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Pengembangan Rencana strategis Dan Implikasi rencana IS/IT.

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Presentasi berjudul: "Pengembangan Rencana strategis Dan Implikasi rencana IS/IT."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Pengembangan Rencana strategis Dan Implikasi rencana IS/IT

2 Tinjauan -Peran IS/IT berubah dari dukungan menjadi enabler -Konteks strategis sistem informasi -Menjelajahi permintaan IS/TI -Rencana IS/IT dalam konteks Indonesia, di mana kita?

3 Tujuan -Memahami bagaimana merumuskan rencana strategis -Memahami bagaimana merumuskan strategi bisnis -Memahami bagaimana merumuskan tujuan bisnis -Memahami implikasi dari rencana strategis untuk IS / IT rencana

4 Agenda Perencanaan Strategis Krangka Strategis Mengembangkan strategi bisnis Implementasi strategi bisnis Implikasi strategi bisnis ke strategi IS/IT Pandangan strategi berbasis sumber daya

5 Apa perencanaan strategis ? - Proses untuk menetapkan prioritas pada apa yang anda akan capai di masa depan -Memaksa Anda untuk membuat pilihan tentang apa yang akan Anda lakukan dan apa yang Anda tidak akan melakukan -Menarik seluruh organisasi bersama-sama sekitar permainan tunggal rencana eksekusi - Garis besar di mana sumber daya akan dapat teralokasi

6 Pertanyaan Dasar untuk ditanyakan - Dimana kita sekarang? (Penilaian) - Dimana kita perlu? (Gap/perbedaan) - Bagaimana kita akan menutup kesenjangan (Rencana Strategis) - Bagaimana kita akan memonitor kemajuan kita (Balanced Scorecard)

7 Rencana Strategis Model A B C D E Scan lingkungan Penilaian Latar belakang Informasi Analisis situasi SWOT – Strength’s, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats Situasi sekarang, sebelum, sesudah Significant masalah Selaras/ sesuai dengan kemampuan Visi dan Misi Nilai / Prinsip membimbing Tujuan utama Tujuan spesific Pengukuran kinerja Target / standar kinerja Inisiatif dan proyek DasarKomponen Kinerja Manajemen Tinjauan kemjuan– Balanced Scorecard Tindakan koreksi spesifikEvaluasi Dimana kita Dimana kita ingin menjadi Bagaimana akan Melakukannya Bagaimana Mlakukannya Kesenjangan Rencana tindakan Tanggapan umpan balik– revisi rencana

8 Model lain perencanaan strategis -Tentukan misi dan tujuan - Menilai situasi dan pilihan - Pilih opsi Rencana Strategis dari Opsi terpilih Menerapkan strategi Strategis berpikir dan Peluang pengambilan keputusan Membuat arah strategis Menetapkan Strategi Mencapai Strategi Umpan balik

9 Penilaian Model : S W O T Penilaian Penilaian Eksternal: Pasar, pesaing, tren sosial, teknologi, lingkungan regulasi, siklus ekonomi. Penilaian Internal: A set organisasi, sumber daya, orang, budaya, sistem, kemitraan, pemasok,... Mudah Memahami Terapkan pada setiap tingkat organisasi Perlu analitis dan Spesifik Bersikaplah jujur ​​ tentang kelemahan- kelemahan Anda Good Points Kemungkinan kesalahan SWOT

10 Mengapa membuat Dasar ? -Menempatkan segala sesuatu tentang organisasi ke dalam konteks tunggal untuk perbandingan dan perencanaan. - Deskriptif tentang perusahaan serta keseluruhan Lingkungan - Menyertakan informasi tentang hubungan pelanggan, pemasok, mitra. - Format yang lebih disukai adalah Profil Organisasi D asar

11 Profil Organisasi LINGKUNGAN OPERASI -Produk dan Layanan - Pemasok, Pengiriman, Saluran, Kontrak, Pengaturan,... -Budaya Organisasi - Hambatan, Kepemimpinan, Komunikasi, Keterpaduan.... -Produktivitas Tenaga Kerja – tingkat skill, keragaman, kontraktor, penuaan tenaga kerja,.. - Infrastruktur - Sistem, teknologi, fasilitas, -Peraturan - Produk / Layanan Peraturan, ISO Standar Kualitas, Keselamatan, Lingkungan,.. D asar

12 Profil Organisasi HUBUNGAN BISNIS -Struktur Organisasi - Unit Usaha, Fungsi, Dewan, Lapisan Manajemen,.. -Hubungan Pelanggan - Persyaratan, Kepuasan, Loyalitas, Harapan,... -Rantai Nilai - Hubungan antara orang-orang dalam rantai nilai.... -Mitra Hubungan - Aliansi, jangka panjang pemasok, kemitraan pelanggan,... D asar

13 Profil Organisasi KATAGORI KUNCI KINERJAPelanggan Produk dan layanan K Keuangan Human Capital Operasional Eksternal (Regulatory Compliance, Sosial Tanggung jawab,... ) D asar

14 Analisis kesenjangan Dasar / Profil org Tantangan / SWOT Kesenjangan = dasar Untuk perencanaan strategis jangka panjang D asar

15 Komponen utama Rencana Strategis Mission Vision Goals Tujuan Tindakan Mengapa kita saat ini Apa yg kita inginkan Indikator dan indikator keberhailan Tingkat kinerja yg diinginkan dan jadwal Rencana Tindakan untuk mencapai Tujuan O1 O2 AI1 AI2 AI3 M1M2M3 T1 Khusus dinyatakan dalam hasil terukur Strategic Plan Action Plans Evaluasi kemajuan Target Initiatives Apa yg kita harus capai utk jadi sukses K omponen

16 Pernyataan Misi - Menangkap esensi dari mengapa organisas ada - Siapa kami, apa yang kita lakukan -Menjelaskan kebutuhan dasar yang dibutuhkan -Mengungkapkan nilai-nilai inti organisasi -Harus singkat dan to the point -Mudah untuk memahami -Jika memungkinkan, cobalah untuk menyampaikan sifat unik dari organisasi anda dan perannya yang membedakan dari orang lain K omponen

17 Contoh – Benar dan salah Pernyataan misi To Make People Happy To Explore the Universe and Search for Life and to Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers NASA Walt Disney Melakukan pekerjaan yang baik untuk mengekspresikan nilai-nilai inti organisasi. Juga menyampaikan kualitas yang unik tentang organisasi tersebut. Terlalu samar dan tidak jelas. Butuh informasi lebih jelas tentang apa yang membuat organisasi menjadi khusus. K omponen

18 Visi -Bagaimana organisasi ingin dianggap di masa depan apa yang tampak seperti keberhasilan -Sebuah ekspresi keadaan akhir yang diinginkan -Tantangan setiap orang untuk meraih sesuatu signifikan - menginspirasi masa depan yang menarik - Memberikan fokus jangka panjang untuk seluruh organisasi

19 Memandu Prinsip dan Nilai - Setiap organisasi harus dipandu oleh seperangkat nilai- nilai dan keyakinan - Memberikan kerangka dasar untuk membuat keputusan – bagian dari budaya organisasi - Nilai sering berakar pada tema etis, seperti kejujuran, kepercayaan, integritas, rasa hormat, kejujuran, Nilai harus berlaku di seluruh organisasi - Nilai mungkin cocok untuk yang terbaik tertentu manajemen praktek - terbaik dalam hal kualitas, layanan pelanggan yang luar biasa, dll

20 Examples of Guiding Principles and Values C omponents We obey the law and do not compromise moral or ethical principles – ever! We expect to be measured by what we do, as well as what we say. We obey the law and do not compromise moral or ethical principles – ever! We expect to be measured by what we do, as well as what we say. We treat everyone with respect and appreciate individual differences. We carefully consider the impact of business decisions on our people and we recognize exceptional contributions. We treat everyone with respect and appreciate individual differences. We carefully consider the impact of business decisions on our people and we recognize exceptional contributions. We are strategically entrepreneurial in the pursuit of excellence, encouraging original thought and its application, and willing to take risks based on sound business judgment. We are committed to forging public and private partnerships that combine diverse strengths, skills and resources.

21 Goals -Menjelaskan akhir kondisi masa depan - hasil yang diinginkan yang mendukung misi dan visi. -Membentuk cara di depan dalam hal ditindaklanjuti. -Paling baik diterapkan di mana ada pilihan jelas tentang masa depan. -Menempatkan fokus strategis ke dalam organisasi - spesifik kepemilikan tujuan harus diserahkan kepada seseorang dalam organisasi. -Mungkin tidak bekerja dengan baik di mana hal-hal yang berubah cepat- Tujuan cenderung jangka panjang bagi lingkungan yang memiliki pilihan terbatas tentang masa depan.

22 Mengembangkan Goals -Jenjang dari atas Rencana Strategis, Misi, Visi, prinsip membimbing. -Lihatlah analisis strategis Anda - SWOT, -Lingkungan Scan, Kinerja masa lalu, Kesenjangan. -Batasi sedikit kritis - seperti 5-8 gol. -Luas partisipasi dalam pengembangan tujuan: -Konsensus dari atas - beli-in di eksekusi tingkat. -Harus mendorong tingkat yang lebih tinggi kinerja dan menutup kesenjangan kinerja kritis.

23 Examples of Goals C omponents Reorganize the entire organization for better responsiveness to customers We will partner with other businesses, industry leaders, and government agencies in order to better meet the needs of stakeholders across the entire value stream. Manage our resources with fiscal responsibility and efficiency through a single comprehensive process that is aligned to our strategic plan. Improve the quality and accuracy of service support information provided to our internal customers. Establish a means by which our decision making process is market and customer focus. Maintain and enhance the physical conditions of our public facilities.

24 Objectives Relevant - directly supports the goal Relevant - directly supports the goal Compels the organization into action Compels the organization into action Specific enough so we can quantify and measure the results Specific enough so we can quantify and measure the results Simple and easy to understand Simple and easy to understand Realistic and attainable Realistic and attainable Conveys responsibility and ownership Conveys responsibility and ownership Acceptable to those who must execute Acceptable to those who must execute May need several objectives to meet a goal May need several objectives to meet a goal C omponents

25 Goals vs. Objectives GOALSOBJECTIVES Very short statement, few words Longer statement, more descriptive Broad in scopeNarrow in scope Directly relates to the Mission Statement Indirectly relates to the Mission Statement Covers long time period (such as 10 years) Covers short time period (such 1 year budget cycle) C omponents

26 Examples of Objectives Develop a customer intelligence database system to capture and analyze patterns in purchasing behavior across our product line. Launch at least three value stream pilot projects to kick-off our transformation to a leaner organization. Centralize the procurement process for improvements in enterprise-wide purchasing power. Consolidate payable processing through a P-Card System over the next two years. Monitor and address employee morale issues through an annual employee satisfaction survey across all business functions. C omponents

27 What are Action Plans? Objectives Initiatives Action Plans  The Action Plan identifies the specific steps that will be taken to achieve the initiatives and strategic objectives – where the rubber meets the road  Each Initiative has a supporting Action Plan(s) attached to it  Action Plans are geared toward operations, procedures, and processes  They describe who does what, when it will be completed, and how the organization knows when steps are completed  Like Initiatives, Action Plans require the monitoring of progress on Objectives, for which measures are needed D own to Specifics

28 Integrity – Complete; useful; inclusive of several types of measure; designed to measure the most important activities of the organization Reliable: Consistent Accurate - Correct Timely – Available when needed: designed to use and report data in a usable timeframe Confidential and Secure: Free from inappropriate release or attack Criteria for Good Measures D own to Specifics

29 Examples of Measurements Lead Indicators Average time to initiate customer contact => shorter time should lead to better customer service Average response time to incident => below average response times should lead to increased effectiveness in dealing with incident Facilities that meet facility quality A1 rating => should lead to improved operational readiness for meeting customer needs D own to Specifics

30 Targets For each measurement, you should have at least one target Targets should stretch the organization to higher levels of performance Incremental improvements over current performance can be used to establish your targets Targets put focus on your strategy When you reach your targets, you have successfully executed your strategy D own to Specifics

31 Examples of Targets Average Time to Process New Employee Setups in DB 65 days Year days Year days Year 2009 Utilization Rate for Rental Housing Units 90% for Year % for Year % for Year 2009 Toxic Sites meeting in-service compliance 55% for Year % for Year % for Year 2009 Personnel Fully Trained in Safety and Emergency 65% by 2 rd Quarter 75% by 3 th Quarter 90% by 4 th Quarter Open Positions Filled after 30 day promotion period 75 positions Sept positions Jan positions July 2008 % Reduction in Orders Filled Short in 1 st Cycle 50% by Year % by Year % by Year 2010 D own to Specifics

32 Continuous Feedback through the Balanced Scorecard Cascade and align from the top to create a Strategic Management System. Use the Balanced Scorecard framework to organize and report actionable components. Use the Scorecard for managing the execution of your strategy. Scorecard “forces” you to look at different perspectives and take into account cause- effect relationships (lead and lag indicators) Improves how you communicate your strategy – critical to execution. E valuate

33 Evolution of Strategic Planning Stage 1Stage 2Stage 3Stage 4 FinancialForecast-basedExternally Strategic planningplanningorientedmanagement (meet budget)(predict the(think(create the future) strategically) future) Effectiveness of strategic decision making Annual budgets Functional focus Multi-year budgets Gap analysis Static allocation of resources Situation analysis and competitive assessments Evaluation of strategic options Dynamic allocation of resources Well defined strategic framework Strategically focused organization Widespread strategic thinking capability Reinforcing management processes Supportive value system and climate

34 Strategic Framework for Strategic Planning External Environments EconomicPoliticalEcological TechnologicalSocialLegal Customers Suppliers Shareholders Employees Unions Government Public Stake Holder Pressure Groups Competitors Customers Suppliers Shareholders Employees Unions Public Media Financial Ins. Values Objectives Identify current Identify future Threats and strategies strategies opportunities Evaluate Analyze Evaluate feedback internal strategies resources Monitor Implement Select Strategies Strategies Strategies

35 Input to Strategic Planning External environments - sources of important signals to organizations Pressure groups - demand recognition and rapid management response Stakeholders - demand fair share of created wealth Business planning is usually carried out for each strategic business unit – A unit that sells a distinct set of products or services, serve a specific set of customers, and competes with a well- defined set of competitors

36 Definition of Business Strategy Definition of business strategy: – An integrated set of actions aimed at increasing the long- term well-being and strength of the organization relative to its competitors

37 Technique to Develop Business Strategy: Competitive Forces in Industry (Porter, 1980) Threat of new entrants Bargaining power of suppliers Rivalry among existing competitors Threat of substitute product Bargaining power of buyers

38 Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces New entrants – Capital requirements – Patents and specialists skill required – Distribution channels available – Achieved/required economies of scale and resultant cost advantages – Number and size of existing rivals and intensity of competition – Differentiation and brand establishment/loyalty – Access to raw materials/critical resources etc. Business strategy: “how to discourage new entrants to come into the business”

39 Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces Substitute products/services – Customer awareness of needs and means of satisfaction – Customer sensitivity to value for money and ability to compare – Existing loyalty of customer—impact of “industry” promotion – Ability to differentiate products etc. Business strategy: “how to create a loyal customers?”

40 Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces Competitive rivalry will be intensified by: – Market growth slow (or in decline) – Small number of similar sized competitors dominate – High fixed costs and/or high exit barriers for all rivals – Overcapacity and/or capacity increments are large units – Commodity-like, undifferentiated products. Business strategy: “how to differentiate your products?”

41 Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces Buyers’ power will be increased by: – Concentrated/few buyers making high volume and/or high value of purchases – Low switching costs across suppliers – Price sensitive and many alternative sources of supply – Weak brand identities, products not differentiated – Buyers capable of backward integration due to low entry cost. Business strategy: “how to make the buyers depend on your business”

42 Strategic Choices: Factors Affecting The Impact of Competitive Forces Suppliers’ power will be increased by: – Few suppliers—high switching costs for rivals and suppliers deal with many small customers – Potential substitute supplier/resources not easily available – Supplied goods make up large part of firm’s costs – Suppliers capable of forward integration or bypass to customers Business strategy: “how to make the suppliers depend on your business”

43 Generic Competitive Strategy Low Cost Differen- tiation Competitive Advantage

44 Characteristics of Generic Strategies Generic Strategies Commonly Required Skills and Resources Commonly Organizational Requirements Overall cost leadership Sustained capital investment and access to capital Process engineering skills Intense supervision of labor Tight cost control, frequent, detailed control reports. Structured organization and responsibilities. Incentives based on meeting strict quantitative targets Differentiation Strong marketing abilities and creative flair. Product engineering skills. Strong capability in basic research. Corporate reputation for quality or technological leadership. Strong cooperation from distribution channels. Strong coordination among functions in R&D, product development, and marketing. Subjective measurement and incentives instead of quantitative measures (market based incentives). Amenities to attract highly skilled labor or creative people. Looser, more trusting organizational relationships. Focus Combination of the above policies directed at the particular strategic target.

45 Exercise Your Thought  Explain the development processes of strategic planning?  What are the components of strategic planning?  How to develop business strategy?  How external forces influence business strategy and IS/IT strategies?  Business strategy imply IS/IT strategy?


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