Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Presentasi sedang didownload. Silahkan tunggu

Oleh: Paulus Wirutomo Bahan: John Macionis: “Sociology” 11 th ed. 2007 Pearson – Prentice Hall Perubahan Sosial.

Presentasi serupa


Presentasi berjudul: "Oleh: Paulus Wirutomo Bahan: John Macionis: “Sociology” 11 th ed. 2007 Pearson – Prentice Hall Perubahan Sosial."— Transcript presentasi:

1 Oleh: Paulus Wirutomo Bahan: John Macionis: “Sociology” 11 th ed Pearson – Prentice Hall Perubahan Sosial

2

3 Dinosaurus menguasai planet ini selama 160 juta tahun, kemudian musnah. Manusia baru menguasai planet ini th. Manusia sebagai mahluk yang jauh lebih cerdas dan memiliki kebudayaan yang jauh lebih canggih akankah bertahan lebih lama?, atau justru lebih cepat? Semua ini tergantung dari pilihan dari satu spesies diantara 30 juta spesies lain yang menghuni planet ini, yaitu: manusia (Macionis, hal 606) Kebudayaan manusia adalah hasil pilihan, tetapi pilihan manusia ditentukan oleh Kebudayaan!! Sosiologi Perlu!!

4 Pertambahan Penduduk: Per detik :2.3 Per menit: 141 Per hari: Per tahun Malthus: akan terjadi perang memperebutkan resources? New Malthusian (Lester Brown): ada technology yang dapat memperpanjang daya dukung, tetapi tetap ada batas “carrying capacity”. Anti-Malthusian (Julian Simon): sejak prediksi Malthus dunia tlh menampung 6 kali jumlah penduduk yang ternyata lebih sehat, umur panjang dsb. So what?

5 Tracking change AS Yang membaik: Infant mortality Life expectancy Poverty (usia 65+) Drop-outs Lulus PT

6 Yang turun–naik: Pengguna obat terlarang (pemuda) Korban lalu-lintas karena mabuk Pengangguran Perumahan

7 Yang memburuk: Child abuse Kemiskinan anak Bunuh diri anak Kejahatan dg kekerasan Rata-rata gaji mingguan Healhcare coverage Kesenjangan pendapatan

8 Masalah-masalah Dunia The logic of growth: life gets better..? Limit to growth (deliberate change or being forced?) Urbanization Disposable society (80% solid waste never goes away) Water supply (only 1% is suitable for drinking). Air pollution The perish of rain forests Global warming Declining Biodiversity Disaster (environmental, technological, social) Egocentric  ecosentric !!? Masalah perubahan “habitus”  sosiologi bisa diharapkan?

9 Pendahuluan Sociology is a child of social change Perubahan sosial adalah: transformasi budaya dan pranata sosial sepanjang waktu. Semua tokoh punya model perubahan sosial. Determinisme atau multi causal? Yang pasti kecepatan perubahan meningkat pesat (tunggang langgang?, penuh resiko?).

10 Ciri-ciri Perubahan Sosial Terjadi terus menerus. Elemen budaya yang satu berubah lebih cepat dari yang lain (muncul cultural lag). Bisa direncanakan atau tidak direncanakan (bisa juga unintended consequences). Apa akibat ditemukannya mobil? Satu perubahan menghasilkan perubahan lain Perubahan sosial bersifat kontroversial: ada yang diuntungkan ada yang dirugikan

11 Sumber Perubahan o Hukum alam (termasuk karakter manusia) o Teknologi: discovery, invention, innovation, diffusion (teknologi lebih mudah daripada ideologi). Konflik: konflik banyak menghasilkan perubahan, misalnya konflik kelas sosial (Marx). Ide: tokoh karismatis, agama, pemikiran (hak azasi, gender, lingkungan dsb. Demografi:pertumbuhan penduduk, struktur Demografi, migrasi, urbanisasi. Pembangunan (planned change) Historical accident dsb

12 Modernity Mass society: birokratisasi, rationalisasi, industrialisasi, differentiation, meningkatnya kesempatan dlm kehidupan, individuality, freedom, flexibility, creativity, inovation, perkembangan negara dan organisasi lainnya, tetapi juga isolation, identity crises, rootlessness, alienation, anomie, impersonalization. Class society: meningkatnya kapitalisme, penguasaan ekonomi, meningkatnya kesenjangan, powerlessness (freedom?), rational?, technology  suffering!,

13 Tokoh penting Emil Durkheim: mechanical menjadi organik atau anomie? Karl Marx: conflict on material resources  dehumanizing aspect of capitalism Max Weber : Rationalisasi  birokratisasi (iron cage) vs values

14 Perspektif Sosiologi: Struktural Fungsional Modernisasi = Mass Society : “prosperity and bureucracy have weakened traditional social ties. Ingat: Tonnies, Parsons, Weber, Durkheim dsb. Master status  pekerjaan, bukan identitas lainnya. Impersonal mass media Organisasi besar mengganti fungsi keluarga. Mobilitas geografis  urbanization, global migration weakened traditional values, freedom. Participation in public life? Dehumanization? Irrationality of rationality

15 Teori Konflik Modernity=class Society (expanding capitalist economy marked by inequality). Capitalism Growth and greed (ever-greater profits). Naked self interests People as commodities Science as support of the statusquo Modern society  well-being is technical puzzle rather than problem of social justice (ingat kemiskinan di Indonesia) Business  efficiency ! Not only a problem of gemeinschaft but the destructive consequence of Capitalism.

16 Teori Konflik Persistent Inequality: No more nobles, but elit class! The state? : uneffective or predatory. Important factor: political struggle Democracy?  most people are powerless in the face of the elites (one man one vote!). Not anomie but alienation and powerlesness ? Support from liberals!

17 Critics: welfare is really increasing, people are not for egalitarianism, Socialism doesn’t work, Sum up: Functionalism  Mass society: increasing scale of life and bureucratization. Conflict  Class-society: expasion of Capitalism and persistence inequality

18 Modernity and the Individual: micro perspectives How modernity shapes individual lives? Mass society: Problems of identity: from conformity to individuality (?), liberalization, freedom, bewildering array of options, ever-changing life style, elusive “true self”, relativism, permissiveness etc. David Riesman: tradition directedness to other directedness. “who am I”? Perlawanan: tribalism, fanaticism, fundamntalism, hi touch and hi tech.

19 Class Society: Problems of Powerlesness. Modernity give privileges to some but underprivileges for many (life uncertainty) It is not increasing freedom, but least participation in social life. Herbert Marcuse: irrationality of rationality Hi tech for whom? Digital Divide! Science solve or create problems?

20 Modernity and Progress Development: the idea of progress?, continuous improvement? Stability=stagnation? Social change is too complex to equate with progress! (learn it!) Getting rich: advantage and disadvantage! (hedonism, obesity) Are we happy?  rate of happiness declining. “Science makes our way of lives change too fast” (internet, HP)  etika? (cultural lag)

21 Globalization Bagaimana mengamati globalisasi? (amati :Supermarket). Globalization bukan hanya gejala global tetapi juga lokal (global migration, culturally diverse societies, new cultural tastes) Bagaimana melakukan “sociological imagination?” (“we cannot separate our local actions from the larger social setting that extend arround the globe” (Giddens, 2002)  interdependency ? (kasus pegawai mal) Faktor: communication, information, transportation?

22 Giddens: “Globalization is changing the way the world looks, and the way we look at the world”  global outlook

23 Post Modernity Industrial Revolution  Modernity Information Revolution  Postmodernity (characteristics of post industrial society). Still debatable, contains 5 themes:  Modernization has failed: poverty remains.  Idea of progress is fading: life is getting worse (in terms of what?).

24  Science no longer holds the answers: it implies singular truth  there is no one truth. Objective reality does not exist, it is socially constructed  Cultural debate are intensifying: material is important, ideas are more important (justice, rights, environment etc). Unequal !  Social institutions are changing: no single family pattern, many new family forms.  Critical review: what is the alternative of science?

25 Looking ahead Why one billion people is still poor? In the past entire population were poor!  promote technological development!, help poor nation to grow economically, provide foreign aid, modernize the people  culture shock! Dependencia: the major barrier to economic development is not traditionalism but the global domination of rich capitalist societies. Modernization achieved through exploitation and assymetric relations. Break up the relation!

26 Instead  globalization: the entire world has become one huge village (lives of all people are increasingly linked!). Thinking it through (epilogue) : controlling population growth and establishing an environmentally sustainable society. Tackle the problems with: imagination, compassion, and determination. (People Centered Development?)


Download ppt "Oleh: Paulus Wirutomo Bahan: John Macionis: “Sociology” 11 th ed. 2007 Pearson – Prentice Hall Perubahan Sosial."

Presentasi serupa


Iklan oleh Google