Presentasi berjudul: "China Perantauan di Indonesia (2) Pertemuan 9 Matakuliah: E1052/Penelitian China Perantauan Tahun: 2007."— Transcript presentasi:
China Perantauan di Indonesia (2) Pertemuan 9 Matakuliah: E1052/Penelitian China Perantauan Tahun: 2007
Bina Nusantara China Perantauan di Indonesia Sejarah Pasca kemerdekaan Sejarah politik diskriminatif terhadap etnis Tionghoa terus berlangsung pada era Orde Lama dan Orde Baru.Orde LamaOrde Baru Pada Orde Lama keluar Peraturan Pemerintah No. 10 tahun 1959 yang melarang WNA Tionghoa untuk berdagang eceran di daerah di luar ibukota provinsi dan kabupaten. Hal ini menimbulkan dampak yang luas terhadap distribusi barang dan pada akhirnya menjadi salah satu sebab keterpurukan ekonomi menjelang tahun 1965.
Bina Nusantara Kontroversi SKBRI Selama Orde Baru juga terdapat penerapan ketentuan tentang Surat Bukti Kewarganegaraan Republik Indonesia, atau yang lebih populer disebut SBKRI, yang utamanya ditujukan kepada warga negara Indonesia (WNI) etnis Tionghoa beserta keturunan-keturunannya.Surat Bukti Kewarganegaraan Republik Indonesia Walaupun ketentuan ini bersifat administratif, secara esensi penerapan SBKRI sama artinya dengan upaya yang menempatkan WNI Tionghoa pada posisi status hukum WNI yang "masih dipertanyakan".
Bina Nusantara Kontroversi Nama Tionghoa di Indonesia Suku Tionghoa-Indonesia sebelum zaman Orde Baru rata-rata masih memiliki nama Tionghoa dengan 3 karakter. Walaupun seseorang Tionghoa di Indonesia tidak mengenal karakter Han, namun biasanya nama Tionghoa di Indonesia tetap diberikan dengan cara romanisasi. Karena mayoritas orang Tionghoa di Indonesia adalah pendatang dari Hokkian, maka nama-nama Tionghoa berdialek Hokkian lebih lazim daripada dialek-dialek lainnya.Tionghoa-IndonesiaOrde BaruHokkian Di zaman Orde Baru, di bawah pemerintahan Suharto, warganegara Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa dianjurkan untuk mengindonesiakan nama Tionghoa mereka dalam arti mengambil sebuah nama Indonesia secara resmi.Suhartowarganegara Indonesia keturunan Tionghoa Misalnya Liem Sioe Liong diubah menjadi Soedono Salim.Liem Sioe Liong Walaupun demikian, di dalam acara kekeluargaan, nama Tionghoa masih sering digunakan; sedangkan nama Indonesia digunakan untuk keperluan surat-menyurat resmi.
Bina Nusantara Discriminatory laws against Chinese Indonesian are laws, directives, or constitutions enacted by the government of Indonesia against Chinese Indonesian.Chinese Indonesian They proliferated under the New Order regime under former President Suharto's reign. Some of these laws have now been revoked since Suharto's resignation in 1998.New OrderSuharto Examples : PP 10/1959, which forced Chinese Indonesian to close their businesses by 1 January 1960 and relocate in urban areas. PP 10/1959Chinese Indonesian Presidium Directive 127/U/Kep/12/1966 that explicitly requires Chinese Indonesian to adopt Indonesian-sounding names.127/U/Kep/12/1966Indonesian-sounding names
Bina Nusantara Cabinet Presidium Instruction No. 37/U/IN/6/1967, which prohibits further residency or work permits to new Chinese immigrants, their wives, or children; freezing any capital raised by "foreigners" in Indonesia; closure of "foreign" schools except for diplomatic corps and their families; the number of Indonesian students must be the majority and in proportion to "foreigners" in any state schools; and that implementation of the "Chinese issue" will henceforth be the responsibility of the minister for political affairs.37/U/IN/6/1967 Presidential Instruction No. 14/1967 (Inpres No. 14/1967) on Chinese Religion, Beliefs, and Traditions, which effectively ban any Chinese literatures and cultures in Indonesia, including the prohibition of Chinese characters. Although Chinese names are not explicitly mentioned, "newly naturalized" Indonesian Chinese were strongly advised to do so.Inpres No. 14/1967 (Annulled by former president Abdurrahman Wahid in Keppres No. 6/2000; annulment supported by former president Megawati Soekarnoputri in Keppres No 19/2002 by declaring Chinese New Year as national holiday)Abdurrahman WahidKeppres No. 6/2000Megawati SoekarnoputriKeppres No 19/2002
Bina Nusantara Resolution of the Provisional People's Consultative Assembly no. 32, 1966 (TAP MPRS No. 32/1966) expressly bans the use of Chinese characters in public.TAP MPRS No. 32/1966 Presidium Directive No. 240/1967 (Inpres No. 240/1967) which mandates assimilation of "foreigners" and support the previous directive of 127/U/Kep/12/1966 for Indonesian Chinese to adopt Indonesian-sounding names.Inpres No. 240/1967127/U/Kep/12/1966 Home Affairs Ministry No. 455.2-360/1988 on Regulation of Temples, which effectively and severely restrict building or repairing Chinese temples.455.2-360/1988 Circular of the Director General for Press and Graphics Guidance in the Ministry of Information No.02/SE/Ditjen-PPGK/1988, which further restrict the usage of Chinese language and/or characters.02/SE/Ditjen-PPGK/1988 Instruction of the Ministry of Home Affairs No. X01/1977 on Implementing Instructions for Population Registration and the confidential instructions No.3.462/1.755.6 of the Jakarta government January 28, 1980 both authorize special codes in national identification cards to indicate ethnic Chinese origin. The code was "A01" prefix.X01/19773.462/1.755.6 Cabinet Presidium Circular SE-06/Pres-Kab/6/1967 on Changing the Term China and Chinese, requires the usage of the term "Cina" (which is considered a derogatory term by many Chinese Indonesians) instead of "Tionghoa" (as ethnic Chinese refer to themselves).SE-06/Pres-Kab/6/1967
Bina Nusantara Jakarta riots of May 1998 Jakarta Riots of May 1998 were riots that occurred in several parts of Indonesia, notably Jakarta and Surakarta during May 1998.JakartaSurakarta The riots were triggered by economic problems like food shortages and mass unemployment in Indonesia. The Indonesian currency Rupiah had collapsed and prices of basic goods skyrocketed.Rupiah Students took to the streets in Jakarta and protested against then President Suharto. The rioting started after four students from Trisakti University were shot dead during a demonstration on 12 May 1998. After the funeral the following day, rioting started outside the university, with police and military offices and cars as the major targets.Jakarta SuhartoTrisakti University
Bina Nusantara The riots became more widespread on 14-15 May 1998 and quickly turned into a pogrom targeting properties and businesses owned by ethnic-Chinese (Chinese Indonesian), who were made into scapegoats. pogromChinese Indonesian Many shops put up signs such as "Milik pribumi " ("Owned by native Indonesian(s)") or "Pro Reformasi" ("Pro-reformation"). Otherwise, shops owned by ethnic Chinese were looted and burned. There were also hundreds of documented accounts of ethnic Chinese women being raped, tortured and killed. Fearing for their lives, many ethnic Chinese, who made up about 3-5% of Indonesia's population, fled the country. In the aftermath, a fact finding team from the Indonesian Human Rights Commission stated that the events were orchestrated by the military.Indonesian Human Rights Commission Privately several members of the team have mentioned that what happened was a repeat of the Malari riots of 1974. In that case, the riots were started by members of Opsus (Operasi Khusus -- Special Intelligence Operations) under the command of Gen. Ali Moertopo. Years after the fact, Gen. Moertopo acknowledged his complicity in that riot.OpsusAli Moertopo
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