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Global Marketing Management A European Perspective

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1 Global Marketing Management A European Perspective
Global Segmentation, Targeting and Positioning Warren J. Keegan Bodo B. Schlegelmilch

2 Global Market Segmentation
... is the process of dividing the world market into distinct subsets of customers that have similar needs (eg country groups or individual interest groups).

3 Learning Objectives To understand the objectives and usefulness of global market segmentation To know the approaches to global market segmentation using different segmentation criteria to define target groups To learn different ways of positioning products in global markets

4 Overview Global Market Segmentation Global Targeting
criteria: geographic, demographic, psychographic, behaviour, and benefit segmentation Global Targeting Selecting a Global Target Market Strategy Global Product Positioning High-Tech or High-Touch Positioning Summary

5 Segmentasi Global Segementasi:pengelompokkan pasar yg berifat Heterogen ke dalam kelompok pasar yang Homogen Segmentasi Global merupakan kegitan mensegmentasikan pasar dunia berdasarkan beberapa kriteria kunci.

6 Kriteria Segmentasi Global
1. Segmentasi Demografis Berdasarkan pada karakteristik populasi yang dapat diukur seperti: jenis kelamin, umur, pendidikan ,pekerjaan dsb. Misal: terdapat produk Nestle utk anak2 hingga orang tua seg. Berdasarlkan Umur konsumen 2. Segmentasi Psikografis - Segmentasi berdasarkan : sikap, nilai yang dianut dan gaya hidup konsumen. Misal: munculnya Nescafe 3 in 1, Gadsby Water Gloss, dll. 3. Segmentasi Tingkah Laku Segmentasi berdasarkan pada apakah orang akan membeli dan menggunakan suatu produk atau tidak., disamping seberapa sering dan berapa banyak yang dipakainya. 4. Segmentasi Manfaat Segmentasi dengan lebih memfokuskan pada nilai persamaan yaitu B pada V=B/P.

7 Psychographic Segmentation
... is based on attitudes, values and lifestyle ... is measured through extensive item batteries which cover activities, interests and opinions (AIO-studies) lifestyle surveys, eg by the Research Institute of Social Change (RISC) the Centre de Communication Avancé (CCA) and the Values and Life Styles (VALS) by SRI International

8 Menetapkan Sasaran Global
Adalah tindakan mengevaluasi dan membandingkan kelompok yg diidentifikasi dan kemudian memilih satu atau beberapa diantaranya sebagai calon dg potensi paling besar. Setelah menetapkan sasaran global, kemudian bauran pemasaran dirancang shg memberikan hasil yg terbaik thd penjualan dan menciptakan nilai maks bagi konsumen.

9 Psychographic Profiles of Porsche’s American Customers
Description Category % of all owners Top Guns Driven and ambitious; care about power and control; expect to be noticed 27% Old money; a car—even an expensive one—is just a car, not an extension of one’s personality Elitists 24% Ownership is what counts; a car is a trophy, a reward for working hard; being noticed doesn’t matter Proud Patrons 23% Cosmopolitan jet setters and thrill seekers; car heightens excitement Bon Vivants 17% Car represents a form of escape; don’t care about impressing others; may even feel guilty about owning car Fantasists 9% Source: ALEX III Taylor, „Porsche Slices up its Buyers“, Fortune, 16 January 1995, p. 24

10 Backer Spielvogel & Bates’ Global Scan (BSB Global Scan )
... encompasses 18 countries, mostly in the Triad The researchers studied consumer attitudes and values, media viewership/readership, buying patterns, product use. 5 global psychographic segments represent 95% of the adult populations in the countries surveyed.

11 The Target Groups of BSB’s Global Scan

12 D’arcy Massius Benton & Bowles’ Euroconsumer Study
... focuses on Europe ... identified four lifestyle groups: The first two groups represent the elite, the latter two mainstream European consumers. Successful idealists Affluent materialists Comfortable belongers Disaffected survivors

13 Kriteria Dalam Menentukan Target Sasaran Global
Besar Segmen dan Potensi Pertumbuhan - Apakah segmen pasar yg ada mmg cukup besar??? - Apakah pasar memiliki potensi pertumbuhan ??? Persaingan Potensial - sebuah segmen pasar yg mempunyai karakteristik persaingan keras kemungkinan segmen pasar harus dihindari. Kecocokan dan Kelayakan - Apabila pasar sasaran global cukup besar dan bila tidak ada persaingan ketat dan tidak dipandang sebagai sebagai hambatan, maka pertimbangan akhir adalah perusahaan dapat menjadikan pasar tersebut sebagai pasar sasaran.

14 Europanel’s Eurostyles
Source: adapted from Josef Mazanec, “Exporting Eurostyles to the USA,” International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 5,4 (1993): p.4

15 Behaviour and Benefit Segmentation
Behaviour segmentation Focus on whether and how much people buy or use a product; eg usage rates: heavy , medium, and light users, and nonusers eg user status: potential users, nonusers, ex-users, regulars, first timers, and users of competitors’ products Benefit segmentation Today, consumers basic needs are fulfilled. Therefore, consumers seek additional value from purchase decisions; eg cars: in addition to movement buyers seek personal safety, image, superior engine power (speed) etc.

16 Global Targeting After markets have been segmented, targeting
aims at evaluating and comparing the indentified segments in order to select one or more as prospect(s) with the highest potential.

17 Criteria for Targeting
As in single-country targeting, the most important criteria are: Current size of the segment and anticipated growth potential Competitive intensity and potential competition Compatibility with the company’s overall objectives and the feasibility of successfully reaching a designated target

18 Memilih Strategi Pasar Sasaran Global
Pemasaran Global Yang Tidak Membeda-bedakan ( Standardised Global Marketing). - berupa pemasaran massal di berbagai negara. Pemasaran Global Terkosentrasi ( Cocentrated Global Marketing) - yaitu dengan menetapkan sasaran global mencakup menyiapkan bauran pemasaran utk membidik segmen tunggal dari pasar global. Pemasaran Global Yang Membeda-bedakan ( Differentiated Global Marketing). Strategi di sini dilakukan dg membidik dua atau lebih pasar sasaran yang berbeda dengan berbagai penawaran bauran pemasaran.

19 Global Product Positioning
is the location of a product in the mind of the consumer is partly controlled by the marketer (marketing mix) and partly not! is visualised by a “positioning map” 2 dimensions or multidimensional (MDS)

20 Positioning Map of American Fast-Food-Restaurants in the Mind of Consumers
Source: adapted from James H. Myers, Segmentation and Positioning for Strategic Marketing Decisions (American Marketing Association, Chicago, 1996), S. 187

21 High-Tech Positioning
Positioning stragtegy for products which are purchased on concrete product features; buyers typically already possess or wish to acquire considerable technical information Suitable for technical products, such as computers or chemicals, special-interest products, such as sporting goods, products that can be demonstrated easily.; eg polaroid cameras Polaroid Z2300

22 High-Touch Positioning
The emphasis lies more on the product’s image; specialised information appears of minor relevance Suitable for products that solve a common problem; e.g., soft drinks global village products, such as cosmetics or fashion products that use universal themes; e.g. „heroism“ in Levis ads (jeans)

23 Menentukan Posisi Produk di pasar Global
Menentukan posisi Tehnologi Lebih Tinggi ( Hi-Tech Positioning) Produk Teknik Komputer Produk untuk Peminta Khusus Produk Yang Dapat Ditunjukkan Kegunaannya. Menentukan Posisi Sentuhan Canggih ( Hi-Touch Positioning) Produk yang memecahkan masalah Umum Produk Desa Global Produk yang menggunakan Tema Universal

24 Summary Global market segmentation aims at identifying similarities and differences of potential customers. Global targeting: The market segments are evaluated and compared and an appropriate targeting strategy is developed. To reach the targeted market segment(s) a positioning strategy must be chosen; in a global context high-tech or high-touch positioning are promising. Before a company expands to foreign markets it must analyse the global environment.

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