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ILMU EKONOMI MIKRO (MIKROEKONOMI) Ilmu ekonomi mikro (sering juga ditulis mikroekonomi) adalah cabang dari ilmu ekonomi yang mempelajari perilaku konsumen.

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Presentasi berjudul: "ILMU EKONOMI MIKRO (MIKROEKONOMI) Ilmu ekonomi mikro (sering juga ditulis mikroekonomi) adalah cabang dari ilmu ekonomi yang mempelajari perilaku konsumen."— Transcript presentasi:

1 ILMU EKONOMI MIKRO (MIKROEKONOMI) Ilmu ekonomi mikro (sering juga ditulis mikroekonomi) adalah cabang dari ilmu ekonomi yang mempelajari perilaku konsumen dan perusahaan serta penentuan harga-harga pasar dan kuantitas faktor input, barang, dan jasa yang diperjualbelikan.

2 ILMU EKONOMI MIKRO (MIKROEKONOMI) Ekonomi mikro meneliti bagaimana berbagai keputusan dan perilaku tersebut mempengaruhi penawaran dan permintaan atas barang dan jasa, yang akan menentukan harga; dan bagaimana harga, pada gilirannya, menentukan penawaran dan permintaan barang dan jasa selanjutnya. Individu yang melakukan kombinasi konsumsi atau produksi secara optimal, bersama-sama individu lainnya di pasar, akan membentuk suatu keseimbangan dalam skala makro; dengan asumsi bahwa semua hal lain tetap sama (ceteris paribus).

3 ILMU EKONOMI MIKRO (MIKROEKONOMI) Kebalikan dari ekonomi mikro ialah ekonomi makro, yang membahas aktivitas ekonomi secara keseluruhan, terutama mengenai pertumbuhan ekonomi, inflasi, pengangguran, berbagai kebijakan perekonomian yang berhubungan, serta dampak atas beragam tindakan pemerintah (misalnya perubahan tingkat pajak) terhadap hal-hal tersebut.

4 Tinjauan umum Salah satu tujuan ekonomi mikro adalah menganalisa pasar beserta mekanismenya yang membentuk harga relatif kepada produk dan jasa, dan alokasi dari sumber terbatas diantara banyak penggunaan alternatif. Ekonomi mikro menganalisa kegagalan pasar, yaitu ketika pasar gagal dalam memproduksi hasil yang efisien; serta menjelaskan berbagai kondisi teoritis yang dibutuhkan bagi suatu pasar persaingan sempurna. Bidang-bidang penelitian yang penting dalam ekonomi mikro, meliputi pembahasan mengenai keseimbangan umum (general equilibrium), keadaan pasar dalam informasi asimetris, pilihan dalam situasi ketidakpastian, serta berbagai aplikasi ekonomi dari teori permainan. Juga mendapat perhatian ialah pembahasan mengenai elastisitas produk dalam sistem pasar.

5 Asumsi dan definisi Teori penawaran dan permintaan biasanya mengasumsikan bahwa pasar merupakan pasar persaingan sempurna. Implikasinya ialah terdapat banyak pembeli dan penjual di dalam pasar, dan tidak satupun diantara mereka memiliki kapasitas untuk mempengaruhi harga barang dan jasa secara signifikan. Dalam berbagai transaksi di kehidupan nyata, asumsi ini ternyata gagal, karena beberapa individu (baik pembeli maupun penjual) memiliki kemampuan untuk mempengaruhi harga. Seringkali, dibutuhkan analisa yang lebih mendalam untuk memahami persamaan penawaran-permintaan terhadap suatu barang. Bagaimanapun, teori ini bekerja dengan baik dalam situasi yang sederhana.

6 Model operasi  Sebuah perusahaan dikatakan membuat sebuah keuntungan ekonomi ketika average total cost lebih rendah dari setiap produk tambahan pada keluaran maksimalisasi keuntungan. Keuntungan ekonomi adalah setara dengan kuantitas keluaran dikali dengan perbedaan antara average total cost dan harga.

7 Model operasi  Sebuah perusahaan dikatakan membuat sebuah keuntungan normal ketika keuntungan ekonominya sama dengan nol. Keadaan ini terjadi ketika average total cost setara dengan harga pada keluaran maksimalisasi keuntungan.

8 Model operasi  Jika harga adalah di antara average total cost dan average variable cost pada keluaran maksimalisasi keuntungan, maka perusahaan tersebut dalam kondisi kerugian minimal. Perusahaan ini harusnya masih meneruskan produksi, karena kerugiannya akan makin membesar jika berhenti produksi. Dengan produksi terus menerus, perusahaan bisa menaikkan biaya variabel dan akhirnya biaya tetap, tetapi dengan menghentikan semuanya akan mengakibatkan kehilangan semua biaya tetapnya.

9 Model operasi Jika harga dibawah average variable cost pada maksimalisasi keuntungan, perusahaan harus melakukan penghentian. Kerugian diminimalisir dengan tidak memproduksi sama sekali, karena produksi tidak akan menghasilkan keuntungan yang cukup signifikan untuk membiayai semua biaya tetap dan bagian dari biaya variabel. Dengan tidak berproduksi, kerugian perusahaan hanya pada biaya tetap. Dengan kehilangan biaya tetapnya, perusahaan menemui tantangan. Akan keluar dari pasar seutuhnya atau tetap bersaing dengan resiko kerugian menyeluruh

10 Kegagalan pasar Dalam ekonomi mikro, istilah "kegagalan pasar" tidak berarti bahwa sebuah pasar tidak lagi berfungsi. Malahan, sebuah kegagalan pasar adalah situasi dimana sebuah pasar efisien dalam mengatur produksi atau alokasi barang dan jasa ke konsumen. Ekonom normalnya memakai istilah ini pada situasi dimana inefisiensi sudah dramatis, atau ketika disugestikan bahwa institusi non pasar akan memberi hasil yang diinginkan. Di sisi lain, pada konteks politik, pemegang modal atau saham menggunakan istilah kegagalan pasar untuk situasi saat pasar dipaksa untuk tidak melayani "kepentingan publik", sebuah pernyataan subyektif yang biasanya dibuat dari landasan moral atau sosial.

11 Empat jenis utama penyebab kegagalan pasar adalah:  Monopoli atau dalam kasus lain dari penyalahgunaan dari kekuasaan pasar dimana "sebuah" pembeli atau penjual bisa memberi pengaruh signifikan pada harga atau keluaran. Penyalahgunaan kekuasaan pasar bisa dikurangi dnegan menggunakan undang-undang anti trust.

12 Empat jenis utama penyebab kegagalan pasar adalah:  Eksternalitas, dimana terjadi dalam kasus dimana "pasar tidak dibawa kedalam akun dari akibat aktifitas ekonomi didalam orang luar/asing." Ada eksternalitas positif dan eksternalitas negatif. Eksternalitas positif terjadi dalam kasus seperti dimana program kesehatan keluarga di televisi meningkatkan kesehatan publik. Eksternalitas negatif terjadi ketika proses dalam perusahaan menimbulkan polusi udara atau saluran air. Eksternalitas negatif bisa dikurangi dengan regulasi dari pemerintah, pajak, atau subsidi, atau dengan menggunakan hak properti untuk memaksa perusahaan atau perorangan untuk menerima akibat dari usaha ekonomi mereka pada taraf yang seharusnya.

13 Empat jenis utama penyebab kegagalan pasar adalah:  Barang publik seperti pertahanan nasional dan kegiatan dalam kesehatan publik seperti pembasmian sarang nyamuk. Contohnya, jika membasmi sarang nyamuk diserahkan pada pasar pribadi, maka jauh lebih sedikit sarang yang mungkin akan dibasmi. Untuk menyediakan penawaran yang baik dari barang publik, negara biasanya menggunakan pajak-pajak yang mengharuskan semua penduduk untuk membayar pda barang publik tersebut (berkaitan dengan pengetahuan kurang dari eksternalitas positif pada pihak ketiga/kesejahteraan sosial).

14 Empat jenis utama penyebab kegagalan pasar adalah: Kasus dimana terdapat informasi asimetris atau ketidak pastian (informasi yang inefisien). Informasi asimetris terjadi ketika salah satu pihak dari transaksi memiliki informasi yang lebih banyak dan baik dari pihak yang lain. Biasanya para penjua yang lebih tahu tentang produk tersebut daripada sang pembeli, tapi ini tidak selalu terjadi dalam kasus ini.

15 Biaya peluang Walaupun biaya peluang (opportunity cost) terkadang sulit untuk dihitung, efek dari biaya peluang sangatlah universal dan nyata pada tingkat perorangan. Bahkan, prinsip ini dapat diaplikasikan kepada semua keputusan, dan bukan hanya bidang ekonomi. Sejak kemunculannya dalam karya seorang ekonom Jerman bernama Freidrich von Wieser, sekarang biaya peluang dilihat sebagai dasar dari teori nilai marjinal

16 Biaya peluang Biaya peluang merupakan salah satu cara untuk melakukan perhitungan dari sesuatu biaya. Bukan saja untuk mengenali dan menambahkan biaya ke proyek, tetapi juga mengenali cara alternatif lainnya untuk menghabiskan suatu jumlah uang yang sama. Keuntungan yang akan hilang sebagai akibat dari alternatif terbaik lainnya; adalah merupakan biaya peluang dari pilihan pertama.

17 Supply and demand Supply and demand is an economic model based on price and quantity in a market. It predicts that in a competitive market, price will function to equalize the quantity demanded by consumers, and the quantity supplied by producers, resulting in an economic equilibrium of price and quantity. The model incorporates other factors changing equilibrium as a shift of demand and/or supply.economic model marketcompetitive marketeconomic equilibrium

18 Supply and demand

19 Supply and demand is an economic model based on price and quantity in a market. It predicts that in a competitive market, price will function to equalize the quantity demanded by consumers, and the quantity supplied by producers, resulting in an economic equilibrium of price and quantity. The model incorporates other factors changing equilibrium as a shift of demand and/or supply.economic model marketcompetitive marketeconomic equilibrium

20 Supply schedule The supply schedule, graphically represented by the supply curve, is most often expressed by the relationship between market price and amount of goods produced. In short-run analysis, where some input variables are fixed, a positive slope can reflect the law of diminishing marginal returns, which states that beyond some level of output, additional units of output require larger amounts of input. In the long-run, where no input variables are fixed, a positively-sloped supply curve can reflect diseconomies of scale.short-rundiminishing marginal returnslong-rundiseconomies of scale

21 Supply curve shifts

22 Demand schedule

23 Elasticity Elasticity is a central concept in the theory of supply and demand. In this context, elasticity refers to how supply and demand respond to various factors. One way to define elasticity is the percentage change in one variable divided by the percentage change in another variable (known as arc elasticity, which calculates the elasticity over a range of values, in contrast with point elasticity, which uses differential calculus to determine the elasticity at a specific point). It is a measure of relative changes.

24 Elasticity In economics, elasticity is the ratio of the percent change in one variable to the percent change in another variable. It is a tool for measuring the responsiveness of a function to changes in parameters in a relative way. Commonly analyzed are elasticity of substitution, price and wealth. Elasticity is a popular tool among empiricists because it is independent of units and thus simplifies data analysiseconomics percent change

25 The demand curve (D1) is perfectly ("infinitely") elastic

26 The demand curve (D2) is perfectly inelastic.

27 Unit elasticity for a supply line passing through the origin

28 Vertical supply curve (Perfectly Inelastic Supply)

29 Elastisitas permintaan Dalam ilmu ekonomi, elastisitas permintaan atau price elasticity of demand (PED) adalah ukuran kepekaan perubahan jumlah permintaan barang terhadap perubahan harga.ilmu ekonomi Elastisitas permintaan mengukur seberapa besar kepekaan perubahan jumlah permintaan barang terhadap perubahan harga. Ketika harga sebuah barang turun, jumlah permintaan terhadap barang tersebut biasanya naik — semakin rendah harganya, semakin banyak benda itu dibeli.

30 Elastisitas permintaan Elastisitas permintaan ditunjukan dengan rasio persen perubahan jumlah permintaan dan persen perubahan harga. Ketika elastisitas permintaan suatu barang menunjukkan nilai lebih dari 1, maka permintaan terhadap barang tersebut dikatakan elastis di mana besarnya jumlah barang yang diminta sangat dipengaruhi oleh besar-kecilnya harga

31 Elastisitas permintaan Sementara itu, barang dengan nilai elastisitas kurang dari 1 disebut barang inelastis, yang berarti pengaruh besar-kecilnya harga terhadap jumlah-permintaan tidak terlalu besar. Sebagai contoh, jika harga sepeda motor turun 10% dan jumlah permintaan atas sepeda motor itu naik 20%, maka nilai elastisitas permintaannya adalah 2; dan barang tersebut dikelompokan sebagai barang elastis karena nilai elastisitasnya lebih dari 1. Perhatikan bahwa penurunan harga sebesar 1% menyebabkan peningkatan jumlah permintaan sebesar 2%, dengan demikian dapat dikatakan bahwa jumlah permintaan atas sepeda motor sangat dipengaruhi oleh besarnya harga yang ditawarkan.

32 Elastisitas permintaan koefesienElastisitas n = 0Inelastis sempurna 0 < n < 1Inelastis n = 1Elastis uniter 1 < n < ∞Elastis n = ∞Elastis sempurna

33 Price elasticity of demand Price elasticity of demand is defined as the measure of responsiveness in the quantity demanded for a commodity as a result of change in price of the same commodity. In other words, it is percentage change in quantity demanded as per the percentage change in price of the same commodity. In economics and business studies, the price elasticity of demand (PED) is a measure of the sensitivity of quantity demanded to changes in price.economics

34 elasticity of demand It is measured as elasticity, that is it measures the relationship as the ratio of percentage changes between quantity demanded of a good and changes in its price. In simpler words, demand for a product can be said to be very inelastic if consumers will pay almost any price for the product, and very elastic if consumers will only pay a certain price, or a narrow range of prices, for the product.elasticity price

35 elasticity of demand Inelastic demand means a producer can raise prices without much hurting demand for its product, and elastic demand means that consumers are sensitive to the price at which a product is sold and will not buy it if the price rises by what they consider too much

36 Perfectly Inelastic Demand

37 Perfectly Elastic Demand

38 elasticity of demand ValueMeaning n = 0Perfectly inelastic. 0 > n > -1Relatively inelastic. n = -1Unit (or unitary) elastic. -1 > n > -∞Relatively elastic. n = -∞Perfectly elastic.

39 elasticity of demand A price drop usually results in an increase in the quantity demanded by consumers (see Giffen good for an exception). The demand for a good is relatively inelastic when the change in quantity demanded is less than change in price. Goods and services for which no substitutes exist are generally inelastic. Demand for an antibiotic, for example, becomes highly inelastic when it alone can kill an infection resistant to all other antibiotics. Rather than die of an infection, patients will generally be willing to pay whatever is necessary to acquire enough of the antibiotic to kill the infection.Giffen good antibiotic

40 elasticity of demand When the price elasticity of demand for a good is unit elastic (or unitary elastic) (|Ed| = 1), the percentage change in quantity is equal to that in price When the price elasticity of demand for a good is perfectly elastic (Ed is undefined), any increase in the price, no matter how small, will cause demand for the good to drop to zero. Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue of producers falls to zero. The demand curve is a horizontal straight lineundefined

41 Elasticity and revenue A set of graphs shows the relationship between demand and total revenue. As price decreases in the elastic range, revenue increases, but in the inelastic range, revenue decreases

42 elasticity of demand When the price elasticity of demand for a goods is inelastic (|Ed| < 1), the percentage change in quantity demanded is smaller than that in price. Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue of producers rises, and vice versa.good When the price elasticity of demand for a good is elastic (|Ed| > 1), the percentage change in quantity demanded is greater than that in price. Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue of producers falls, and vice versa

43 elasticity of demand When the price elasticity of demand for a good is unit elastic (or unitary elastic) (|Ed| = 1), the percentage change in quantity is equal to that in price When the price elasticity of demand for a good is perfectly elastic (Ed is undefined), any increase in the price, no matter how small, will cause demand for the good to drop to zero. Hence, when the price is raised, the total revenue of producers falls to zero. The demand curve is a horizontal straight lineundefined

44 elasticity of demand When the price elasticity of demand for a good is perfectly inelastic (Ed = 0), changes in the price do not affect the quantity demanded for the good. The demand curve is a vertical straight line; this violates the law of demand. An example of a perfectly inelastic good is a human heart for someone who needs a transplant; neither increases nor decreases in price affect the quantity demanded (no matter what the price, a person will pay for one heart but only one; nobody would buy more than the exact amount of hearts demanded, no matter how low the price is).

45 Mathematical definition The formula used to calculate the coefficient of price elasticity of demand for a given product is

46 Mathematical definition using the differential calculus form:

47 Point-price elasticity Point Elasticity = (% change in Quantity) / (% change in Price) Point Elasticity = (∆Q/Q)/(∆P/P) Point Elasticity = (P ∆Q) / (Q ∆P) Point Elasticity = (P/Q)(∆Q/∆P) Note: In the limit (or "at the margin"), "(∆Q/∆P)" is the derivative of the demand function with respect to P. "Q" means 'Quantity' and "P" means 'Price'.

48 Point-price elasticity Example Suppose a certain good (say, laserjet printers) has a demand curve Q = 1, P. We wish to determine the point-price elasticity of demand at P = 80 and P = 40. First, we take the derivative of the demand function Q with respect to P:

49 Point-price elasticity Next we apply the equation for point-price elasticity to the ordered pairs (40, 976) and (80, 952). We have at P=40, point-price elasticity e = -0.6(40/976) = at P=80, point-price elasticity e = -0.6(80/952) =

50 Aggregate demand In economics, aggregate demand is the total demand for final goods and services in the economy (Y) at a given time and price level[1]. It is the amount of goods and services in the economy that will be purchased at all possible price levels. [2]This is the demand for the gross domestic product of a country when inventory levels are static. It is often called effective demand or abbreviated as 'AD'. In a general aggregate supply-demand chart, the aggregate demand curve (AD) slopes downward (indicating that higher outputs are demanded at lower price levels).economicsprice level[1][2]gross domestic productinventoryeffective demandaggregate supply

51 Aggregate demand An aggregate demand curve is the sum of individual demand curves for different sectors of the economy. The aggregate demand is usually described as a linear sum of four separable demand sources is consumption = ac + bc*(Y - T), is Investment, is Government spending, is Net export, is total exports, and is total imports = am + bm*(Y - T),.

52 Aggregate demand Keynesian Cross

53 Aggregate demand In the "Keynesian cross diagram," a desired total spending (or aggregate expenditure, or "aggregate demand") curve (shown in blue) is drawn as a rising line since consumers will have a larger demand with a rise in disposable income, which increases with total national output. This increase is due to the positive relationship between consumption and consumers' disposable income in the consumption function. Aggregate demand may also rise due to increases in investment (due to the accelerator effect), while this rise is reduced if imports and tax revenues rise with income. Equilibrium in this diagram occurs where total demand, AD, equals the total amount of national output, Y, (which corresponds to total national income or production). Here, total demand equals total supply.consumption function accelerator effect

54 Aggregate supply

55

56 In economics, aggregate supply is the total supply of goods and services produced by a national economy during a specific time period. It is the the total amount of goods and services in the economy available at all possible price levelseconomics

57 Aggregate supply 1. Sometimes the "Z curve" in the "Keynesian cross" diagram is referred to as "aggregate supply." This curve often represents the total amount of production that corresponds to the total amount of income in a country during a specific time period. Because the sum of all income received corresponds to the sum of all production, this is drawn as a 45 degree line. In this diagram, the desired total spending line crosses this Z curve, determining the equilibrium level of production, income, and spending.sapKeynesian crossdesired total spendingequilibrium 2. In neo-Keynesian theory seen in many textbooks, an "aggregate supply and demand" diagram is drawn that looks like a typical Marshallian supply and demand diagram. The aggregate supply (AS) curve is usually drawn as upward-sloping in the short run, since Marshalliansupply and demand

58 Aggregate Demand-Aggregate Supply model

59 Price elasticity of supply In economics, the price elasticity of supply is defined as a numerical measure of the responsiveness of the quantity supplied of product (A) to a change in price of product (A) alone.economics

60 Income elasticity of demand (YED) In economics, the income elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to the change in the income of the people demanding the good. It is calculated as the ratio of the percent change in quantity demanded to the percent change in income. For example, if, in response to a 10% increase in income, the quantity of a good demanded increased by 20%, the income elasticity of demand would be 20%/10% = 2.elasticitydemand

61 Income elasticity of demand (YED Inferior good's demand falls as consumer income increasesInferior good

62 Income elasticity of demand (YED ) A negative income elasticity of demand is associated with inferior goods; an increase in income will lead to a fall in the quantity demanded and may lead to changes to more luxurious substitutes.inferior goods A positive income elasticity of demand is associated with normal goods; an increase in income will lead to a rise in the quantity demanded. If income elasticity of demand of a commodity is less than 1, it is a necessity good. If the elasticity of demand is greater than 1, it is a luxury good or a superior goodnormal goods luxury goodsuperior good A zero income elasticity (or inelastic) demand occurs when an increase in income is not associated with a change in the quantity demanded of a good. These would be sticky goods.sticky

63 Mathematical definition or alternatively: This can be rewritten in the form: With income I, and vector of prices. Many necessities have an income elasticity of demand between zero and one: expenditure on these goods may increase with income, but not as fast as income does, so the proportion of expenditure on these goods falls as income rises. This observation for food is known as Engel's law. With income I, and vector of prices. Many necessities have an income elasticity of demand between zero and one: expenditure on these goods may increase with income, but not as fast as income does, so the proportion of expenditure on these goods falls as income rises. This observation for food is known as Engel's law. With income I, and vector of prices. Many necessities have an income elasticity of demand between zero and one: expenditure on these goods may increase with income, but not as fast as income does, so the proportion of expenditure on these goods falls as income rises. This observation for food is known as Engel's law.necessitiesEngel's law

64 Cross elasticity of demand In economics, the cross elasticity of demand and cross price elasticity of demand measures the responsiveness of the quantity demanded of a good to a change in the price of another good.economics It is measured as the percentage change in quantity demanded for the first good that occurs in response to a percentage change in price of the second good. For example, if, in response to a 10% increase in the price of fuel, the quantity of new cars that are fuel inefficient demanded decreased by 20%, the cross elasticity of demand would be -20%/10% = -2.percentage change

65 Cross elasticity of demand The formula used to calculate the coefficient cross elasticity of demand is or:

66 Cross elasticity of demand Two goods that complement each other show a negative cross elasticity of demand: as the price of good Y rises, the demand for good X falls In the example above, the two goods, fuel and cars(consists of fuel consumption), are complements - that is, one is used with the other. In these cases the cross elasticity of demand will be negative. In the case of perfect complements, the cross elasticity of demand is infinitely negative.complements

67 Cross elasticity of demand Where the two goods are substitutes the cross elasticity of demand will be positive, so that as the price of one goes up the quantity demanded of the other will increase. For example, in response to an increase in the price of carbonated soft drinks, the demand for non- carbonated soft drinks will rise. In the case of perfect substitutes, the cross elasticity of demand is equal to infinity.substitutes Where the two goods are complements the cross elasticity of demand will be negative, so that as the price of one goes up the quantity demanded of the other will decrease. For example, in response to an increase in the price of fuel, the demand for new cars will decrease.complements Where the two goods are independent, the cross elasticity demand will be zero: as the price of one good changes, there will be no change in quantity demanded of the other good.independent


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