2SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Konsep SPR diperkenalkan oleh Beatty, Petersen & Swindale (1979).The National Soils Handbook § (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1983b) explains the system and procedures in detail.Metode ini dapat digunakan untuk melengkapi interpretasi hasil survei tanah dengan pendekatan yang lebih berbasis ekonomis.Beatty, M.T., Petersen, G.W. & Swindale, L.D. (ed) Planning the uses and management of land. Agronomy Monograph 21, Madison: American Society of Agronomy. xxvii,1028 pp. HD 111 B MannU.S. Department of Agriculture, S.C.S. 1983b. National soils handbook. Title 430, Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.
3Definisi SPR: Soil Potential Ratings SPR adalah kelas-kelas yg menyatakan kualitas relatif suatu tanah untuk penggunaan tertentu dibandingkan dnegan tanah-tanah lainnya di suatu lokasi yang dievaluasi.Tiga hal berikut ini dipertimbangkan dalam penilaian (rating):Hasil atau tingkat keragaan (performance),Biaya relatif penerapan teknologi modern untuk meminimumkan efek akibat yg ditimbulkan oleh faktor pembatas tanah, danEfek buruk akibat pembatas yg kontinyus pada nilai-nilai sosial, ekonomi dan lingkungan.Sumber:
4SPR: Soil Potential Ratings TUJUANPendekatan yg lebih modern dibanding Indeks Storie untuk mengkuantifikasikan “kesesuaian lahan” relatif dg cara indeks parametrik.Penilaian ini digunakan untuk tujuan perencanaan, bukan untuk rekomendasi penggunaan lahan. Pendekatan ini mengukur kesesuaian-relatif untuk suatu penggunaan-lahan. Metode ini dapat membantu para perencana memprioritaskan lahan-lahan yg harus dipertahankan sebagai pertanian.They also identify the general source of the problem. They are especially intended to replace limitations tables, which are based on physical factors without explicit economic interpretation.Tujuan utama SPR, sebagai pengganti tabel faktor pembatas (mis., interpretasi hasil survei tanah), adalah memberikan perkiraan nilai ekonomis untuk setiap “pembatas”.
5SPR: Soil Potential Ratings KlasifikasiCriteria are established locally for the area in which the ratings are to be made. The following classes are recognized:Very high potential. Production or performance is at or above local standards because soil conditions are exceptionally favorable, installation or management costs are low, and there are no soil limitations.High potential. Production or performance is at or above local standards; costs of measures for overcoming soil limitations are judged locally to be favorable in relation to the expected performance, and soil limitations continuing after corrective measures are installed do not detract appreciably from environmental quality or economic returns.Sumber:
6SPR: Soil Potential Ratings ClassificationCriteria are established locally for the area in which the ratings are to be made. The following classes are recognized:3. Medium potential. Production or performance is somewhat below local standards; or costs of measures for overcoming soil limitations are high, or soil limitations continuing after corrective measures are installed detract somewhat from environmental quality or economic returns.4. Low potential. Production or performance is significantly below local standards; or costs of measures for overcoming soil limitations are very costly, or soil limitations continuing after corrective measures are installed detract appreciably from environmental quality or economic returns.5. Very low potential. Production or performance is much below local standards; or there are severe soil limitations for which economically feasible measures are unavailable, or soil limitations continuing after corrective measures are installed seriously detract from environmental quality or economic returns.Notice the use of or conditions. The concept of economic feasibility is explicit in this system.Sumber:
7SPR: Soil Potential Ratings General concept of the Soil Potential IndexThe ratings are classes based on the index, which is a numerical rating of relative suitability. General form:SPI = P - (CM + CL)Where: SPI = Soil Potential Index; P = index of yield or other measure of performance, as locally established; CM = index of costs of corrective measures to overcome or minimize the effects of soil limitations; CL = index of costs resulting from continuing limitationsNotes:This is not a detailed economic analysis; relative ratings are all that are needed; however, the three indices must be on commensurate scales.CM and CL must be measured on the same time scale (usually, annual, with present value of future costs used to bring CL to the same scale as CM).P is a percentage of a locally-established reference yield or performance. It may be >100%.Key point: the soil productivity is balanced against the costs for corrective measures and continuing limitations. Corrective measures can be one-time, such as land improvements, or continuing, such as fertilization.Sumber:
8SPR: Soil Potential Ratings The P factor“P is an index of performance or yield standard for the area. It is established and defined locally.” P=100 for a reference soil, usually the best or one of the best soils for the use. Then the expected performance yield for each soil is compared to the standard, and P is established as the percent of standard. P is not an actual yield measurement.For some bizarre reason, higher yields are reflected in P, but lower yields are reflected in CL. This makes no sense.Example: if reference yield = 120, then if this soil’s yield is 132, P = (132/120)* 100 = 110. If reference yield is 100, then this soil’s P = (132/100)*100 = 132.For non-productive uses (e.g., engineering uses), P = 100 and costs in CM and CL must be normalized to this.
9SPR: Soil Potential Ratings FAKTOR CM“CM is an index of added costs above a defined standard installation or management system that is commonly used if there are no soil limitations that must be overcome.”At this level, CM = 0. It is possible that CM<0 if even the ‘standard’ installation is not needed in an exceptional case. Examples of installations are drainage systems, or construction of an engineering work such as a septic system.For each type of added cost, a point value is assigned (by a local committee) to each level of costs. These are calibrated such that 1 point of CM is equivalent to 1 point of P.This is relatively easy to establish for productive uses such as crops: if P = 100 represents a gross margin of $500 ha-1, then 1 point of CM should represent $5 ha-1.
10SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Example: Corrective measures and their costs for dwellings without basements(from (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1983b):From this table we can infer that 1 point of CM = $100, so that if P = 100, the value of a dwelling without basement is $10,000 after the ‘normal’ costs of construction are taken into account.An important part of determining CM is the identification of workable technologies and their costs; in the preceding example, which limitations can be corrected (note that no excavation was allowed on slopes over 30%) and their costs.
11SPR: Soil Potential Ratings The CL factorCM is an indx of limitations that continue after corrective measures (taken intoaccount in CM) have been applied. These are of three types:Continuing performance, such as low yield, inconvenience, discomfort, probability of periodic failure (especially of engineering works). This type of continuing limitation should be included in P, not in CL!;Periodic maintenance costs to maintain performance, e.g., renewal of a septic systems or periodic maintenance of a drainage system;Off-site damages from the use, such as sedimentation or pollution.The easiest to establish are performance limitations for crops; this is just a ratio of yield reduction to standard yield, i.e., percent reduction in yield.For example, if the standard yield is 120, and a map unit is expected to yield 90 even after all corrective measures have been applied, CL = (120-90/120)*100 = 25.This will be subtracted from P (why didn’t they just compute it in P to begin with?).For other expenses, the cost is normalized to P = 100 and usually expressed in present value.
12SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Example rating tableFrom (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1983b): SPR = P - (CM + CL) = (6 + 7) =87.
13SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Subjektivitas dalam Sistem SPR Semua bagian dari sistem ini diturunkan secara lokal, biasanya dengan jalan konsultasi berbagai pihak pengguna lahan dan agen-agen-nya.Thus the actual ratings can be arbitrarily adjusted, however, the soil rankings are less arbitrary, although these can be influenced by the weight given to corrective measures vs. the performance index.
14SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Hubungan dengan Metode Evaluasi Lahan FAO The ‘Land Utilization Type’ is a single, high-technology type, where all possible corrective measures have been applied;Sistem SPR meng-estimasi apakah ini smeua efektif-biaya dan apakah ada pembatasan yang kontinyu.Sumber:
17SPR: Soil Potential Ratings SPR adalah kelas-kelas yg mneytaakan kualitas relatiuf suatu tanah untuk penggunaan tertentu dibandingkan dnegan tanah-tanah lain di suatu lokasi (mis. Di Negara Bagian Connecticut -USA).Kriteria penilaian dikembangkan oleh Komite Negara Bagian dnegan melibatkan stakeholder lokal yg terkait.The soils information was provided by the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).Then the performance and site conditions for a typical system were defined (Performance Standard).This provided a standard against which various combinations of soil properties for the soils within Connecticut could be compared.
18SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Standar PerformansStandar Performans terdiri atas dua bagian.First, it identifies the capabilities of a typical SSDS. A typical system is assumed to be for a single family, 4-bedroom home on a 1-acre lot with a private well, or a ½-acre lot with public water supply. The system has a 1250 gallon septic tank and a 660 to 1000 square foot leaching field.Second, it addresses soil and landscape characteristics. This identifies the soil characteristics that are present in order for a typical system to be constructed.Karakteristik Tanah adalah:Slope kurang dari 15 %..Laju perkolasi tanah minutes per inch.Depth to seasonal high water table is greater than 36 inches below the soil surface.Kedalaman batuan induk lebih dari 60 inches.Tanah tidak kebanjiran.
19SPR: Soil Potential Ratings KELAS-KELAS RATINGThe rating class definitions refer to installing a SSDS that will meet state and local health code regulations. Soils with high potential have characteristics that meet the performance standard. A typical system can be installed at a cost of x. The cost of x represents the going rate for installing a SSDS. The actual value of x varies depending on many factors independent of soil properties.The cost of installing an leaching field is expressed as a multiple of x and is called the cost factor.** The cost factors of 3x and 3.5x mean that the estimated cost of a leaching field ranges from 3 to 3.5 times more than a field installed in a soil with high potential. These cost factors provide relative estimates of the costs in installing a SSDS. Soil potential ratings are listed in Tables 2 and 3.
20SPR: Soil Potential Ratings SPR dan faktor-faktor biayanya, dengan asumsi suatu sistem yang tipikal, didefinisikan berikut.Potential TinggiTanah-tanah ini mempunyai karakteristik yang baik, atau faktor pembatasnya mudah diatasi dengan praktek instalais baku. Faktor biayanya 1 x hingga 2.0 x.Potential MediumTanah-tanah ini mempunyai pembatas yg signifikan, seperti laju perkolasi yg rendah; yg biasanya diatasi dnegan menerapkan disain yang lazim. Faktor biayanya berkisar 2.0x hingga 2.5x.Potential RendahTanah-tanah ini mempunyai satu atau lebih faktor pembatas, seperti laju perkolasi yg rendah dan kedalaman muka air tanah musiman; yang untuk mnegatasinya diperlukan disain yang ekstensif dan preparasi lokasi. Faktor biayanya berkisar 2.5x hingga 3.5x.
21SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Potential Sangat RendahThese soils have to overcome major soil limitations, such as depth to bedrock, that require extensive design and site preparation. A permit for a SSDS may not be issued unless the naturally occurring soils meet the minimal requirements outlined in the state health code. It is unlikely these soils can be improved sufficiently to meet state health code regulations. The cost factor ranges from 4.25x to 6.0x.Potential Ekstrim RendahThese soils have multiple major limitations, such as flooding and depth to seasonal high water table, which are extremely difficult to overcome. A permit for a SSDS may not be issued unless the naturally occurring soils meet the minimal requirements outlined in the state health code. It is unlikely these soils can be improved sufficiently to meet state health code regulations.Tidak Dinilai Not RatedAreas labeled Not Rated have characteristics that show extreme variability from one location to another. The work needed to overcome adverse soil properties cannot be estimated. Often these areas are urban land complexes or miscellaneous areas. An on site investigation is required to determine soil conditions present at the site.
22SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Estimasi persen luasan lahan di Connecticut untuk setiap Nilai (Rating) Potensial Tanah sbb:Potensial Tinggi %Potensial Medium 12.4%Low Potential %Very Low Potential 7.2%Extremely Low Potential 13.7%Not Rated %
23SPR: Soil Potential Ratings KRITERIA EVALUASIThe evaluation criteria are soil properties that can significantly affect the cost of installing a SSDS. These soil properties correspond to criteria identified in the Connecticut State Health Code Regulations, as well as factors deemed significant by NRCS who developed these soil potential ratings. The evaluation criteria are listed in Table 1, 2 – 7Kriteria dalam Tabel 1 dirinci menjadi beberapa kisaran nilai. Nilai-nilai ini menentukan kelas-kelas potensial tanah.Nilai-nilai untuk menentukan “Kelas Rating” dipilih berdasarkan tiga pertimbangan:Apakah data sesuai dengan regulasi kesehatan setempat?Dapatkah informasi diperoleh dari data survei tanah yag ada?Apakah nilai-nilai ini mengidentifikasi perbedaan biaya yg signifikan untuk biaya instalasi SSDS yang memenuhi baku mutu?
24SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Lima Kriteria Evaluasi adalah:KEMIRINGANSlope merupakan inklinasi permukaan lahan dari garis horisontal.Percentage of slope is the vertical distance divided by the horizontal distance, multiplied by 100.Thus, a slope of 20 percent is a drop of 20 feet in 100 feet of horizontal distance.
25SPR: Soil Potential Ratings LAJU PERKOLASI TANAHUji perkolasi dilakukan untuk mengukur kecepatan tanah (jenuh) menyerap air (termasuk air limbah).Pengukuran konduktivitas hidraulik dilakukan dalam menit per inchi dan disebut laju-perkolasi. Nilai-nilai laju ini dipakai dalam sistem “CT Public Health Code”.The percolation rate is not a measure of any one property of the soil. Instead, it is related to many factors including soil texture, kinds of clay minerals, bulk density, structure, size and configuration of pores, number and size of rock fragments, depth to water table, antecedent moisture conditions, chemical composition, etc.
26SPR: Soil Potential Ratings LAJU PERKOLASI TANAHSoil surveys generally measure saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ksat) to convey the rate of water movement through the soil under (field) saturated conditions as the preferred parameter in the National Cooperative Soil Survey.Percolation rates have also been used to express water flow through soils, particularly for soil interpretations for septic drain fields. For this planning document, percolation rates were estimated for soil types based on saturated hydraulic conductivity values (Table 4).Although these two parameters are different, determined by different methods, and yield different results, they can be considered to be functionally equivalent for this application. Consequently, percolation rates may, with prudence, be used as a proxy for Ksat in this case.
27SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Kedalaman Muka-Air-Tanah Tinggi (Musiman) Lima Kriteria Evaluasi :Kedalaman Muka-Air-Tanah Tinggi (Musiman)This is the depth from the soil surface to a zone of saturation at the highest average level during the (SHWT) – wettest season.The depth to a water table is determined primarily through the presence of rustcolored and/or gray soil redoximorphic features.
28SPR: Soil Potential Ratings The five evaluation criteria are: BANJIRFlooding is the temporary covering of the soil surface by floodwater from streams overflowing their banks, inflow from high tides, or any other combination of sources.The frequency or how often, typically, that it floods is an estimate of the current condition, whether natural or human-influenced (such as dams or levees).
29SPR: Soil Potential Ratings KEDALAMAN BATUAN INDUK KERAS Depth to bedrock is the depth from the soil surface to the contact with coherent (continuous) bedrock.Ledge rock is another term used for bedrock by the Connecticut Public Health Code.
30SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Penilaian Potensi Tanah menurut Satuan PetaConnecticut’s statewide soil survey identifies and displays the dominant soils in the state. The symbols on the maps identify map units, each map unit representing a unique combination of soils. Areas within the same symbol have similar composition.The soils were mapped at a scale of 1:12000 with a minimum size delineation of approximately 3 acres. Maps enlarged from the soil survey report do not provide more detailed soils information. More detailed information can only be obtained through on-site investigations.The soil survey is not a replacement for on-site investigation. The survey identifies the probability of finding a particular soil or combination of soils.Table 8 assigns a potential rating to each map unit. The list of map units is in order by soil map unit symbol. The potential rating is based on the ease of installing a SSDS in the dominant soil(s) of the map unit.
31SPR: Soil Potential Ratings SPR menurut Satuan Peta The majority of map units are composed of one dominant soil or of several soils with similar characteristics. A single potential rating is listed for each map unit. Other map units are composed of two kinds of contrasting soils. In these cases, an overall potential rating is listed for the map unit.The limiting soil characteristics for each map unit are identified in Table 8 under the column labeled Concerns.The table also identifies state regulations which may be applicable if particular soil features are present on the site. This information is located in the column labeled State Regs. The numbers in this column reference the footnotes provided at the end of the table.
32SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Tindakan Koreksi (Perbaikan) Corrective measures are any design or construction practices that may be required on a site.The kinds of measures identified are dependent on the limiting soil characteristics and are commonly used solutions for dealing with those soil limitations.Some soil limitations have no practical corrective measure identified in the CT Public Health Code.Without an on-site investigation, it is impossible to predict exactly what improvements a site will need in order for the subsurface sewage disposal system to work.
33SPR: Soil Potential Ratings The site improvements are divided into two categories:Probable Corrective Measures –These are on-site improvements that are most likely to be needed on a site having a particular kind of soil.Possible Additional Corrective Measures – These improvements may be necessary on some sites. Whether they are needed depends on the degree of the limiting soil and site characteristics.
34SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Tindakan perbaikan yang lazim disarankan disajikan pada Tabel 2, 3 dan Tabel 5 hingga 7. Kolom “Concerns” menyatakan mengapa tindakan perbaikan diperlukan di lokasi yg mempunyai sifat-sifat tanah yang khusus.The tables also identify the state regulations that may be applicable if a particular soil feature is present on a site. This information is located in the column labeled State Regs. The numbers in this column reference footnotes provided at the end of the each table.Kolom “Other Considerations” menyajikan praktek-praktek atau persyaratan lokasi yg diperlukan untuk membuat SSDS. Sarana ini diperlukan untuk memungkinkan instalasi sistem atau untuk menentukan solusi yg paling praktis untuk menjawab masalah tanah atau masalah lokasi.
35SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Some Site Conditions and Design Considerations Not Represented in the RatingsPenilaian potensial tanah untuk SSDS ditentukan berdasarkan kemudahan mengatasi pembatas-pembatas tanah yang disajiakan dalam Table 1.In many cases, the ease of constructing a system and cost is determined by other factors that may be site specific or result from local town requirements.
36SPR: Soil Potential Ratings A partial list of these factors that may influence cost, but are not represented in the rating scheme, follows:Small areas of contrasting soils too small to delineate at the scale of the Soil Survey of the State of Connecticut.Boulders that cannot be moved by customary construction equipment.Topographic configuration of the property.Fill needed to compensate for the volume of material lost through the removal of stones and boulders.Measuring depth to water table during the spring months.Local health department practices.Inland wetland setbacks.Time needed for approvals from regulatory agencies.Easements.Access to site for testing, construction, and system maintenance.Landscaping.Maneuvering around site features to be preserved such as stonewalls and trees.Tree and stump removal.Hauling costs of fill and gravel.Proximity of proposed leaching field to neighboring wells.Time of year of construction.Construction stakeout and supervision by an engineer or sanitarian.
37SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Table 1. Evaluation Factors Kriteria EvaluasiTidak terbatasAgak terbatasSangat terbatasPersen slope< 1515-25> 25Laju perkolasi tanah (menit/inchi)1-30< 1;>60Kedalaman hingga tinggi muka air musiman (inchi)>3618-36<18Frekuensi banjirTidak-adaSangat jarang, Jarang, Kadang-kadang, Sering, Sangat seringKedalaman hingga batuan induk (inchi)40-60<40
38SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Table 2. Corrective Measures for Slope MinatProbable CorrectiveMeasuresStateRegsPossibleAdditionalCorrectivePertim-bangan lain<15%Tidak ada15-25%Difficulty ofinstallation (access,machinery, etc.)BreakoutDesign and installation to accommodate for slope. Serial distribution of effluent through the use of high level overflow.>25%Design and installation toaccommodate for slope.Serial distribution of effluent through the use of high-level overflow.1Specialconstructionequipment and/ormethods.
39Table 3. Corrective Measures for Soil Percolation Rates Laju perkolasi tanahMinatTindakan koreksi yg mungkinState RegTindakan koreksi tambahan yg mungkinPertim-bangan lainnyaPerkolasi Cepat<1 mnit/inchInadequateeffluent renovation due tofast movementthrough the soil.Double horizontalseparating distancebetween well and leachfield.1PilihanHydraulic analysisor pollutant renovationanalysis may be required.1-30 mnit/inchTidak ada3Perkolasi Lambat30-60 mnit/inchSlow acceptanceof effluent intothe soilDesign leaching field todistribute effluent over a larger area.Curtain drain anddrainage swale to divertsurface and subsurfaceflows of water.1, 3Need drainage outlet. Hydraulic analysis may berequired.Perkolasi Sngt Lambat>60 mnit/inchthe soil.Special design of largerleaching field.1, 2Need drainage outlet.
40SPR: Soil Potential Ratings Table 4. Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Percolation Rate******Adapted from the State of Virginia, Virginia Department of Health, September 20, 2001, FootprintCommittee Meeting. See references at the end of this document.
41Table 5. Corrective Measures for Depth to Seasonal High Water Table Kedalaman tanah hingga muka air musimanMinatTindakan koreksi yg mungkinState RegTindkaan koreksi tambahan yg mungkinPertimbangan lainnya>36 inchiTidak-adaTidak adaCurtain drain or shallow trenches may be needed when the water table is near the 3-foot depth.18-36 inchiPencemaran groundwater oleh limbah buanganCurtain drain anddrainage swale to divertsurface and subsurfaceflows of water, and/or0-3 feet of select fill (*)1Need drainageoutlet. Hydraulicanalysis may berequired.<18 inchi3-5 feet of select fill (*)1,4,5(*) Select fill means clean bank run sand, clean bank run sand and gravel, or approved manufactured fill having agradation which conforms to the specifications stipulated in Section VIII A of the Technical Standards. Note: See Standard VIII A for manufactured fill approval requirements. Section I of the Connecticut Public Health Code – Regulations and Technical Standards for Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems, Technical Standards (Pursuant to Section B103). January 1, 2004.
42Table 6. Corrective Measures for Flooding Frekuensi banjir / Genangan tanahMinatTindakan koreksi yg mungkinState RegTindakan koreksi tambahan yg mungkinPertimbangan lainnyaTidak adaSgt jarang, Jarang, Kadang-kadang, Sering, Sgt sering (*)Systembackup.Erosion ofraised system.Maintain separatingdistance to areas ofconcentrated flow.1, 5(*)The very rare class floods more than or equal to 1 time in 500 years, but less than 1 time in 100 years.The rare class floods 1 to 5 times in 100 years. The occasional class floods 5 to 50 times in 100 years. Thefrequent class floods more than 50 times in 100 years. The very frequent class floods more than 50 percent ofall months in a year1 - Identified as an area of special concern. Section B103d (e) (1) of the Connecticut Public Health Code.5 - Identified as an area of special concern. Designated as wetland under the provisions of Sections 22a-36 through 22a-45 of the Connecticut General Statutes, as amended. Section B103d (e) (1) (G) of the Connecticut Public Health Code.
43Table 7. Corrective Measures for Depth to Bedrock Kedalaman tanah hingga batuan indukMinatTindakan koreksi yg mungkinState RegTindakan koreksi tambahan yg mungkinPertimbangan lainnya>60 inchiTidak ada40-60 inchiInsufficient soildepth for effluentrenovation.1 to 3 feet of selectfill. (*)1, 6<40 inchirenovation. Possiblegroundwater pollution.3 to 5 feet of select(*) Select fill means clean bank run sand, clean bank run sand and gravel, or approved manufactured fill having agradation which conforms to the specifications stipulated in Section VIII A of the Technical Standards. Note: See Standard VIII A for manufactured fill approval requirements. Section I of the Connecticut Public Health Code – Regulations and Technical Standards for Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems, Technical Standards (Pursuant to Section B103). January 1, 2004.1- Identified as an area of special concern. Section B103d (e) (1) of the Connecticut Public Health Code.6 - No permit or approval shall be issued where there is less than four feet depth of suitable existing soil overledge rock, two feet of which is naturally occurring soil. Section B103e (a) (3) of the Connecticut PublicHealth Code.
44Table 8. Soil Potential Ratings for Subsurface Sewage Disposal System by Map Unit
51SPR: Soil Potential Ratings ReferencesCooley, Roger. Chart presented to Footprint Committee – Footprint Area Square Feet per Hundred Gallons. Minutes of the Footprint Committee, Meeting #4, p September 20, 2001.Hill, David E. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Soil Interpretations for Waste Disposal. New Haven, Connecticut: 1979.Peacock, Carl. Table Specifying Trench Bottom Area, Ksat, and Percolation Rate. Minutes of the Footprint Committee, Meeting #4, p. 6. September 20, 2001.State of Connecticut, Department of Public Health, Connecticut Public Health Code – Regulations and Technical Standards for Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems, Technical Standards (Pursuant to Section B103). January 1, 2004.State of Connecticut, Department of Public Health, Connecticut Public Health Code –Regulations and Technical Standards for Subsurface Sewage Disposal Systems, Section B103 (Discharges 5,000 Gallons Per Day or Less). August 16, 1982.State of Virginia, Virginia Department of Health, Proposed Regulations, Title of Regulation: 12 VAC Sewage Handling and Disposal Regulations (amending 12 VAC and 12 VAC ; adding 12 VAC and 12 VAC ). July 29, 2002.United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service Soil Survey Staff, Soil Survey of the State of Connecticut. Tolland, Connecticut: July 15, Available URL:USDA-Soil Conservation Service, and Connecticut Department of Health Services, Soil Potential Ratings – Septic Tank Absorption Fields for Single Family Residences –Middlesex County, Connecticut. Storrs, Connecticut: 1986.USDA-Soil Conservation Service and Connecticut Department of Health Services, Soil Potential Ratings – Septic Tank Absorption Fields for Single Family Residences –New Haven County, Connecticut. Storrs, Connecticut: 1985.USDA-Soil Conservation Service and Connecticut Department of Health Services, Soil Potential Ratings – Septic Tank Absorption Fields for Single Family Residences –New London County, Connecticut. Storrs, Connecticut: 1985.
53SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Definition.Tanah-tanah dinilai untuk penggunaan tertentu yg dianggap penting atau potensial-penting bagi para penggunaPenggunaan penting suatu “tanah” termasuk lokasi bangunan , material konstruksi, kawasan wisata, fasilitas sanitasi, pengelolaan limbah, pengelolaan air, dan kualitas air.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
54Pedoman penilaian terdiri atas dua bagian: SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDESPedoman penilaian terdiri atas dua bagian:Bagian Naratif, yg menjelaskan asumsi-asumsi yg dipakai dalam kriteria penilaianTabel Kriteria, yang menyajikan sifat-sifat tanah dan sifat lainnya yang digunakan untuk menilai tanah.Setiap “penilaian” kemampuan tanah menggunakan kriteria yang peling membatasi pada “tanah” yg dinilai.The ratings are made for three or more classes according to their limitations or suitabilities for each given use.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
55SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Restrictive features that may limit management alternatives are identified where the soil has a limitation for the specified use.The classes of soil ratings and associated restrictive features used in this part are defined inRating Terms.Ratings for proposed uses are given in terms of limitations and restrictive features, suitability and restrictive features, or only restrictive features.Other features may be included for soil limitations that need to be overcome for a specific purpose.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
56SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Limitation ratings .A limitation rating identifies the degree of limitation that restricts the use of a site for a specific purpose.Slight. This rating is given to soils that have properties favorable for the use. This degree of limitation is minor and can be overcome easily. Good performance and low maintenance can be expected.Moderate. This rating is given to soils that have properties moderately favorable for the use. This degree of limitation can be overcome or modified by special planning, design, or maintenance. The expected performance of the structure or other planned use is somewhat less desirable than for soils rated slight.Severe. This rating is given to soils that have one or more properties unfavorable for the rated use. This degree of limitation generally requires major soil reclamation, special design, or intensive maintenance. Some of the soils, however, can be improved by reducing or removing the soil feature that limits use; but in most situations, it is difficult and costly to alter the soil or to design a structure so as to compensate for a severe degree of limitation.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
57SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Limitation ratings .A limitation rating identifies the degree of limitation that restricts the use of a site for a specific purpose.Very severe.States have an option to use very severe ratings within a survey area. Very severe is a subdivision of the severe rating, and the criteria used to separate moderate and severe must stand.A soil rated very severe has one or more features so unfavorable for the rated use that the limitation is very difficult and expensive to overcome.A rating of very severe should be confined to soils or soil materials that require extreme alteration and that, for the most part, are not used for the purposes being rated.An example is the use of a soil with bedrock at a depth of less than 20 inches for a septic tank filter absorption field .(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
58SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Suitability ratings.A suitability rating identifies the degree that a soil is favorable for a given use.Good or well suited.The soil has properties favorable for the use. There are no soil limitations. Good performance and low maintenance can be expected. Vegetation or other attributes can easily be maintained, improved, or established.(2) Fair or suited.The soil is moderately favorable for the use. One or more soil properties make these soils less desirable than those rated good or well suited. Vegetation or other attributes can be maintained, improved, or established; but a more intensive management effort is needed to maintain the resource base.(3) Poor or poorly suited.The soil has one or more properties unfavorable for the use. Overcoming the unfavorable property requires special design, extra maintenance, or costly alteration. Vegetation or other attributes are difficult to establish or maintain.(4) Unsuited. The expected performance ofthe soil is unacceptable for the use, or extrememeasures are needed to overcome the undesirableproperties or qualities. The unsuited rating is notused in current computer generated soilinterpretation tables but may be used by soil surveyareas within a state.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
59Karakter yang Restriktif (Membatasi) SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDESKarakter yang Restriktif (Membatasi)Istilah ini digunakan untuk mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri tanah yang “membatasi” penggunaannya untuk tujuan tertentu.Karakter restriktif ini digunakan untuk membantu para pengguna mengidentifikasi ciri-ciri penting suatu tanah bagi penggunaan dan pengelolaannya.Some of the terms are self-explanatory, others need explanation to help readers make maximum use of the information.Berikut ini adalah definisi dari beberapa istilah penting:(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
60SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES AREA RECLAIM : Area sulit diperbaiki setelah pengambilan material tanah untuk konstruksi atau penggunaan lainnya.CEMENTED PAN Restrictive, dense, hard, somewhat impervious cemented soil material.CUTBANKS CAVE The walls of excavation tend to cave in or slough.DEEP TO PERMAFROST Depth to the permafrost layer is deeper than required to maintain a shallow perched water table and supply moisture to shallow rooted tundra vegetation.DEEP TO WATER Deep to permanent water table during dry season.DENSE LAYER: Lapisan tanah terlalui padat untuk penggunaannya.DEPTH TO ROCK : Batuan induk terlalu dekat dnegan permukaan tanah bagi penggunaan tertentu.DEPTH TO SOFT ROCK: Batuan lunak terlalu dekat dnegan permukaan tanah untuk penggunaan tertentu.DRAINAGE ARTIFICIAL: Pembuangan air dari drainage buatan mungkin berpengaruh buruk terhadap kualitas air dan tanaman
61SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES DROUGHTY : Tanah menyimpan terklalu sedikit air untuk memenuhi kebutuhan tanaman selama periode kering.DUSTY : Partikel tanah mudah melekat dan menyebabkan “debu”.ERODES EASILY : Tanah mudah tererosi oleh air.EXCESS FINES Excess silt and clay in the soil. The soil does not provide an economic source of gravel or sand for construction purposes.EXCESS GYPSUM Excess gypsum in the soil may cause problems with subsidence, piping, seepage, and corrosion of steel or concrete.EXCESS HUMUS: Terlalu banyak kandungan bahan organiknya.EXCESS LIME : Karbonat dlm tanah berlebihan , sehingga membatasi pertumbuhan tanaman.EXCESS PERMEABILITY: Kehilangan air berlebihan melalui aliran bawah permukaan.EXCESS RUNOFF : Kehilangan air berlebihan melalui aliran permukaan.EXCESS SALT Excess water-soluble salts in the soil that restrict the growth of most plants.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
62SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES EXCESS SODIUM Excess exchangeable sodium, which imparts poor physical properties that restrict the growth of plants.EXTREME SOIL TEMPERATURES The soil climate is either too hot or too cold or the soil has summer temperatures that are too cool during the growing season for unrestricted vegetative growth.EXCESS SULFUR Excessive amount of sulfur in the soil. The sulfur causes extreme acidity if the soil is drained, and the growth of most plants is restricted.FAST INTAKE The rapid movement of water into the soil.FAVORABLE Features of the soil are favorable for the intended use.FLOODING Soil flooded by moving water from stream overflow, runoff, or high tides.FRAGILE Soil that is easily damaged by use or disturbance.FRAGMENTAL Having excess rock fragments greater than or equal to 2 mm.FROST ACTION Freezing and thawing of soil moisture. Frost action can damage roads, buildings, and other structures.HARD TO PACK Difficult to compact using regular earthwork construction equipment.HIGH AVAILABLE WATER CAPACITY Soils hold relatively large quantities of water that is readily available to plants.INFREQUENT FLOODING Flooding occurs at an interval that limits riparian plant species.LARGE STONES Rock fragments 3 inches or more across adversely affect the specified use of soil.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
63SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES LOOSE MATERIAL Unconsolidated soil materials, such as sand.LOW ADSORPTION Low amounts of cations are adsorbed from wastes applied to the soil.LOW CEC The cation exchange capacity is low enough to affect plant growth.LOW FERTILITY Fertility is low enough to adversely affect the growth of most crops.LOW ORGANIC MATTER Organic matter at levels too low for optimum production of most crops.LOW SALT Amounts of salt are too low for satisfactory growth of desired salt-tolerant plants.LOW SODIUM Amounts of sodium are too low for satisfactory growth of desired sodium-tolerant plants.LOW STRENGTH The soil has a low resistance to deforming, sliding, or failure; its low resistance affects its suitability for the intended use. The soil is not strong enough to support loads.NO WATER Too deep to ground water.NON-DURABLE Soil that, according to its classification or texture, normally performs satisfactorily but contains natural material or particles that are subject to break down and can cause a change of properties or performance over time.ORGANIC An excess amount of organic matter that adversely affects the properties of the soil.PERCS SLOWLY The slow movement of waterthrough the soil adversely affects the specified use.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
64SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES PERMAFROST : Lapisan tanah yang suhunya di bawah titik beku secara terus menerus.PIPING : Pembentukan pipa atau saluran bawah permukaan oleh air yg mengerosi tanah pada saat air mengalir melewatinya.PITTING : Lubang-lubang yang terbentuk pada tanah akibat es mencair setelah vegetasi penutup muka lahan dihilangkan.PONDING : Air menggenang di permukaan tanah dalam cekungan tertutup yang kehilangahn airnya hanya terjadi melalui perkolasi dan evapotranspiration.POOR FILTER ; Air limbah mengalir melalui massa tanah terlalu cepat, sehingga tidak cukup terjadi filtrasi atau perlakuan.PROLONGED FLOODING : Aliran air menjenuhi dan tinggal di permukaan tanah selama periode yang cukup panjang, berpengaruh buruk terhadap vegetasi.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
65SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES RAPID DRAINAGE The rapid removal of excess water, internally or externally, from the soil.RESTRICTIVE LAYER A soil or rock layer that inhibits the movement of water and/or roots through the soil.ROCK FRAGMENTS Fragments that reduce the moisture and nutrient capacity of the soil.ROOTING DEPTH Shallow root zone. The soil is shallow over a layer that greatly restricts roots.RUNOFF The surface discharge of water that does not enter the soil.SALTY WATER Water that is too salty for consumption by livestock.SEEPAGE The movement of water through the soil. Seepage adversely affects the specified use.SHALLOW TO WATER The water table is at a depth that affects use and management for most applications.SHRINK-SWELL The shrinking of soil when dry and the swelling when wet. Shrinking and swelling can damage roads, dams, building foundations, and other structures. It can also damage plant roots.SLIPPAGE Soil mass susceptible to movement downslope when loaded, excavated, or wet.SLOPE Slope is steep enough that special practices are required to ensure satisfactory performance of the soil for a specified use.SLOW INTAKE The slow movement of water into the soil.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
66SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES SLOW REFILL : Tambat mengisi cadangan aquifer, karena tanah mempunyai permeabilitas yang “terbatas” (laju permeabilitas tanah snagat lambat).SMALL STONES Rock fragments 2 mm to 76 mm in diameter. Small stones adversely affect the specified use of the soil.SOIL BLOWING Soil easily moved by wind.STABILITY Soil has the capacity to resist detachment or slippage.STONINESS Soil has stones that interfere with its use and management.SUBSIDES Settlement of organic soils, of soils containing semifluid layers, or of materials that dissolve in solution.THIN LAYER Otherwise suitable soil material is too thin for the specified use or management.THIN SURFACE A thin surface horizon that limits the specified use and management.TOO ACID The soil is so acid that growth of plants is restricted.TOO ALKALINE The soil is so alkaline that growth of plants is restricted.TOO ARID The soil is dry most of the time, and vegetation is difficult to establish.TOO BOULDERY The soil has boulders that interfere with use or management.TOO CLAYEY The soil is slippery and sticky when wet and slow to dry.TOO COBBLY The soil has excess cobbles that affect its performance for a given use.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
67SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES TOO COLD : Tanah mempunyai suhu terlalu rendah bagi penggunaan atau pengelolaan tertentu.TOO GRAVELLY : Tanah banyak kerikil sehingga mempengaruhi penampilannya bagi penggunaan tertentu.TOO MOIST ; Distribusi hujan, pola dan jumlah hujanmelebihi kebutuhan lengas-tanah bagi kebanyakan vegetasi desertik.TOO SANDY : Tanah lunak dan lepas (longgar), mudah kekeringan, dan kesuburannya rendah atau terlalu halus untuk dipakai sebagai “kerikil”.TOO STONY : Tanah mempunyai banyak batu-batu yang mempengaruhi penampilannya untuk penggunaan tertentu.UNSTABLE Soils are subject to failure under load.WETNESS The soil is wet during the period of desired use.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
68SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Tapak Bangunan(a) . General.The soil interpretations for building site development are designed to be used as a tool in evaluating soil suitability and identifying soil limitations for various construction purposes. As part of the interpretation process, the rating applies to each soil in its present condition and does not consider present land use.Penilaian “pembatas” didasarkan pada seberapa besar pengaruh ciri-tanah terhadap penggunaannya.Untuk setiap tanah, penilaian akan mengidentifikasi derajat pembatasan, seperti “Ringan”, “moderate” atau “Parah”.Kalau suatu tanah mempunyai pembatas “Ringan” untuk suatu pengguunaannya, maka dianggap tidak ada “karakter restriktif”.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
69SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (2) . Karakter Restriktif diidentifikasi untuk setiap “pembatas moderate” atau “Parah” karena ia dapat mempengaruhi disain bangunan dan teknik konstruksi yang harus digunakan.The restrictive feature(s) also determines the performance to be expected after construction and the kind and degree of future maintenance required.Minor restrictive soil features are not identified or considered as part of the initial rating process but could be important factors where the major restrictive features are overcome through design Application.(3). Penggunaan Pedoman Penilaian Interpretasi Tanah dalam proses perencanaan dan evaluasi memungkinkan para pengguna mengidentifikasi dan merekomendasi pilihan lokasi (tapak) dan merencanakan alternatif tindakan untuk meminimumkan dampak pada sumberdaya-tanah itu sendiri(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
70SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (4). Aplikasi untuk Lokasi (Tapak) BangunanAplikasi ini memberikan banyak kesan kepada para pengguna bahwa that the ratings will only be useful where urban development is planned or currently underway. This impression usually leads to nonuse and ultimately reduces the opportunity to apply these interpretations to other similar situations that are common to site evaluation and the planning process.Opportunities do exist for expanding the use of each guide used in rating soils for building site development. The potential application may not be entirely urban, in the truest sense, but is applicable just the same.Some probable applications may involve planning for irrigation or other water pipeline trenches; cable trenches; farm or ranch homesteads; rural housing development; silage pits; silo foundations; barn or outbuilding foundations; outbuildings for recreational uses; and livestock or wildlife watering facility pads and tanks.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
71SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (5) Sometimes a change in the heading of the interpretation table will broaden its use. However, one should be careful that the change does not alter or diminish the intent or value of the soil interpretation rating guide, such as a change from shallow excavations to shallow trenches. To obtain expanded use of the soil survey interpretation rating guides, the user may request through the proper channels that the present interpretation headings be repackaged to better represent the local needs.(6) Soil properties influence the development of building sites, including the selection of the site, the design of the structure, construction, performance after construction, and maintenance.Soil limitation ratings of slight, moderate, and severe are given for shallow excavations, dwellings with and without basements, small commercial buildings, local roads and streets, lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
72(b) . Penggalian Dangkal. SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES(b) . Penggalian Dangkal.(1) Shallow excavations are trenches or holes dug in the soil to a maximum depth of 5 or 6 feet. They are used for pipelines, sewer lines, telephone and power transmission lines, basements, open ditches, grave sites, etc. The excavations are most commonly made by trenching machines or backhoes.(2) Table displays the soil properties and qualities, limits, and restrictive features used in rating soils for shallow excavations. The ratings are based on the soil properties that influence ease of digging and resistance to sloughing. Depth to bedrock or cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, and the amount of large stones influence the ease of digging, filling, and compacting.Depth to the seasonal high water table and flooding may restrict the period when excavations can be made.Slope influences the ease of using machinery.Soil texture and depth to water table influence the resistance to sloughing.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
73Table 620-1 Shallow Excavations. NoSifat/ KarakterPembatasKarakter vRestriktifRINGANMODERATPARAH1.Kedalaman batuan induk (inchi)>6040-60<40Kedalaman batuan1a.Kedalaman batuan lunak (inchi)>4020-40<202.Kedalaman cadas keras-tebal (inc)Cadas keras2aKedalaman cadas keras tipis (inc)3.Tekstur USDA-ICEPermafrost3aTekstur (20-60”)SICOS,S,FS,VFS, LCOS,LS,LFS, SG,LVFS,GCutbank cave3bTekstur (20-60”) (kalau bukan subgroup oksik, oxisol, kandhapl, atau kandik, kaolinitik)SIC, CTerlalu berliat4.Order Tanah UNIFIEDVertisol5.UNIFIED (20-60”)OL,OH,PTHumus berlebihan6.Persen bobot >3” (rataan berat hingga 40”)<2525-50>50Batu-batu besar7.Ponding(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
74Table 620-1 Shallow Excavations. NoSifat/ KarakterPembatasKarakter vRestriktifRINGANMODERATPARAH8.Kedalaman muka air tinggi (feet)> 6<2.5Kebasahan9.Genangan (Banjir)Tidak ada, JarangKadang-kjadang, Sering-Banjir / Genangan10.Kemiringan (%)<88-15>15Kemiringan11Bobot Isi Tanah (g/cc) lapisan kedalaman 20-60”1.8Lapisan padat(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
75SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES Tempat tinggal tanpa basements. (1) Dwellings without basements are single - family houses of three stories or less without basements. The foundation is assumed to be spread footings of reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth of 2 feet or at the depth of maximum frost penetration, whichever is deeper.(2) Table has rating criteria that are based on soil properties and qualities affecting the capacity of soil to support a load without movement and on those that affect excavation and construction costs. The properties and qualities affecting load-supporting capacity without movement are the presence of a high water table, flooding, and the shrink-swell behavior and compressibility of the soils. Compressibility is inferred from the Unified classification.Properties influencing the ease and amount of excavation are a seasonal high water table, slope, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, and the amount and size of rock fragments.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
76Table 620-2 Dwellings Without Basements. NoSifat/ KarakterPembatasKarakter vRestriktifRINGANMODERATPARAH1.Tekstur USDA-ICEPermafrost2.Total Subsidensi (inchi)>12Subside (Ambles)3.Genangan /BanjirTidak adaJarang, Kadang-2, SeringBanjir/Genangan4Ponding5.Kedalaman muka air tinggi (feet)>2.51.5 – 2.5<1.5Kebasahan6.Mengembang-mengkerut (LE) (Lapisan paling tebal 10-40”, %)Rendah (<3)Moderat (3-6)Tinggi, Sngt Tinggi (>6)Mengembang-mengkerut7.UNIFIED (Lapisan paling tebal 10-40”)OL,OH,PTKekuatan rendah8.Kemiringan (%)<88-15>15Slope9.Kedalaman batuan keras (inchi)>4020-40<20Kedalaman batuan9aKedalaman batuan lunak (inchi)>20(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
77Table 620-2 Dwellings Without Basements. NoSifat/ KarakterPembatasKarakter vRestriktifRINGANMODERATPARAH10.Kedalaman cadas keras yang tebal (inchi)>4020-40<20Cadas Keras10a.Kedalaman cadas keras yang tipis (inchi)>20-11.Persen berat > 3” (Rataan berat 0-40”)<2525-50>50Batu-batu besar184.108.40.206.9.9a(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
78SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (d). Tempat Tinggal dengan basements .(1) Dwellings with basements are singlefamily houses of three stories or less with basements. The foundation is assumed to be spread footings of reinforced concrete built on undisturbed soil at a depth of about 7 feet.(2) The ratings that are based on Table support properties and qualities that affect the capacity of a soil to bear a load without movement and those that affect excavation and construction costs.The properties affecting load supporting capacity without movement are presence of a seasonal high water table, flooding, and the shrinkswell behavior and compressibility of the soils.Compressibility is inferred from the Unified classification. Properties influencing the ease and amount of excavation are flooding, a high water table, slope, depth to bedrock or to a cemented pan, and the amount and size of coarse fragments .(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
80SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (e) . Bangunan Komersial Kecil. (1) Small commercial buildings are those buildings that are less than three stories without basements. The foundation is assumed to be spread footings of reinforced concrete at a depth of 2 feet or at the depth of maximum frost penetration, whichever is deeper.(2) Table lists the properties and qualities used in rating undisturbed soils. The ratings are based on properties and qualities affecting the capacity of the soil to support a load without movement and those that affect excavation and construction costs.The properties and qualities affecting load-supporting capacity without movement are presence of a high water table, flooding, and the shrink-swell behavior and compressibility of the soils. Compressibility is inferred from the Unified classification.Properties influencing the ease and amount of excavation are flooding, a high water table, slope, depth to bedrock or a cemented pan, hardness of bedrock or a cemented pan, and the amount and size of coarse fragments.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
81Table 620-4 Small Commercial Buildings. (430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
82SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (f). Jalan-jalan Lokal.Local roads and streets are those roads and streets that have all-weather surfacing (commonly of asphalt or concrete) and that are expected to carry automobile traffic year-round. The roads and streets consist of (1) the underlying local soil material, either cut or fill, which is called "the subgrade";the base material, which may be lime-stabilized soil, cement-stabilized soil, gravel, or crushed rock; and (3) the actual road surface or street pavement, which is either flexible (asphalt), rigid (concrete), or gravel with binder in it. They are graded to shed water, and conventional drainage measures are provided. With the probable exception of the hard surface, roads and streets are built mainly from the soil at hand.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
83SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (f). Jalan-jalan Lokal.(2) Table lists the properties and qualities used to rate soils for local roads and streets. The properties and qualities that affect local roads and streets are those that influence the ease of excavation and grading and the trafficsupporting capacity.Sifat dan kualitas yg mempengaruhi kemudahan penggalian dan “grading” adalah kekerasan batuan –induk atau cadas keras, kedalaman batuan induk atau cadas keras, kedalaman muka air tanah, banjir, banyaknya batu-batu besar, dan slope.Sifat-sifat yg mempengaruhi “traffic” adalah kekuatan tanah seperti yang diperoleh dari kelompok indeks AASHTO dan klasifikasi Unified, subsidensi (ambles) , sifat kembang-kerut, aksi-aksi potential frost, dan kedalaman muka-air tanah musiman.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
84Table 620-5 Local Roads and Streets. NoSifat/ KarakterPembatasKarakter vRestriktifRINGANMODERATPARAH1.Tekstur USDA-ICEPermafrost2.Total Subsidensi (inchi)>12Ambles3.Kedalaman batuan keras (inchi)>4020-40<20Kedalaman batuan(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
85(g) Lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways . SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES(g) Lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways .The soils are rated for their use in establishing and maintaining turf for lawns and golf fairways and ornamental trees and shrubs for residential or commercial landscaping.Penilaian berdasarkan pada penggunaan material tanah pada lokasi yang telah mengalami “perataan” lahan.Irrigasi mungkin tidak diperlukan dan tidak dijadikan kriteria penilaian.Traps, trees, roughs, and greens are not considered as part of the golf fairway.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
86SOIL INTERPRETATIONS RATING GUIDES (g) Lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways .(2) The soil properties and qualities considered in rating soils for lawns, landscaping, and golf fairways include those that affect growth and trafficability after vegetation is established.Sifat-sifat tanah yg mempengaruhi oertumbuhan tanaman :Kandungan garam, natrium, kalsium karbonat, material sulfidik, pH, kedalaman muka air, kedalaman lapisan cadas atau batuan induk, kapasitas air tersedia dalam tanah lapisan atas 40 inchiSifat-sifat tanah yg mempengaruhi trafik-abilitas setelah vegetasinya hidup adalah banjir (genangan), kebasahan tanah, kemiringan, batu-batu, kandungan liat, pasir dan BOT lapisan tanah permukana.(430-VI-NSSH, 1993)
87Table 620-6 Lawns, Landscaping, and Golf Fairways. (430-VI-NSSH, 1993)