquefaction  Using refrigeration process  Operating temperature C  Refrijeran : ammonia (-14 0 C), freon (-50 0 C) C 3, MCR (multi componen refrigerant)

40 Natural gas processing Refrigeration concept Qc Qr Evaporator Condenser Comp JT-valve

41 Natural gas transportation Pipeline Transmission System

42 Natural gas transportation Floating LNG ConocoPhillips_Cascade_LNG_Project1.jpg

43 Natural gas transportation FSRU

44 Natural gas uses Ammonia processing

45 Natural gas uses Methanol processing

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