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Perancangan Pencatatan Transaksi Flowchart dan Activity Diagram Pertemuan 19 s.d 20 Matakuliah: F0712 / Lab MS Access Tahun: 2007.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Perancangan Pencatatan Transaksi Flowchart dan Activity Diagram Pertemuan 19 s.d 20 Matakuliah: F0712 / Lab MS Access Tahun: 2007."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Perancangan Pencatatan Transaksi Flowchart dan Activity Diagram Pertemuan 19 s.d 20 Matakuliah: F0712 / Lab MS Access Tahun: 2007

2 Bina Nusantara 1) The flow begins at the upper left-hand corner of the sheet and generally moves from left to right and from top to bottom 2) All steps are clearly presented in a sequence, or a series of sequences. No obvious gaps in the procedure should be present 3) Symbols are used consistently throughout. Thus the symbol for manual processing (an inverted trapezoid) should appear each time a clerk performs a step in the procedure Examples: What is what? Figure 2-9 Basic Rules of Flowcharting - I

3 Bina Nusantara Source Document Destroy From prior processing Basic Rules of Flowcharting - II 4) The dispositions of all documents and reports are shown. In fact, the final “resting place” of every copy of every of every prepared document should be specified. Typical dispositions include placing documents in files, sending documents to outside parties such as customers, forwarding documents to connecting procedures (such as a general ledger procedure), and distributing reports to managers. If the disposition consists of destroying a document, this action may be represented in the manner shown below: Figure continued

4 Bina Nusantara 5) The “sandwich” rule is consistently applied. This rule states that a processing symbol should be sandwiched between an input symbol and an output symbol, in the manner shown below: Input document Output document Manual Process Figure continued Basic Rules of Flowcharting - III

5 Bina Nusantara 6) When a document crosses an organizational line within the flowchart, the document is pictured again in the new organizational unit. However, the repetition is not usually necessary in some instances if the organizational units are adjacent 7) All symbols contain a brief but specific label written inside the symbols 8) Multiple copies of documents are drawn as an overlapping group and are numbered in the upper right-hand corners; these numbers remain the copies during their flows through the procedure Figure continued Basic Rules of Flowcharting - IV

6 Bina Nusantara 9) Added comments are included within annotation symbols and are attached to appropriate symbols, such as the processing symbols to which the comments are related 10) Ample connections (cross-references) are provided. The symbols used in forming the connections depend on the situation. Thus, if two sheets are needed to to contain the flowchart, the flows between pages are formed by off-page connector symbols. In those cases where the procedure being flowcharted links to an adjoining procedure, the connection can be formed by a terminal symbol Figure continued Basic Rules of Flowcharting - V

7 Bina Nusantara 11) Exceptional Occurrences, such as back orders, are clearly noted. They may appear as (i) comments within annotation symbols, (ii) separate flowcharts, with references to the main flowchart, or (iii) decision branches, as shown below: Customer Credit Satisfactory? Reject Order Accept Order Rejection Letter Acknowledgement Sales Order To Customer To sales Order Processing From prior processing Figure continued Basic Rules of Flowcharting - VI

8 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Sebuah perusahaan dagang sedang merancang suatu Sistem Informasi Pembelian Barang. Bagian – bagian yang terlibat adalah Bagian Gudang dan Bagian Pembelian. Sistem tersebut melalui tahap – tahap tertentu yang saling berhubungan. Diasumsikan sistem tersebut telah memiliki file master pemasok dan file master persediaan. Buatlah flowchart setiap tahap tersebut, kemudian gabungkan setiap tahap hingga membentuk flowchart secara keseluruhan.

9 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Sistem informasi pembelian dimulai oleh Bagian Gudang yang memberikan Surat Permintaan Pembelian (SPP) ke Bagian Pembelian. Bagian Pembelian setelah menerima dokumen SPP kemudian memasukkan data pembelian ke komputer secara manual. Setelah menginput, dokumen SPP diarsipkan (simpan secara manual) berdasarkan nomor SPP. User Bagian Pembelian SPP Input data pembelian N

10 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Atas input yang dilakukan oleh Bagian Pembelian, sistem tersebut secara otomatis membuat record pembelian dalam file pesanan pembelian sementara yang mengacu pada file master pemasok dan file master persediaan. Record tersebut disimpan dalam file transaksi pesanan pembelian. Buat record pembelian (otomatis) File Pesanan (sementara) File Mater Pemasok File Mater Persediaan User Bagian Pembelian SPP Input data pembelian N

11 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Pada akhir hari sistem akan mencetak dokumen Surat Pesanan Barang (SPB) sebanyak 5 rangkap berdasarkan File Pesanan (sementara) tersebut. Kelima rangkap tersebut akan diperiksa berdasarkan SPP yang telah diarsip menurut nomor urut sebelum proses ini. Kelima rangkap tersebut SPB akan diperiksa dan ditanda-tangani oleh manajer pembelian. Gambar 

12 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Buat record pembelian (otomatis) File Pesanan (sementara) File Mater Pemasok File Mater Persediaan Cetak Pesanan Pembelian pada akhir hari Periksa dan ditanda-tangan oleh manajer pembelian User Bagian Pembelian SPP Input data pembelian N

13 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Selanjutnya SPB rangkap ke-1 diserahkan ke pemasok, rangkap ke-2 ke bagian penerimaan barang, rangkap ke-3 ke bagian hutang, rangkap ke-4 ke bagian gudang sebagai pihak yang meminta barang, sedangkan rangkap ke- 5 diarsipkan berdasarkan nomor urutnya. Gambar 

14 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart PemasokBagian Penerima Barang Bagian HutangBagian Penerima Barang N Buat record pembelian (otomatis) File Pesanan (sementara) File Mater Pemasok File Mater Persediaan Cetak Pesanan Pembelian pada akhir hari Periksa dan ditanda-tangan oleh manajer pembelian User Bagian Pembelian SPP Input data pembelian N

15 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart Selanjutnya SPB rangkap ke-1 diserahkan ke pemasok, rangkap ke-2 ke bagian penerimaan barang, rangkap ke-3 ke bagian hutang, rangkap ke-4 ke bagian gudang sebagai pihak yang meminta barang, sedangkan rangkap ke- 5 diarsipkan berdasarkan nomor urutnya. Gambar 

16 Bina Nusantara Contoh Penggambaran Flowchart PemasokBagian Penerima Barang Bagian HutangBagian Penerima Barang N Buat record pembelian (otomatis) File Pesanan (sementara) File Mater Pemasok File Mater Persediaan Cetak Pesanan Pembelian pada akhir hari Periksa dan ditanda-tangan oleh manajer pembelian User Bagian Pembelian SPP Input data pembelian N

17 Bina Nusantara The UML Activity Diagram A “map” for understanding business processes Shows the sequence of activities in the process Two types of activity diagrams: – Overview – Detailed

18 Bina Nusantara Two Types of Activity Diagrams Overview diagram – Presents a high-level view of the business process – Documents the key events, the sequence of these events, and the information flows among these events

19 Bina Nusantara Two Types of Activity Diagrams Detailed diagram – Provides a more detailed representation of the activities associated with one or two events shown on the overview diagram

20 Bina Nusantara Understanding Overview Activity Diagrams Reading an overview activity diagram Swimlanes – represent agents outside the organization and the computer system used to record and process AIS data. Solid circle - represents the start of the process. It appears in the swimlane of the agent (inside or outside the organization) who initiates the process.

21 Bina Nusantara Understanding Overview Activity Diagrams Reading an overview activity diagram Rounded rectangles – indicate events. (Some events were triggered by other events earlier in the business process rather than by agents outside the organization No additional rounded rectangle was needed to represent this trigger.) Continuous lines with arrows - show the sequence of events.

22 Bina Nusantara Understanding Overview Activity Diagrams Reading an overview activity diagram Document symbol - represents source documents and reports. Capital letter(s) followed by a colon before the name of the document - represents reference to a typical document created during the process. (Indicate the status of the object below its name.)

23 Bina Nusantara Understanding Overview Activity Diagrams Reading an overview activity diagram Dotted lines with arrows - represent the flow of information between events. Dotted lines - connect events and tables to show how table data are created or used by events. For example, the dotted line to the Sale table represents the sale being recorded. Bull’s-eye - represents the end of the process.

24 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Preliminary Steps: Step 1: Read the narrative and identify key events. Step 2: Annotate the narrative to clearly show event boundaries and event names.

25 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines on naming events: a. Use broad names that reflect the purpose of the event. b. Avoid names that focus on detailed steps in the event.

26 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines on naming events: c. Be specific. Avoid names such as “Process information.” Information is a general word and does not convey much content to your reader. Use more precise event names.

27 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines on naming events: d. Start event names with a verb. e. Do not include employee or department names in event names.

28 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Steps for Preparing the Activity Diagram: Step 3: Represent agents participating in the business process using swimlanes.

29 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing people or devices: a. Create a swimlane for each person or department responsible for various events in the narrative. b. Create a swimlane for entities outside the organization that initiate events in the process.

30 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing people or devices: c. Create a swimlane for the computer system. d. Write the name of the appropriate person or department in the swimlane.

31 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in representing people or devices: Computer systems should be represented as a swimlane since the computer can perform actions. Documents, files, ledgers, and binders cannot perform any activity. Do not set up swimlanes for such objects.

32 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Steps for Preparing the Activity Diagram: Step 4: Diagram each event. Show the sequence of these events.

33 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for documenting events and the sequence of events: a. Draw a solid circle to represent the start of the process. The solid circle is shown in the swimlane for the agent (inside or outside the organization) who initiates the process.

34 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for documenting events and the sequence of events: Start with the first event. b. If the event is triggered by an agent outside the organization, show a rounded rectangle for the trigger.

35 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for documenting events and the sequence of events: c. Set up a rounded rectangle for the event in the swimlane of the person or department within the organization who is responsible for the event.

36 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for documenting events and the sequence of events: d. If the event is triggered by an agent outside the organization, connect the trigger (see Step b) to the event with a continuous line. e. Otherwise, connect the previous event to the current event with a continuous line.

37 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for documenting events and the sequence of events: Repeat Steps b through e for each subsequent event. f. Draw a bull’s-eye to represent the end of the process. Set up the bull’s-eye in the swimlane for the agent performing the last event. Connect the last event to the bull’s-eye with a continuous line.

38 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in documenting events and sequences of events: a. All the events identified in Steps 1 and 2 are not shown on the activity diagram. b. Additional events not identified in Steps 1 and 2 are shown on the activity diagram. c. Continuous lines connecting events are not shown.

39 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in documenting events and sequences of events: d. Events are labeled with agent names. Agent names should not be included in event names since agent names are represented in swimlanes. e. Event names are not consistent with the names identified in Step 2.

40 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Steps for Preparing the Activity Diagram: Step 5: Draw documents created and used in the business process. Show the flow of information from events to documents and vice versa.

41 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing documents and document flows: a. Draw a document symbol below the event that creates or modifies a document.

42 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing documents and document flows: b. Draw dotted lines to connect events and documents: – Draw a flow from an event to a document to show that a document is being prepared or modified by the event.

43 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing documents and document flows: b. Draw dotted lines to connect events and documents: – Draw a dotted line from a document to an event to show that information on a document is being reviewed or used by the event or activity.

44 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing documents and document flows: b. Draw dotted lines to connect events and documents: – If a document appears multiple times in the process, add status information showing how the object changes during the process. There’s usually no need to show a document symbol again unless it’s modified or updated.

45 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing documents and document flows: c. Note that we focus on events that use, create, or modify documents. We do not show the physical transfer of objects.

46 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in representing documents and document flows: a. Verbs are mistakenly used in naming documents. The dotted lines represent information flows. Do not need verbs in the document names.

47 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in representing documents and document flows: b. Documents are not connected to events. Make sure all important flows are shown. One of the major benefits of an activity diagram is that it helps you understand the flow of information in an AIS, which is very important in analyzing internal control.

48 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Steps for Preparing the Activity Diagram: Step 6: Draw tables (files) created and used in the business process. Show the flow of information from events to tables and vice versa.

49 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing tables and flow of information to and from tables: a. Show computer tables in the Computer column. Only the computer system can read or write information from or to these tables. b. Draw a flow from a table to an event to represent the fact that information in a table is being reviewed or used by the event.

50 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Guidelines for representing tables and flow of information to and from tables: c. Draw a flow from an event to a table to show that a record is being created or updated by the event or activity. d. Include status information to show how the object changes during the business process.

51 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in representing tables and flow of information to and from tables: a. Tables are named with verbs. Use nouns to label tables. b. Table attributes are listed instead of table names. Table names are a more compact way of representing tables on activity diagrams. Labeling individual attributes makes the diagram harder to understand.

52 Bina Nusantara Preparing Overview Activity Diagrams Common errors in representing tables and flow of information to and from tables: c. All flows between events and tables are not shown. As with documents, flow of information to and from tables is important in understanding accounting systems and controls. Include all important flows.

53 Bina Nusantara Understanding Detailed Activity Diagrams The symbols used in the detailed and overview diagrams are the same. The major difference - rounded rectangles in the detailed diagrams represent activities, not events.

54 Bina Nusantara Understanding Detailed Activity Diagrams Two additional symbols in detailed diagrams: – a branch (diamond) symbol - a point where processing splits into two or more paths. – a UML note symbol - enables reference to more detailed information available in another diagram or document.

55 Bina Nusantara Preparing Detailed Activity Diagrams Step 1: Annotate narrative to show activities. Highlight the verbs in the narrative that represent activities. Step 2: Prepare a workflow table. Set up a table using a two-column format. Identify the business events with which the activities are associated.

56 Bina Nusantara Preparing Detailed Activity Diagrams Step 3: Identify necessary detailed diagrams. Construct a separate detailed diagram for each event in the business process Or Include more than one event in the detailed diagram.

57 Bina Nusantara Preparing Detailed Activity Diagrams Step 4: For each detailed diagram, perform the following substeps: 4a. Set up swimlanes for the agents participating in the event or events represented in the detailed diagram. 4b. Add a rounded rectangle for each activity in the event(s) being documented in that detailed diagram. 4c. Use continuous lines to show the sequence of the activities.

58 Bina Nusantara Preparing Detailed Activity Diagrams Step 4: For each detailed diagram, perform the following substeps: 4d. Set up any documents created or used by the activities in that diagram. 4e. Use dotted lines to connect activities and documents. 4f. Document any tables created, modified, or used by the activities in the diagram in the computer column. 4g. Use dotted lines to connect activities and tables.


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