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KRT-2010 1 Taksonomi Tumbuhan. KRT-2010 2 Introduction  Taxonomy is the science of classifying and identifying plants.  Scientific names are necessary.

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Presentasi berjudul: "KRT-2010 1 Taksonomi Tumbuhan. KRT-2010 2 Introduction  Taxonomy is the science of classifying and identifying plants.  Scientific names are necessary."— Transcript presentasi:

1 KRT Taksonomi Tumbuhan

2 KRT Introduction  Taxonomy is the science of classifying and identifying plants.  Scientific names are necessary because the same common name is used for different plants in different areas of the world.  Latin is the language used for scientific classification.

3 KRT Karl von Linne ( )  Swedish botanist  Developed binomial classification scheme for plants.  Uses two Latin words to indicate the genus and the species.  Changed his name to the Latin name of Carolus Linnaeus.

4 KRT Scientific Names  The first word is the genus and the second word is the species.  If there are additional words, they indicate the variety or cultivar.

5 KRT Scientific Classification Kingdom Phylum/Division Class Order Suborder Family Genus Species

6 KRT Names and Terms  Division: The major category is called a division and is equivalent to Phylum in the animal kingdom Division names endings indicate plants (- phyta) and fungi (-mycota)  Class  Monocotyledoneae & Dicotyledoneae  Order  (-ales)  Family  (-aceae)  Genus & Species

7 KRT Family Biologists classify living organisms by their relatedness. The basic categories are: Kingdom Division (Phylum for animals) ClassOrderFamilyGenusSpecies Increasing degree of specificity – towards a single, definable, named species.

8 KRT An example of phylogentic classification (Joran Viers-Basic Botany)  Kingdom=Plantae; Organisms that usually have rigid cell walls and usually possess chlorophyll.  Subkingdom=Embryophyta; Plants forming embryos.  Phylum=Tracheophyta; Vascular plants.  Subphylum=Pterophytina; Generally large, conspicuous leaves, complex vascular system.  Class=Angiospermae; Flowering plants, seed enclosed in ovary.  Subclass=Dicotyledoneae; Embryo with two seed leaves.  Order=Sapindales; Soapberry order consisting of a number of trees and shrubs.  Family=Aceraceae; Maple family.  Genus=Acer; Maples and box elder.  Species=Acer rubrum; Red maple.

9 KRT Divisions  The four most important divisions of the plant kingdom are…. –Thallophyta  Algae dan Fungi –Bryophyta –Pteridophyta –Spermatophyta

10 KRT Spermatophyta  Includes flowering or seed-bearing plants.  The two subdivisions are…. –Gymnosperms –Angiosperms

11 KRT  salah satu cabang ilmu botani yang mempelajari pengelompokan tumbuhan.  Kata Taksonomi berasal dari Bahasa Yunani yaitu taxis yang berarti susunan dan penataan dan nomos yang berarti hukum atau aturan.

12 KRT Lawrence (1969) mendefinisikannya sebagai studi yang meliputi identifikasi, tatanama (nomenclature) dan klasifikasi dari suatu obyek Ilmu taksonomi modern : mencakup studi tentang hubungan kekerabatan antar spesies (filogenetik) maupun proses-proses evolusi yang terkait (misalnya hibridisasi, variasi dalam populasi dan asal muasal suatu jenis).

13 KRT Ada 4 komponen dasar dalam Taksonomi : 1. Klasifikasi: penyusunan kelompok-kelompok tumbuhan ke dalam suatu tingkatan taksonomi berdasarkan sifat-sifat tertentu. 2. Identifikasi, yaitu determinasi suatu nama untuk suatu spesies. 4. Tatanama (Nomenclature), suatu sistem aturan yang jelas dan bersifat universal yang digunakan oleh semua ahli botani di dunia untuk menamakan tumbuhan yang tertuang dalam Kode Internasional untuk Tatanama Tumbuhan (International Code of Botanical Nomenclature, ICBN). 3. Deskripsi, adalah penjabaran karakter-karakter atau ciri- ciri suatu spesies. Biasanya digunakan untuk membedakan antara suatu spesies dengan spesies lainnya

14 KRT  Sistem klasifikasi dalam taksonomi tumbuhan: sistem klasifikasi alam atau sistem klasifikasi filogenetik dan sistem klasifikasi buatan (berdasarkan habitat)  Sistem klasifikasi yang tinjauannya didasarkan modifikasi dari sistem yang telah ada dengan penambahan data yang baru, disebut sistem kontemporer. *Identifikasi tumbuhan adalah menentukan namanya yang benar dan tempatnya yang tepat dalam sistem klasifikasi

15 KRT Classification - 5 kingdoms (Whittaker, 1969) Prokaryotae or Monera Protista Fungi Plantae Animaliae Classification - 3 kingdoms or domains (Woese, 1978) Eubacteria - true bacteria Archaebacteria - ancient bacteria Eukaryotes - protists, fungi, plants, animals Viruses????

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18 KRT Prokaryotes come in a variety of shapes  Cocci – spherical come in clusters (staphylococci) or chains ( streptococci)  Bacilli – rod shaped  Curved or spiral shaped (syphillus, a spirochete is an example)

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20 KRT Archaea thrive in extreme environments  Can survive in very salty places. Salt water 3%, thrive at 15-20%  Live in water above 100 degrees C  Live in acid pools  Live in anaerobic environments

21 KRT Structural adaptations  Bacteria and archaea have flagella to move about  Pili help stick to surfaces  Bacteria can form an endospore to survive harsh conditions (anthrax and botulism)  Filaments on actinomycetes allow organism to bridge dry gaps between soil particles

22 KRT Bacteria  Bacteria have been on the Earth for millions of years. It wasn't until the late 1600s that scientists discovered bacteria. In fact, bacteria were discovered by accident.

23 KRT  Anton van Leeuwenhoek accidentally noticed them while looking at scrapings from his teeth through a very simple microscope. He did not know what they were, but he was essentially the first person to see bacteria.

24 KRT Bacteria are very small – smaller than most animal cells They can be rod shaped, spherical or spiral

25 KRT These bacteria are all around us in the environment

26 KRT Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology - 2nd ed Vol. 1 Archae & Deeply Branching & Phototrophic Bacteria Vol. 2 Proteobacteria Vol. 3 The Low G+C Gram-positive Bacteria Vol. 4 The High G+C Gram-positive Bacteria Vol. 5 The Planctomycetes, Spirochaetes, Fibrobacteria Bacteroidetes & Fusobacteria

27 KRT Archae - archaebacteria Diverse morphologically rods, cocci, spirilli, pleomorphic Gram- positive or Gram-negative Diverse metabolically aerobes, facultative anaerobes, strict anaerobes inorganic to organic electron sources psychrophiles, mesophiles, thermophiles ether-linked lipids some produce methane most thermophiles Cell wall Molecular - some characteristics like bacteria some characteristics like eukaryotes

28 KRT Prokaryotic cell Shapes: rod (bacillus, bacilli) sphere (coccus, cocci) spiral (spirillum, spirilli) pleomorphic Cell arrangement: single cell pairs (diplococcus) chains clusters

29 KRT Prokaryotic cell structure Capsule - external carbohydrate (protection, adhesion)

30 KRT Prokaryotic cell structure Capsule Flagellum -(motility; antigenic)

31 KRT Prokaryotic cell structure Capsule Flagellum Fimbria (fimbriae) &: Pilus (pili) - tubules (attachment; DNA transfer) Cell wall - mucopeptide (rigidity; protection) Gram-positive & Gram-negative Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Cell membrane - (permeability, transport) osmosis & osmotic pressure Cytoplasm

32 KRT Prokaryotic cell structure Capsule Flagellum Fimbria (fimbriae) & Pilus (pili) Cell wall Cell membrane Cytoplasm Endospore - hardy, resistant structure (survival)

33 KRT Prokaryotic Cells  Simplest organisms –Cytoplasm is surrounded by plasma membrane and encased in a rigid cell wall composed of peptidoglycan.  no distinct interior compartments –gram-positive – thick single layer wall that retains a violet dye from Gram stain procedure –gram-negative – multilayered wall does not retain dye  Susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics depends on cell wall structure.

34 KRT SPIROCHETES helical rods with axial filament motile habitat: mud to intestinal tract metabolism: chemoheterotrophs aerobic to anaerobic saprophytes to obligate parasites Treponema pallidum - syphillis T. partenue - yaws Borellia burgdorferi - Lyme disease Leptospira - leptospirosis

35 KRT HELICAL or VIBROID Gram-negative Bacteria helical to comma shaped rods Campylobacter fetus - spontaneous abortion C. jejuni - food-borne intestinal disease Helicobacter pylori - ulcers

36 KRT ANAEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE STRAIGHT, CURVED AND HELICAL RODS Bacteroides - peritonitis

37 KRT GRAM-NEGATIVE AEROBIC RODS AND COCCI Pseudomonadaceae Azotobacteriaceae Rhizobiaceae Legionellaceae Neisseriaceae Unknown affiliation: Brucella, Bordatella, Francisella

38 KRT FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC GRAM-NEGATIVE RODS Enterobacteriaceae Escherichia Serratia Salmonella Proteus Shigella Yersinia Klebsiella Vibrionaceae Vibrio Pasteurellaceae Pasteurella Hemophilus Uncertain affiliation Gardnerella

39 KRT RICKETTSIALES AND CHLAMYDIALES Gram-negative Obligate intracellular parasites Rickettsia insect vector Chlamydia sexually transmitted MYCOPLASMAno rigid wall - soft skin triple layered membrane pleomorphic Mycoplasma

40 KRT GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI Micrococcaceae Aerobic to facultatively anaerobic Single cell to irregular clusters Staphylococcus Streptococcaceae Anaerobic Pairs to chains “Lactic acid bacteria” Streptococcus

41 KRT ENDOSPORE -FORMING GRAM-POSITIVE RODS & COCCI Large rod shaped cells Grow in chains Produce hardy, resistant endospore Bacillus - aerobic Clostridium - anaerobic

42 KRT REGULAR NON-SPORING GRAM-POSITIVE RODS Lactobacillus Listeria IRREGULAR NON-SPORING GRAM-POSITIVE RODS cells pleomorphic: club-shaped, spindle-shaped, dumbells Corynebacterium Actinomyces

43 KRT MYCOBACTERIA Rod-shaped cells Aerobic Non-motile Waxy coat; don’t stain readily Acid-fast Mycobacterium M. tuberculosis M. leprae

44 KRT Some bacteria cause disease  Exotoxins – poisons secreted by bacteria (staphylococcus aureaus can cause toxic shock syndrome, also toxic strains of e. coli)  Endotoxins – poisonous glycolipid components of the cell wall of some bacteria. (salmonella – food poisoning or typhoid fever  Sanitation, antibiotics and education have stopped much fatality (e.g. Lyme disease)

45 KRT Most bacteria is not harmful In fact, many are extremely beneficial.  They…..  flavor cheese and make yogurt  help us digest food Treat sewage Decompose dead plants and animals Help create healthy soil for growing crops

46 KRT Prokaryotes help recycle chemicals and clean up the environment  Cyanobacteria can convert nitrogen gas to nitrogen compounds plants can use  Live on the roots of legumes and contribute nitrogen to the soil  Breakdown of organic wastes and dead organisms to chemicals other organisms can use  Decompose organic matter in sewage sludge to material that can be used as landfill or fertilizer  “oil-eating” bacteria  Accumulate metals from mine waters

47 KRT Rhizobium are symbiotic bacteria in root nodules Rhizobium fix nitrogen ( N 2 ) into ammonium Rhizobium and plants are species specific Legumes are crops with Root nodules – Clover, peas, alfalfa

48 KRT Figure 37.10x Nodules

49 KRT Viruses Viruses are the tiniest of the microorganisms

50 KRT Viruses cannot reproduce without taking over a host cell There is still discussion as to whether they are really living things Some are helpful to us, others cause disease

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52 KRT Prokaryotic Cells  Some use flagellum for locomotion –threadlike structures protruding from cell surface Bacterial cell wall Flagellin Rotary motor Sheath

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54 KRT Eukaryotic cell structure   Cell membrane or Plasma membrane   Cytoplasm Organelles - organized membranous components: Endoplasmic reticulum (smooth, rough) Golgi complex Lysosomes (not in plant cells) Mitochondrion (mitochondria) Plastids (chloroplast) Nucleus: Chromosomes Nucleolus

55 KRT Eukaryotic Cells  Characterized by compartmentalization by an endomembrane system, and the presence of membrane-bound organelles. –Central vacuole – plants, storage –Vesicles (smaller) –Chromosomes - DNA and protein –Cytoskeleton (internal protein scaffolding) –Cell walls – plants and fungi

56 KRT All life on earth depends on plants. Without plants ecosystems would soon grind to a halt. Animals (and fungi) are parasitic on plants.

57 KRT Basics Plants (like animals and fungi) are eukaryotes. Plants are primitively photosynthetic, relying on organelles called chloroplasts to capture light energy. (A few plants have lost this ability and are parasitic on other plants). Most have highly structured bodies, with green material growing upwards and roots growing down. Their cell walls are reinforced with tough polymers, notably cellulose and lignin. All are capable of sexual reproduction, and their classification is heavily based on studies of their reproductive organs. All exhibit a phenomenon called alternation of generations, which you may well be unaware of and which we will look at closely later in the lecture.

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59 KRT Taxonomy - definitions Plants are widely taken to be the green things that make flowers Kingdom Plantae – algae, mosses, ferns, conifers, flowering plants In fact the boundaries are rather unclear, especially at the single-celled level. Modern taxonomies do no try to shoehorn unicellular eukaryotes into kingdoms alongside multicellular forms but prefer to handle them as a distinct group (with 27 phyla at the last count). Within plants, the term ‘alga’ is not a monophyletic group, with red alga very different to brown and green classes.

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61 KRT Taksonomi Tumbuhan Rendah (Cryptogamae) (Tumbuhan yang berkembang biak dengan Spora)  Tahun 1880 diperkenalkan suatu sistem yang membagi Cryptogamae menjadi Thallophyta, Bryophyta (berbagai jenis Lumut), Pteridophyta (Tumbuhan Paku).  Ciri : -Sel telah berinti, tetapi belum berdeferensiasi (belum punya berkas pengangkut) - Sporangia dan gametangianya belum diselubungi oleh dinding sel.  Thallophyta (Tumbuhan Thallus): terdiri dari dua anak kelas Algae dan Fungi dibedakan dari Bryophyta dan Pteridophyta berdasarkan pada struktur alat penghasil spora dan gamet serta perkembangan zigotnya.

62 KRT Algae An Overview

63 KRT Algae  Algae are a type of protist that usually live in water and can produce their own food.

64 KRT Some algae can be large, others are microscopic

65 KRT Characteristics  Range in size from microscopic to single celled organisms to large seaweed  Autotrophic  Form the reproductive structures – gametangia or gamete chambers  Aquatic and have flagella at some point in life  Often contain pyrenoids, organelles that synthesis and store starch

66 KRT STRUCTURE  Thallus (haploid)  Four types of algae –Unicellular –Colonial –Filamentous –multicellular

67 KRT IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF ALGAE

68 KRT CLASSIFICATION OF ALGAE  SEVEN PHYLUM/DIVISION BASED ON: –COLOR –TYPE OF CHLOROPHYLL –FOOD-STORAGE SUBSTANCE –CELL WALL COMPOSITION  PHYLUM/DIVISION: 1. CYANOPHYTA  MONERA 2. CHRYSOPHYTA  PROTISTA  Unicellular Eukaryote 3. PYRROPHYTA  PROTISTA  Unicellular Eukaryote 4. EUGLENOPHYTA 5. CHLOROPHYTA 6. PHAEOPHYTA 7. RHODOPHYTA

69 KRT Algae can be Red Brown Yellow Or Green

70 KRT Algae are important to the ocean’s ecosystem They provide food for Fish Whales  sea animals

71 KRT Protozoans Protazoans are microsopic organisms that usually live in water

72 KRT Movement Protozoans move through their environment in different ways

73 KRT Cilia Cilia are hair like structures that wave back an forth moving the protozoan back and forth

74 KRT A 3-d Image of cilia

75 KRT Flagela A tail like structure that propels and can capture prey

76 KRT Psudopods Little “ feet” that move and pull the creature as it moves

77 KRT Microorganisms Require food, air and a way to dispose of waste Are found everywhere

78 KRT REPRODUCTION MOST REPRODUCE BOTH SEXUALLY AND ASEXUALLY –Most sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental stress –Asexual Reproduction  Mitosis –Sexual Reproduction  Meiosis  Zoospores  Plus and minus gametes  Zygospore

79 KRT Reproduction in Multicellular Algae  Oedogonium reproduction –Antheridium-release flagellated sperm that swim to the oogonium –Oogonium-houses the zygote which is a diploid spore  The spore undergoes meiosis and produces 4 haploid zoospores. One of the four cells becomes a rootlike holdfast the others divide and become a new filament. oogonium

80 KRT holdfast

81 KRT Spirogyra reproduce sexually by conjugation

82 KRT Ulva Reproduces by Alternation of Generations  Two distinct multicellular phases- one is haploid and the other is diploid –Gametophyte is haploid –Sporophyte is diploid

83 KRT Algae mempunyai bermacam-macam bentuk tubuh:  Bentuk uniseluler: bentuk uniseluler yang berflagela dan yang tidak berflagela.  Bentuk multiseluler Reproduksi Vegetatif: fragmentasi, pembelahan sel, pembentukan hormogonia. Aseksual: pembentukan mitospora, zoospora, aplanospora, hipnospora, stadium pamela. Seksual: isogami, heterogami yang terdiri dari anisogami dan oogami, aplanogami, autogami.

84 KRT Protists – Unicellular eukaryotes  More complicated than any prokaryotes  Membrane-enclosed nucleus containing multiple chromosomes  Organelles characteristic of eukaryotes  Eukaryotic flagella and cilia  Classified into 5 kingdoms or more

85 KRT Protozoa – Protists that ingest their food  Giardia – flagellate that lives in the human intestine and can cause cramps and diarrhea  Trypanosoma – live in the blood stream of vertebrate animals cause African sleeping sickness  Amoebas – large group use pseudopodia to ingest food  Plasmodium – feeds on red blood cells and causes malaria

86 KRT Algae – photosynthetic protists  Dinoflagellate blooms can cause red tide  Diatoms are unicellular and very abundant in freshwater and marine environments. Important food source for marine animals  Green algae – cells resemble biflagellated gametes of many multicellular algae and some plants, have cellulose cell walls, use starch to store food and have chloroplasts

87 KRT Ciri-ciri : -Bersifat uniselular, dinding sel terdiri atas pektin yang lunak -Selnya berinti, kromatofora mengandung klorofil a, karotin, santofil dan suatu karotenoid yang menyerupai fikosantin. -Sebagian besar bersifat autotrof, kecuali yang tidak berwarna : heterotrof. -Tempat hidup : air laut dan air tawar (sering melekat pada tumbuhan air). Divisio :Chrysophyta (Termasuk Protista)

88 KRT Phylum Euglenophyta  1000 species of Euglenoids  Have both plantlike and animal-like characteristics  Fresh water

89 KRT Phylum Chlorophyta  Green algae  7000 diverse species  Biologist reason that green algae give rise to land plants.  Both green algae and land plants have chlorophyll a and B as well as carotenoids and store food as starch  Both have walls made of cellulose

90 KRT Ciri-ciri 1. Pigmen, khlorofil a dan b, serta karoten. Khlorofil terdapat dalam jumlah yang banyak sehingga ganggang ini berwarna hijau 2. Hasil fotosintesis berupa amilum dan tersimpan dalam khloroplas. 3. Khloroplas berjumlah satu atau lebih; berbentuk mangkuk, bintang, lensa, bulat, pita, spiral 4. Sel mempunyai 2 atau 4 flagela sama panjang. 5. Dinding sel mengandung selulose. 6. Perkembangbiakan: aseksual dengan Zoospora dan seksual dengan anisogami Tempat hidup Sebagian besar ( ± 90%) merupakan algae air tawar terdapat pula di tanah atau di dinding tembok yang lembab, di atas batang pohon dan dapat pula sebagai epifil (pada permukaan daun). Divisio: Chlorophyta Ganggang Hijau

91 KRT Phylum Phaeophyta Phylum Phaeophyta  1500 species of Brown algae  Mostly marine and include seaweed and kelp  All are multicellular and large (often reaching lengths of 147 feet)  Individual alga may grow to a length of 100m with a holdfast, stipe and blade  Used in cosmetics and most ice creams

92 KRT Ciri-ciri -Tubuh selalu berupa talus yang multiseluler yang berbentuk filamen, lembaran atau menyerupai semak/pohon yang dapat mencapai beberapa puluh meter, terutama jenis-jenis yang hidup di lautan daerah beriklim dingin. -Bersel banyak dan berwarna pirang (fikosantin) -Kromatofora mengandung klorofil a, karotin, xantofil, dan fikosantin. Tempat hidup Sebagian besar hidup di laut hanya ada beberapa jenis saja yang hidup di air tawar. Divisio: Phaeophyta Ganggang Coklat

93 KRT Phylum Rhodophyta  4000 species of RED Algae  Most are marine  Smaller than brown algae and are often found at a depth of 200 meters.  Contain chlorophyll a and C as well as phycobilins which are important in absorbing light that can penetrate deep into the water  Have cells coated in carageenan which is used in cosmetics, gelatin capsules and some cheeses

94 KRT Ciri-ciri 1.Sel mempunyai dinding yang terdiri dari selulose. Rhodophyceae tidak pernah menghasilkan sel-sel berflagela. 2. Pigmen Khlorofil: terdiri dari khlorofil a, karotenoid, fikoeritrin dan fikosianin yang sering disebut pigmen aksesoris. - karoten Pigmen-pigmen tersebut terdapat dalam kloroplas 3. Cadangan makanan berupa tepung floride (hasil polimerase dari glukosa) dan terdapat diluar khloroplas. 4. Talus Hampir semuanya multiseluler, hanya 2 marga saja yang uniseluler. Talus yang multiseluler berbentuk filamen silinder ataupun helaian. Talus umumnya melekat pada substrat dengan perantaraan alat pelekat. 5.Habitat : laut yang dalam Divisio: Rhodophyta (Ganggang Merah)

95 KRT Other Phylum Representatives Diatoms – used in detergents, paint removers, toothpaste Dinoflagellates – red tides Important in the formation of petroleum products Golden algae

96 KRT Seaweeds are a multicellular marine algae  Lack true stems, leaves, roots and internal tubes that transport nutrients and water in most plants  Brown algae, red algae, and multicellular green algae may be members of 3 separate kingdoms

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98 KRT Fungi Fungi (jamur, cendawan) Ciri-ciri:   Tidak berklorofil : tidak berfotosintesis   Tubuhnya mempunyai benang-benang hifa   Perkembangbiakan : vegetatif : dengan spora, generatif, dengan isogami, anisogami, oogami, gametangiogami dan somatogami   Hidup secara heterotrof sebagai saprofit atau parasit   Jarang hidup di air, kebanyakan di daratan.

99 KRT Funguslike Protist Cellular Slime molds

100 KRT Cellular slime molds  Have both unicellular and multicellular life stages

101 KRT Plasmodial Slime Molds

102 KRT Plasmodial slime molds  Common everywhere there is moist and decaying matter  Large and branching, but not multicellular. The weblike form increases the surface area to contact food water and oxygen  When food is is scarce it addapts the reproductive structures at the bottom

103 KRT Water Molds

104 KRT THERE’S FUNGUS AMONG US THERE’S FUNGUS AMONG US  Look into the eye.  Look deep into the eye.  There are no such things as molds. –All molds are actually fungi.

105 KRT That's a bunch of fungus.  That is a bit surprising. We had always heard about mold in the shower or mold on the bread.

106 KRT Mold is actually a type of fungus.  It has a shape called a zygote to be exact. While yeasts are single celled fungi, molds are multicellular fungi  Bread takes one kind of fungus (yeast) to make it rise.  If you leave the bread out, another type of fungus comes in (bread mold) to break it down. It's not amazing, but it's true.

107 KRT Let's look at Club Fungi Mushrooms!

108 KRT So what is a mushroom exactly? It is bunches of strands living underground called hyphae (pronounced hi-fah). Those strands are the basic fungus in action, decomposing leaves, or rotting bark on the ground.

109 KRT When it's time to reproduce, they develop a stalk and cap,the mushroom that you see popping out of the ground.

110 KRT  It's only one part of the fungus. On the bottom of that cap are a set of gills that have little clubs with fungus spores.

111 KRT ZYGOTES We already talked a little about mold. That is only one example of the Zygote Fungi. These have hyphae-like mushrooms but they reproduce in a different way. When it's time to make more fungi, they create a stalk and release something called zygospores (thus the name zygote). These have hyphae-like mushrooms but they reproduce in a different way. When it's time to make more fungi, they create a stalk and release something called zygospores (thus the name zygote).

112 KRT  When your bread gets old and green or black, you are seeing a type of zygote fungus in action. If you wait long enough, you will see the stalks develop and the zygotes released.

113 KRT SINGLE CELLS  Now lets look at Sac Fungi, simple, single celled fungi.

114 KRT Fungi  Heterotrophic – they cannot make their own food molecules  Some like mycorrhizae absorb essential minerals from the soil needed by plants  About 80% of plant disease is caused by fungi which are parasites  Many decompose organic matter

115 KRT Fungi absorb food after digesting it outside their bodies  Secrete powerful enzymes that digest their food externally then absorb the nutrient molecules  Multicellular except yeast  Mycelium is a feeding network of hyphae  Mushroom is just the above ground reproductive structure of a much more extensive underground mycelium  Not celllulose cell walls, but chitin which is a polymer of a nitrogen- containing sugar  No flagellated cells in their life cycle

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117 KRT Lichens – fungi living mutualistically with photosynthetic organisms  The mutualistic merger is so complete they are actually named as a species  Gives the two organisms the ability to survive in habitats that are inhospitable to either alone  Can tolerate severe cold, withstand severe drought but sensitive to air pollutants

118 KRT Mycorrhizae are symbiotic / mutual fungi on roots Mycorrhizae: a)increase surface area of roots b)produce antibiotics to ward off competing plants c) Are specie specific to plants d) Helped plants evolve on land e) Seeds exposed to fungi spores grow better The plant provides carbohydrates to the fungus

119 KRT , I am not mold ! I am not rotting you! I am Mycorrhizae, I am a fun guy

120 KRT Fungi have enormous ecological impact  Decomposers and recyclers of organic matter  Used to ripen cheese  Yeasts used in baking, brewing and winemaking  Produce antibiotics  As well as the mutualistic partners in mycorrhizae and lichens

121 KRT YEAST YEAST Yeast is used to make several types of food for humans. We need yeast to make breads. We also use them to make alcohol. It's a whole process called fermentation.

122 KRT Some fungi are beneficial.  Sugars are broken down in an environment without oxygen. It's called anaerobic fermentation. And voila, alcohol. Even though they are single celled, you may find them in colonies. They reproduce very quickly and hang out together. It takes a lot of them (because they are so small) to get a lot of work done

123 KRT Parasitic fungi  Corn smut, Dutch elm disease and botrytis  Some of the fungi that attach food crops are toxic to humans  LSD is from the toxin in ergots in grain crops  Mycosis – fungal infection (ringworm, athlete’s foot, vaginal yeast infections)

124 KRT Plant diversity is a nonrenewable resource

125 KRT Antibiotics  one of the first antibiotics was called penicillin. It was developed from a fungus (a fungus named Penicillium found on an orange, to be exact).

126 KRT Bryophytes (mosses, liverworts) Pteridophytes Ferns and allies Gymnosperms: Conifers, cycads etc Angiosperms: Flowering plants Vascular tissues (tracheids or derivatives) Seeds Carboniferous 350MYBP Devonian 400MYBP Mesozoic 120MYBP Classification of the plants we will cover in this course.

127 KRT Nonvascular Plants  Bryophytes  Fewer than 19,000 species  Three groups LiverwortsHornwortsMosses

128 KRT Bryophytes  Includes mosses  Have a cuticle and embryos retained on the parent plant  Lack vascular tissue, but some have water- conducting tubes  Lack internal support  Plants grow in a tight pack holding each other up  Flagellated sperm must swim

129 KRT Bryophytes  Small, nonvascular, nonwooody  Gametophyte dominates life cycle; has leaflike, stemlike, and rootlike parts  Usually live in wet habitats  Flagellated sperm require water to reach eggs

130 KRT Bryophytes These are the mosses and liverworts, both relatively common well- known groups of non-flowering plants typical of permanently damp areas. (Actually a few specialise in dry open sites – fire sites, bare concrete etc). The dominant phase is a leafy form (the gametophyte), which is genetically different to the stalked pods that produce its spores. A typical moss, showing the spore capsule, which is a genetically different plant to the green fronds from which it grows. (More later..)

131 KRT Types of Bryophytes Mosses (most common) Liverworts (simplest) Hornworts

132 KRT The hepatica: Liverworts. These also make genetically distinct spore-dispersing individuals, but here the spores are dispersed from an umbrella-like structure, while the main plant (the gametophyte) is generally flattened, plate-like. The common liverwort Marchantia sporophytes c. 2 cm

133 KRT Marchantia: A Liverwort  Reproduces asexually by gemmae  Gametophytes are male or female Female gametophyte Do not post on Internet Figure 23.7 Page 389

134 KRT Moss Life Cycle Zygote grows, develops into a sporophyte while still attached to gametophyte. Fertilization zygote sperm- producing structure egg- producing structure Diploid Stage Haploid Stage mature sporophyte Meiosis Spores germinate. male gametophyte female gametophyte Figure 23.5 Page 388

135 KRT Peat Mosses  350 species  Sphagnum is an example  Grow in acidic bogs; important ecosystems of cold and temperate regions  Peat can be harvested and burned as fuel

136 KRT Tumbuhan lumut (Bryophyta)  merupakan sekumpulan tumbuhan kecil yang termasuk dalam divisio Bryophyta (dari bahasa Yunani bryum, "lumut").divisiobahasa Yunani  Tumbuhan ini tingkatannya lebih tinggi dari Thallophyta dengan habitus yang ber-macam2. -Warna hijau 9klorofil a dan b) -Selnya berdinding terdiri dari selulosa -Alat kelamin terdiri atas anteridium dan arkegonium - Terdiri dari lumut daun (musci) dan lumut hati (hepaticae)  organ penyerap haranya adalah rizoid (: "serupa akar"). Daun tumbuhan lumut dapat berfotosintesis. Tumbuhan lumut merupakan tumbuhan pelopor, yang tumbuh di suatu tempat sebelum tumbuhan lain mampu tumbuh.rizoid

137 KRT Perkembangbiakan Tumbuhan lumut mengalami pergiliran keturunan dalam daur hidupnya. Apa yang dikenal orang sebagai tumbuhan lumut merupakan tahap gametofit (tumbuhan penghasil gamet) yang haploid (x = n). Dengan demikian, terdapat tumbuhan lumut jantan dan betina karena satu tumbuhan tidak dapat menghasilkan dua sel kelamin sekaligus.pergiliran keturunandaur hidupnyagametofithaploid Sel-sel kelamin jantan (sel sperma) dihasilkan dari anteridium dan sel-sel kelamin betina (sel telur atau ovum) terletak di dalam arkegonium. Kedua organ penghasil sel kelamin ini terletak di bagian puncak dari tumbuhan. Anteridium yang masak akan melepas sel-sel sperma. Sel-sel sperma berenang (pembuahan terjadi apabila kondisi lingkungan basah) menuju arkegonium untuk membuahi ovum.anteridiumarkegonium Ovum yang terbuahi akan tumbuh menjadi sporofit yang tidak mandiri karena hidupnya disokong oleh gametofit. Sporofit ini diploid (x = 2n) dan berusia pendek (3-6 bulan untuk mencapai tahap kemasakan). Sporofit akan membentuk kapsula yang disebut sporogonium pada bagian ujung. Sporogonium berisi spora haploid yang dibentuk melalui meiosis. Sporogonium masak akan melepaskan spora. Spora tumbuh menjadi suatu berkas-berkas yang disebut protonema. Berkas-berkas ini tumbuh meluas dan pada tahap tertentu akan menumbuhkan gametofit baru.sporofitgametofitdiploidmeiosisprotonema

138 KRT Vascular Plants  Majority of plants  Have internal tissues that carry water and solutes  Two groups –Seedless vascular plants –Seed-bearing vascular plants

139 KRT Seedless Vascular Plants  Arose during the Devonian  Produce spores but no seeds  Four main groups Whisk ferns LycophytesHorsetailsFerns

140 KRT Seedless vascular plants  Includes ferns  Well-developed roots and rigid stems  Flagellated sperm that require water to reach eggs  In many species the leaves sprout from stems that grow along the ground (fiddleheads)

141 KRT Seedless Vascular Plants  Like bryophytes –Live in wet, humid places –Require water for fertilization  Unlike bryophytes –Sporophyte is free-living and has vascular tissues

142 KRT Seedless Vascular Plants Seedless Vascular Plants Lycophytes (Lycophyta) Whisk ferns (Psilophyta) Horsetails (Sphenophyta) Ferns (Pterophyta)

143 KRT Pteridophytes: ferns, horsetails, club mosses and allies. Pteridophytes are the group of plants which first (as far as we can tell…) developed the tracheid cells which permit stems to rise high above any water supply, and as such were the first colonists of dry land, at least 400 MYBP. We have a good fossil record of them (in fact our industry has depended on burning this fossil record since the inception of the industrial revolution!). The facets which fossilise show that apart from the extinction of the giant forms, this group has changed little since the Devonian. Like mosses these plants have two genetically distinct phases in their life cycle, but here the dominant phase is the sporophyte, the familiar fern leaves etc.

144 KRT Ferns These are ancient but still successful forms, in which the spore-bearing stage is very familiar. Bracken Pteridium aquilinum is one of the most widespread and pernicious weeds on the planet! We still have tree ferns, native to Gondwanaland (Australasia, South America, Africa) but now widely planted in tropical, subtropical and frost-free temperate areas. In all cases spores are shed from the underside of the leaves (fronds). Bracken Pteridium aquilinum A tree fern Dicksonia antarctica

145 KRT Ferns (Pterophyta)  12,000 species, mostly tropical  Most common sporophyte structure –Perennial underground stem (rhizome) –Roots and fronds arise from rhizome –Young fronds are coiled “fiddleheads” –Mature fronds divided into leaflets –Spores form on lower surface of some fronds

146 KRT Fern Life Cycle Spores are released Sporophyte still attached to gametophyte zygote fertilization Diploid Stage Haploid Stage egg sperm mature gametophyte Spores develop meiosis Spore germinates rhizome sorus Figure 23.9 Page 391

147 KRT Horsetails (Sphenophyta): Equisetacea These plants are every-day miracles. There are only about 15 species in the world, all in the genus Equisetum. It has changed hardly at all since the carboniferous period. I know of a Carboniferous site in Yorkshire where one can find 2m high horsetails still standing, fossilised in a cliff, looking exactly like living forms (only rather bigger, though giant horsetail E. telmateia can grow nearly this tall). Also known as Lego plants, because the stems comes apart at the nodes.

148 KRT The needle-like leaves are reinforced with silica, and have been used as pan scrubs. Few animals find them palatable. For all their ancientness and oddity they are a serious weed, with immensely deep root systems and an ability to shrug off herbicides. Gardeners’ Question Time (BBC) advice on how to respond to horsetails in your garden Sell your house, in winter when the stems aren’t visible. Horsetails, contd.

149 KRT Club mosses (Lycophyta): Lycopodiacea These rather nondescript crawling plants are nowadays confined to a minor role in northern forests on acid soils. Present in the UK but easily overlooked. The sole survivors of a large group including vast forest- forming trees in the carboniferous, the first terrestrial forests. The have a vascular system, and always one vein running along the leaf axis.

150 KRT PteridophytaPteridophyta / Filicophyta (Tumbuhan paku / paku-pakuan ) Daur hidup (metagenesis) : - Daur hidup tumbuhan paku : pergiliran keturunan, yang terdiri dari dua fase utama:gametofit dan sporofit. Tumbuhan paku yang mudah kita lihat merupakan bentuk fase sporofit karena menghasilkan spora. Bentuk generasi fase gametofit dinamakan protalus (prothallus) atau protalium (prothallium), yang berwujud tumbuhan kecil berupa lembaran berwarna hijau, mirip lumut hati, tidak berakar (tetapi memiliki rizoid sebagai penggantinya), tidak berbatang, tidak berdaun.pergiliran keturunangametofitsporofit sporarizoid -Prothallium tumbuh dari spora yang jatuh di tempat yang lembab. Dari prothallium berkembang anteridium (antheridium, organ penghasil spermatozoid atau sel kelamin jantan) dan arkegonium (archegonium, organ penghasil ovum atau sel telur). Pembuahan mutlak memerlukan bantuan air sebagai media spermatozoid berpindah menuju archegonium. - Ovum yang terbuahi berkembang menjadi zigot, yang tumbuh menjadi tumbuhan paku Setelah terjadi pembuahan (zigot berkembang), protalium hilangzigot

151 KRT Morfologi -Akar yang tumbuh pertama tidak dominan, disusul akar lain yang tumbuh dari batang -Batang bercabang, menggarpu -Dapat berbentuk semak, pohon sampai beberapa meter. -Ukuran daun bervariasi sampai 6 m;pada umumnya berdaun majemuk;” tipe daun kecil, tidak bertangkai dan hanya mempunyai satu tulang daun, tersusun rapat menurut garis spiral (Lycopsida=paku kawat)”. Perkembangbiakan : vegetatif : spora - Sporangium dan spora terdapat pada daun-daun khusus : sporofil (sering terkumpul membentuk alat yang menyerupai bunga pada Spermatophyta).

152 KRT Berdasarkan klasifikasi baru (Smith et al., 2006), tumbuhan paku dapat dikelompokkan sebagai berikut: Divisio: Lycophyta dengan satu kelas: Lycopsida. Divisio: Pteridophyta dengan empat kelas :  Psilotopsida, mencakup Ophioglossales.  Equisetopsida  Marattiopsida  Polypodiopsida (=Pteridopsida, Filicopsida)

153 KRT KelasKelas PsilotopsidaPsilotopsida BangsaBangsa OphioglossalesOphioglossales SukuSuku Ophioglossaceae (termasuk Botrychiaceae, Helminthostachyaceae)OphioglossaceaeBotrychiaceae Helminthostachyaceae Bangsa PsilotalesPsilotales Suku Psilotaceae (termasuk Tmesipteridaceae)PsilotaceaeTmesipteridaceae Kelas Equisetopsida [=Sphenopsida]Equisetopsida Bangsa EquisetalesEquisetales Suku EquisetaceaeEquisetaceae Kelas MarattiopsidaMarattiopsida Bangsa MarattialesMarattiales Suku Marattiaceae (termasuk Angiopteridaceae, Christenseniaceae, Danaeaceae, Kaulfussiaceae)MarattiaceaeAngiopteridaceaeChristenseniaceae DanaeaceaeKaulfussiaceae Kelas Polypodiopsida [=Filicopsida, Pteridopsida]Polypodiopsida Bangsa OsmundalesOsmundales Suku OsmundaceaeOsmundaceae Bangsa HymenophyllalesHymenophyllales Suku Hymenophyllaceae (termasuk Trichomanaceae)HymenophyllaceaeTrichomanaceae Bangsa GleichenialesGleicheniales Suku Gleicheniaceae (termasuk Dicranopteridaceae, Stromatopteridaceae)GleicheniaceaeDicranopteridaceae Stromatopteridaceae Suku Dipteridaceae (termasuk Cheiropleuriaceae)DipteridaceaeCheiropleuriaceae Suku MatoniaceaeMatoniaceae

154 KRT Bangsa SchizaealesSchizaeales Suku LygodiaceaeLygodiaceae Suku Anemiaceae (termasuk Mohriaceae)AnemiaceaeMohriaceae Suku SchizaeaceaeSchizaeaceae Bangsa SalvinialesSalviniales Suku Marsileaceae (termasuk Pilulariaceae)MarsileaceaePilulariaceae Suku Salviniaceae (termasuk Azollaceae)SalviniaceaeAzollaceae Bangsa CyathealesCyatheales Suku ThyrsopteridaceaeThyrsopteridaceae Suku LoxomataceaeLoxomataceae Suku CulcitaceaeCulcitaceae Suku PlagiogyriaceaePlagiogyriaceae Suku CibotiaceaeCibotiaceae Suku Cyatheaceae (termasuk Alsophilaceae, Hymenophyllopsidaceae)CyatheaceaeAlsophilaceae Hymenophyllopsidaceae Suku Dicksoniaceae (termasuk Lophosoriaceae)DicksoniaceaeLophosoriaceae Suku MetaxyaceaeMetaxyaceae Bangsa PolypodialesPolypodiales Suku Lindsaeaceae (termasuk Cystodiaceae, Lonchitidaceae)LindsaeaceaeCystodiaceae Lonchitidaceae Suku SaccolomataceaeSaccolomataceae Suku Dennstaedtiaceae (termasuk Hypolepidaceae, Monachosoraceae, Pteridiaceae)DennstaedtiaceaeHypolepidaceae MonachosoraceaePteridiaceae

155 KRT Suku Pteridaceae (termasuk Acrostichaceae, Actiniopteridaceae, Adiantaceae, Anopteraceae, Antrophyaceae, Ceratopteridaceae, Cheilanthaceae, Cryptogrammaceae, Hemionitidaceae, Negripteridaceae, Parkeriaceae, Platyzomataceae, Sinopteridaceae, Taenitidaceae, Vittariaceae)PteridaceaeAcrostichaceae ActiniopteridaceaeAdiantaceaeAnopteraceae AntrophyaceaeCeratopteridaceaeCheilanthaceae CryptogrammaceaeHemionitidaceae NegripteridaceaeParkeriaceaePlatyzomataceae SinopteridaceaeTaenitidaceaeVittariaceae Suku AspleniaceaeAspleniaceae Suku ThelypteridaceaeThelypteridaceae Suku Woodsiaceae (termasuk Athyriaceae, Cystopteridaceae)WoodsiaceaeAthyriaceae Cystopteridaceae Suku Blechnaceae (termasuk Stenochlaenaceae)BlechnaceaeStenochlaenaceae Suku OnocleaceaeOnocleaceae Suku Dryopteridaceae (termasuk Aspidiaceae, Bolbitidaceae, Elaphoglossaceae, Hypodematiaceae, Peranemataceae)DryopteridaceaeAspidiaceae BolbitidaceaeElaphoglossaceaeHypodematiaceae Peranemataceae Suku Lomariopsidaceae (termasuk NephrolepidaceaeLomariopsidaceaeNephrolepidaceae

156 KRT Suku TectariaceaeTectariaceae Suku OleandraceaeOleandraceae Suku DavalliaceaeDavalliaceae Suku Polypodiaceae (termasuk Drynariaceae, Grammitidaceae, Gymnogrammitidaceae, Loxogrammaceae, Platyceriaceae, Pleurisoriopsidaceae)PolypodiaceaeDrynariaceae GrammitidaceaeGymnogrammitidaceae LoxogrammaceaePlatyceriaceae Pleurisoriopsidaceae

157 KRT Seed-Bearing Vascular Plants  Gymnosperms arose first –Cycads –Ginkgos –Gnetophytes –Conifers  Angiosperms arose later –Monocots –Dicots

158 KRT Evolutionary Trend zygote SPOROPHYTE (2n) GAMETOPHYTE (n) GREEN ALGABRYOPHYTEFERNGYMNOSPERMANGIOSPERM Figure 23.2 Page 386

159 KRT Traits of Seed-Bearing Plants  Pollen grains –Arise from megaspores –Develop into male gametophytes –Can be transported without water  Seeds –Embryo sporophyte inside nutritive tissues and a protective coat –Can withstand hostile conditions

160 KRT Rise of Seed-Bearing Plants Rise of Seed-Bearing Plants  Seeds appeared about 360 million years ago  Seed ferns and gymnosperms were dominant at first  Angiosperms arose later

161 KRT Carboniferous  Giant lycophytes and horsetails  Sea level rose and fell repeatedly  Remains of swamp forests were repeatedly submerged and compressed  Formation of coal

162 KRT Seed-Bearing Plants  Microspores that give rise to pollen grains  Megaspores inside ovules  More water-conserving than seedless vascular plants

163 KRT SPERMATOPHYTA -Tingkat perkembangan yang paling tinggi -Telah menghasilkan biji: tumbuhan berbiji (Spermatophyta) -Biji berasal dari bunga : Tumbuhan Berbunga (Anthophyta) -Dibagi menjadi 2 sub divisi: tumbuhan berbiji telanjang (Gymnospermae) dan berbiji tertutup = bakal biji terbungkus oleh karpela/daun buah (Angiospermae) - Angiospermae terdiri dari dua kelas : Dicotyledoneae (tumbuhan biji belah/memiliki dua daun lembaga) dan Monocotyledoneae ( mempunyai satu daun lembaga)

164 KRT Kesepakatan umum tentang bagaimana tumbuhan berbunga dikelompokkan mulai tercapai sejak hasil "Angiosperm Phylogeny Group" (APG) dikeluarkan pada tahun 1998 dan diperbaharui (update) pada tahun 2003 sebagai Sistem Klasifikasi APG II.Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Klasifikasi APG II -Jenisnya diperkirakan berkisar antara hingga yang dikelompokkan menjadi 462 suku/famili (APG, 1998). -Dari keseluruhan spesies: monokotil = 23% dikotil= 75%.

165 KRT Sepuluh besar suku tumbuhan menurut banyaknya jenis adalah sebagai berikut: AsteraceaeAsteraceae atau Compositae (suku kenikir-kenikiran): jeniskenikir OrchidaceaeOrchidaceae (suku anggrek-anggrekan): anggrek FabaceaeFabaceae atau Leguminosae (suku polong-polongan): polong RubiaceaeRubiaceae (suku kopi-kopian): kopi PoaceaePoaceae, Glumiflorae, atau Gramineae (suku rumput- rumputan): rumput LamiaceaeLamiaceae atau Labiatae (suku nilam-nilaman): 7.173nilam EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbiaceae (suku kastuba-kastubaan): 5.735kastuba CyperaceaeCyperaceae (suku teki-tekian): 4.350teki MalvaceaeMalvaceae (suku kapas-kapasan): 4.225kapas AraceaeAraceae (suku talas-talasan): 4.025talas Orchidaceae, Poaceae, Cyperaceae dan Araceae adalah monokotil.

166 KRT Kesepuluh suku di atas mencakup beragam jenis tumbuhan penting dalam kehidupan manusia, baik dalam bidang pertanian, kehutanan maupun industri.pertaniankehutananindustri Suku rumput-rumputan jelas merupakan suku terpenting karena menghasilkan berbagai sumber energi pangan bagi manusia dan ternak dari padi, gandum, jagung, juwawut, tebu, serta sorgum. Suku polong-polongan menempati tempat terpenting kedua, sebagai sumber protein nabati dan sayuran utama dan berbagai peran budaya lain (kayu, pewarna, dan racun). Suku nilam- nilaman beranggotakan banyak tumbuhan penghasil minyak atsiri dan bahan obat-obatan.panganternakpadigandumjagung juwawuttebusorgum proteinsayuran minyak atsiriobat-obatan

167 KRT Beberapa suku penting lainnya dalam kehidupan manusia adalah: - Solanaceae (suku terong-terongan), sebagai sumber pangan penting terutama sayuranSolanaceaeterong - Cucurbitaceae (suku labu-labuan), sebagai sumber sayuran pentingCucurbitaceaelabu - Brassicaceae atau Cruciferae (suku sawi-sawian), sebagai sumber sayuran dan minyak pangan pentingBrassicaceaesawi-sawian - Alliaceae (suku bawang-bawangan), sebagai sumber sayuran bumbu pentingAlliaceaebawang - Piperaceae (suku sirih-sirihan), sebagai sumber rempah-rempah penting.Piperaceaesirih - Arecaceae atau Palmae (suku pinang-pinangan), sebagai pendukung kehidupan penting masyarakat agraris daerah tropikaArecaceaepinang - Rutaceae (suku jeruk-jerukan), Rosaceae (suku mawar- mawaran), dan Myrtaceae (suku jambu-jambuan) banyak menghasilkan buah-buahan penting. -RutaceaejerukRosaceaeMyrtaceae

168 KRT Tumbuhan berbunga juga menjadi pemasok sumberdaya alam dalam bentuk kayu, kertas, serat (misalnya kapas, kapuk, and henep, serat manila), obat-obatan (digitalis, kamfer), tumbuhan hias (ruangan maupun terbuka), dan berbagai daftar panjang kegunaan lain.kayukertaskapaskapukhenep serat maniladigitaliskamfer

169 KRT Gymnosperms  Naked seed because it isn’t produced in a specialized chamber  Conifers – pine, spruce, and fir are the largest group

170 KRT Gymnosperms This group contains many well-known plants, including all coniferous trees (pines, larch, spruce etc), yews and allies, along with other ‘living fossils’ the cycads, plus a few simple plain oddities thrown in to keep botanists happy. Gymnosperm means ‘naked seed’, and indeed in this group the fertilised seed protrudes from the cone/aril. They have apparently lost the sporophyte generation (but see later), and are now trees which shed viable seed that germinates to make a new tree – the pattern of seed germination which we are familiar with. They have tracheids allowing water to be sucked to great heights: the this group contains probably the largest (Sequoia) and oldest (Bristlecone pine, Pinus aristata) organisms in the world.

171 KRT Gymnosperms Gymnosperms  Plants with “naked seeds”  Seeds don’t form inside an ovary  Four groups ConifersGinkgos CycadsGnetophytes

172 KRT Conifer Characteristics  Widest known, largest number of living species  Woody trees or shrubs  Most are evergreen  Bear seeds on exposed cone scales  Most produce woody cones

173 KRT Conifers Most people know one group of gymnosperms; the conifers. Literally the cone bearers – these are pines, spruces, larches, firs etc. Cones – correctly stobili (1 strobilus) are sexual organs either shedding pollen (male cones) or bearing ovaries, awaiting fertilisation by wind- blown pollen (female cones). In fact all gymnosperms, plus lycoods, have similar structures. You will meet the terms microsporangia (pollen- producing organs) and megasporangia (egg producing organs). Female pine cone male pine cone

174 KRT Cycads  Most diverse during age of dinosaurs  Only 100 living species  Palmlike appearance  Pollen-bearing and seed-bearing cones on different plants Do not post on Internet Figure 23.14e Page 394 Strobilus of a “female” cycad

175 KRT Cycads These plants look rather like stunted palms, or possibly rather tough tree ferns, but are neither. They are gymnosperms that have changed little since the Jurassic period, when they were dominant land cover and presumably staple food for herbivorous dinosaurs. Now they are thinly scattered in tropical areas, some highly endangered. Males and females plants are separate, using a wind- dispersed pollen to fertilise their cones. The male gamete is notable for using cilia to swim towards the egg (the ‘highest’ occurrence of cilia in the plant kingdom). Some cycads fix atmospheric nitrogen using a symbiosis with blue-green algae living in their stems and roots.

176 KRT Ginkgos  Diverse during age of dinosaurs  One surviving species, Ginkgo biloba  Deciduous trees are male or female Do not post photos on Internet Fig Page 395

177 KRT Ginkgo biloba – the wonderful discovery People had since the early days of fossil hunting been recovering well-preserved fossil leaves from Ancient (Jurassic and earlier) which looked like an unrolled pine needle. No living plant matched this pattern. Then in 1691 the German Engelbert Kaempfer discovered strange trees with exactly this unfamiliar leaf form in Japan, cultivated in temple gardens. They proved to be living specimens of Ginkgo, one male and one female. Thankfully their seed was fertile, and has now been widely propagated. The oldest in the UK is in Oxford botanic gardens (pruned and now rather small for its age). Generally males are planted as the female flower is rather sticky and smelly. (Sex is coded by an X-Y chromosome system, as in mammals).

178 KRT Genera of Gnetophytes  Gnetum  Welwitschia  Ephedra Sporophyte of Ephedra Do not post on Internet Figure 23.16a Page 395

179 KRT Welwitschia mirabilis This is certainly one of the strangest plants in the world, whose classification inside the gymnosperms has long been assumed but is confirmed by DNA analyses. It lives only in the Namib desert, South Africa, in a region where rain never falls. Instead it relies on the mist that condenses in coastal regions where cold currents from the southern oceans well up against the desert. Welwitschia has only 2 leaves, long strap-like ones that grow perpetually from their base while the ends become frayed and tatty. It is dioecious.

180 KRT Pine Cones Pine Cones  Woody scales of a “pine cone” are the parts where megaspores formed and developed into female gametophytes  Male cones, where microspores and pollen are produced, are not woody

181 KRT section through one ovule ovule surface view of one cone scale (houses two ovules) section through a pollen-producing sac surface view of one cone scale (houses a pollen-producing sac) meiosis fertilization seed coat embryo zygote mature sporophyte seeding pollen tube sperm- producing cell eggs female gametophyte pollination microspores form megaspores form seed Diploid Haploid Pine Life Cycle Figure Page 396

182 KRT Conifer Distribution  Reproduce more slowly than angiosperms; at competitive disadvantage in many habitats  Still dominate in far north, at higher elevations, and in certain parts of southern hemisphere

183 KRT Angiosperms  Flowering plants

184 KRT Angiosperms Angiosperms  Flowering plants  Dominant land plants (260,000 species)  Ovules and (after fertilization) seeds are enclosed in an ovary  Three main groups: magnoliids, monocots, and eudicots

185 KRT Angiosperm Evolutionary Tree basal groups Amborella water lilies star anise magnoliids monocots eudicots Figure 23.19a Page 398

186 KRT Double Fertilization  Distinctive feature of angiosperms  Male gametocyte delivers two sperm to an ovule  One fertilizes egg; other fertilizes a cell that gives rise to endosperm

187 KRT Flowering Plant Life Cycle Double fertilizationMeiosis microspores female gametophyte pollination mitosis without cytoplasmic division two sperm enter ovule Diploid Haploid Figure Page 399 sporophyte

188 KRT Angiosperms: Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons Flowering plants (phylum Anthophyta) come in two fundamentally different ‘designs’ or classes, known as the Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons. Or Monocots and Dicots in botanical jargon. Formally these are defined by the number of seed leaves, or cotyledons, that emerge when the seed 1 st germinates. In Monocotyledons it is 1, in Dicotyledons it is 2. Coinciding with this are a series of other characteristics which are so consistent that everyone seemed happy that these are monophyletic groups, splitting from the gymnosperms about 130 MYBP (early Cretaceous).

189 KRT CharacteristicMonocotDicot Flower partsUsually in threes, or Usually in fours or multiples of threesfives CotyledonsOneTwo Leaf venationUsually parallelUsually netlike Primary vascularComplex arrangementIn a ring bundles in stem True secondary growthAbsentCommonly with vascular cambiumpresent Angiosperm Classes: Monocots vs. Dicots

190 KRT Monocotyledons This truly monophyletic group contains all grasses, sedges, rushes, bamboo etc. Orchids. Pineapples and allies (the bromeliads). Lilies, and their succulent relatives Aloes. Few trees but including bananas and palms.

191 KRT Dicotyledons. Actually the eudicotyledons plus a few others… It is here that I have to confess to a certain oversimplification. Neat though the division was, recent (late 1990s) DNA work has shown that the group known as ‘Dicots’ consists of 4 groups, all as unrelated to each other as they are to the monocots. Fortunately, virtually all the ones you are likely to meet are in a good monophyletic group, now called the Eudicotyledons. (Sometimes DNA research makes a good simple system needlessly complicated..)

192 KRT Eudicotyledons Here we have most gardens flowers, all herbs, cacti, climbers, and most trees.

193 KRT People and Plants People and Plants  Plant domestication began about 11,000 years ago  About 3,000 species have been used as food  Now about 200 plants are major crops

194 KRT Nonfood Uses of Plants  Lumber, paper, and fuel  Furniture  Rope  Thatched roofing  Natural insecticides  Drugs

195 KRT Plants of Abuse  Tobacco plants are Nicotiana sp.  Cannabis sativa is source of marijuana  Coca leaves are used to produce cocaine  Toxic plant alkaloids, such as henbane and belladona, have been used as poisons and as medicine

196 KRT


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