WHAT IS HYDRO POWER? The objective of a hydropower scheme is to convert the potential energy of a mass of water, flowing in a stream with a certain fall to the turbine (termed the "head"), into electric energy at the lower end of the scheme, where the powerhouse is located. The power output from the scheme is proportional to the flow and to the head.
The movement of water can be used to make electricity. Energy from water is created by the force of water moving from a higher elevation to a lower elevation through a large pipe (penstock). When the water reaches the end of the pipe, it hits and spins a water wheel or turbine. The turbine rotates the connected shaft, which then turns the generator, making electricity.
PENSTOCK “conveying water from the intake to the power house”. The water in the reservoir is considered stored energy When the gate opens the water flowing through the penstock becomes kinetic energy because it is in motion. PENSTOCK “conveying water from the intake to the power house”. The water in the reservoir is considered stored energy When the gate opens the water flowing through the penstock becomes kinetic energy because it is in motion.
The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. The most common type of turbine for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine, which looks like a big disc with curved blades. The water strikes and turns the large blades of a turbine, which is attached to a generator above it by way of a shaft. The most common type of turbine for hydropower plants is the Francis Turbine, which looks like a big disc with curved blades.
Pelton turbines Large heads (from 100 meter to 1800 meter) Relatively small flow rate Maximum of 6 nozzles Good efficiency over a vide range
Kværner Jostedal, Norway *Q = 28,5 m 3 /s *H = 1130 m *P = 288 MW
Francis turbines Heads between 15 and 700 meter Heads between 15 and 700 meter Medium Flow Rates Medium Flow Rates Good efficiency =0.96 for modern machines Good efficiency =0.96 for modern machines
Kaplan turbines Low head (from 70 meter and down to 5 meter) Low head (from 70 meter and down to 5 meter) Large flow rates Large flow rates The runner vanes can be governed The runner vanes can be governed Good efficiency over a vide range Good efficiency over a vide range
As the turbine blades turn, so do a series of magnets inside the generator. Giant magnets rotate past copper coils, producing alternating current (AC) by moving electrons.
Inside the Generator:- The heart of the hydroelectric power plant is the generator. The basic process of generating electricity in this manner is to rotate a series of magnets inside coils of wire. This process moves electrons, which produces electrical current.
Each generator is made of certain basic parts: 1. Shaft 2. Excitor 3. Rotor 4. Stator
As the turbine turns, the excitor sends an electrical current to the rotor. The rotor is a series of large electromagnets that spins inside a tightly-wound coil of copper wire, called the stator. The magnetic field between the coil and the magnets creates an electric current.
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another through a shared magnetic field. A changing current IP in the first circuit (the primary) creates a changing magnetic field; in turn, this magnetic field induces a voltage VS in the second circuit (the secondary). The secondary circuit mimics the primary circuit, but it need not carry the same current and voltage as the primary circuit. Instead, an ideal transformer keeps the product of the current and the voltage the same in the primary and secondary circuits. electrical energycircuit magnetic fieldcurrentinduceselectrical energycircuit magnetic fieldcurrentinduces
7 TH ELEMENT OUTFLOW:- Used water is carried through pipelines, called tailraces, and re-enters the river downstream.
POWER HOUSE AND EQUIPMENTS:- In the scheme of hydropower the role of power house is to protect the electromechanical equipment that convert the potential energy of water into electricity. Following are the equipments of power plant: 1.Valve 5.Condensor 2.Turbine6.Protection System 3.Generator7.DC emergency Supply 4.Control System8.Power and current transformer
TRASH RACK Almost all small hydroelectric plants have a trash rack cleaning machine, which removes material from water in order to avoid entering plant water ways and damaging electromechanical equipment.
Flowing water creates energy that can be captured and turned into electricity. This is called hydropower. Hydropower is currently the largest source of renewable power, generating nearly 10% of the electricity used in the United States. The most common type of hydropower plant uses a dam on a river to store water in a reservoir. Water released from the reservoir flows through a turbine, spinning it, which, in turn, activates a generator to produce electricity. But hydropower doesn't necessarily require a large dam. Some hydropower plants just use a small canal to channel the river water through a turbine.
Perhitungan Energi dan Daya Energi Potensial, Ep = m g h Energi Potensial, Ep = m g h Daya, P = Q g h = f Q h Daya, P = Q g h = f Q h (f = 0.7 – 0.8) Kecepatan spesifik kincir Kecepatan spesifik kincir Ns = N (P) 0.5 (h) -1.25
CONTOH SOAL Sumber air pada ketinggian h = 14 ft memberikan debit Q = 9 ft 3 /dt untuk menggerakkan kincir air berdiameter D = 12 ft. Kincir air berputar pada kecepatan N = 5 RPM dan memiliki 36 buah mangkuk yang terisi air tidak lebih dari separohnya. Berapakah volume tiap mangkuk? Berapakah volume tiap mangkuk? Bila luas penampang mangkuk 1.2 ft 2, berapa lebar kincir? Bila luas penampang mangkuk 1.2 ft 2, berapa lebar kincir? Berapa kecepatan spesifik? (Asumsi = 60%) Berapa kecepatan spesifik? (Asumsi = 60%)
SOLUSI Volume mangkuk: Volume mangkuk: N = 5 RPM Tiap putaran = 12 dt Q = 9 ft 3 /dt Vol air jatuh tiap putaran = (9 ft 3 /dt)*12 dt = 108 ft 3 = (9 ft 3 /dt)*12 dt = 108 ft 3 Vol tiap mangkuk = Vol tiap mangkuk = Lebar kincir = 6 ft 3 /1.2 ft 2 = 5 ft Lebar kincir = 6 ft 3 /1.2 ft 2 = 5 ft
SOLUSI (CONT) Daya yang dihasilkan: Daya yang dihasilkan: P = Q g h = (60%)(9 ft 3 /dt)(62.4 lb/ft 3 )(14 ft) = (60%)(9 ft 3 /dt)(62.4 lb/ft 3 )(14 ft) = 4717.4 ft.lb/dt = 4717.4 ft.lb/dt = 8.58 Hp = 8.58 Hp Kecepatan spesifik Kecepatan spesifik Ns = (5)(8.58) 0.5 (14) -1.25 = 0.54
TURBIN RODA PELTON Kecepatan jet: Kecepatan jet: C = koefisien transmisi Kecepatan titik di luar roda Pelton Kecepatan titik di luar roda Pelton U = a.V a = konstanta U = DN Daya = Q g h Daya = Q g h
CONTOH SOAL Sebuah roda Pelton dipakai untuk menghasilkan daya dari air berketinggian h = 14 ft. Jika U = 0.45 V dengan V adalah kecepatan jet air pada nozel. N = 300 RPM. Pertanyaan: Berapa diameter roda Pelton? (Asumsi C = 0.95) Berapa diameter roda Pelton? (Asumsi C = 0.95) Bila diameter nozel 2 in, berapa debit air? Bila diameter nozel 2 in, berapa debit air? Berapa daya (HP) jika efisiensi 88%? Berapa daya (HP) jika efisiensi 88%? Berapa kecepatan spesifik roda Pelton? Berapa kecepatan spesifik roda Pelton?
SOLUSI Diameter roda Pelton Diameter roda Pelton V = 0.95 = 66 ft/dt V = 0.95 = 66 ft/dt U = 0.45 V = 0.45(66) = 29.7 ft/dt D = U/ N = 29.7/(0.88*300) = 1.89’ = 22.7”
SOLUTION (Cont) Debit air Q = A.V Debit air Q = A.V A nozel = d 2 /4 = (2/12) 2 /4 = ( /144) ft 2 Q = A.V = ( /144) ft2 (66 ft/dt) Q = 1.44 ft 3 /dt P = Q g h P = Q g h = (0.88)(62.24)(1.44)(75)/550 = (0.88)(62.24)(1.44)(75)/550 P = 10.78 HP