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METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF: Penjelajahan Paradigma Tanpa Batas.

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Presentasi berjudul: "METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF: Penjelajahan Paradigma Tanpa Batas."— Transcript presentasi:

1 METODE PENELITIAN KUALITATIF: Penjelajahan Paradigma Tanpa Batas

2 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa METODE KUALITATIF: “Yang Mana?”  Social Action: Weber (Verstehen)  Symbolic Interaction : Herbert Mead (Self=I+Me) Herbert Blumer (The Three Prepositions) Erving Goffman (Dramaturgy)  Grounded Theory: Strauss (inductive approach)  Phenomenology: Edmund Huserl (Internal Human Mind: Classification) Alfred Schutz (Common-sense knowledge: Typification)  Ethnomethodology: Harold Garfinkel (Documentary Method: Making Sense)  Hermeneutics: Habermas (Text and Context)  Ethnography: (Thick Description)  Postmodernism: Foucault (Discourse Analysis)  Feminist Methodology:Kasper (Active Listening)

3 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa the Three Approaches to Research (1) Neuman, W Lawrence; Social Research Methods; Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches POSITIVISMINTERPRETATIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE CRITICAL SOCIAL SCIENCE 1.Reason for researchTo discover natural laws so people can predict and control events To understand and describe meaningful social action To smash myths and empower people to change society radically 2.Nature of social reality Stable preexisting patterns of order that can be discovered Fluid definitions of a situation created by human interaction Conflict filled and governed by hidden underlying structures 3.Nature of human being Self-interested and rational individuals who are shaped by external forces Social beings who create meaning and who constantly make sense of their world Creative, adaptive people with unrealized potential, trapped by illusion and exploitation 4.Role of common sense Clearly distinct from and less valid than science Powerful everyday theorist used by ordinary people False beliefs that hide power and objective conditions

4 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa the Three Approaches to Research (2) POSITIVISMINTERPRETATIVE SOCIAL SCIENCE CRITICAL SOCIAL SCIENCE 5.Theory looks likeA logical, deductive system of interconnected definitions, axioms, and laws A description of how group’s meaning system is generated and sustained A critique that reveals true conditions and helps people see the way to better world 6.An explanation that its true Is logically connected to laws and based on fact Resonates or feels right to those who are being studied Supplies people with tools needed to change the world 7.Good evidenceIs based on precise observations that others can repeat Is embedded in the context of fluid social interactions Is informed by a theory that unveils illusions 8.Place for valuesScience is value free, and values have no place except when choosing a topic Values are an integral part of social live: no group’s values are wrong, only different All science must begin with a value position: some positions are right, some are wrong

5 Metode Kualitatif = Percakapan Paradigma Paradigma: “cara pandang” tentang sesuatu yang di dalamnya mengandung sejumlah: asumsi yang tertentu teori yang tertentu metode yang tertentu model yang tertentu solusi yang tertentu asumsi mendiktekan yang lainnya; antara yang satu dan lainnya memiliki konsistensi internal

6 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa Quantitative—Qualitative: competing discourses main-stream discourse: Quantitative—Qualitative: It’s a continuity disappearing discourse: Qualitative: It’s a complementary/supplementary to quantitative alternative discourse: Quantitative—Qualitative: It’s a belief!

7 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa The Central Plank of Positivism ­__“universal truth”__ __“objectivity”__“generalisation”__ __”patterns”__”testing theory”__”hypothesis”__ __”variable”__”operational definition”__”indicator”__ __”instrumentation”__”validity”__ ”reliability”__ __”accuracy”__”precision”__ ”scale”__ ­__”close-ended questionaire”__ __”respondent”__“probing”__”coding”__ __”statistics”__”population”__ __”sample”__”random”__

8 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa The Language of Qualitative Methods __“meanings”__“subjective interpretation” __“reality as social construction”__ __”multiplicity of truths”__ __”theory building”__”voices”__ __”reflexivity”__”subject/informan”__ __”representation”__”authenticity”__ __”narration”__”thick description”__ __”subject as the expert”__”good rapport”__ __”getting-in, getting along, getting out”__ __”in-depth interview”__”oral history”__

9 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa Some Problematic Issues: Macro Vs Micro: instititutions as the objective driving forces Vs individuals as producers of subjective meanings Structural Vs Non-Structural determination of structure Vs creative individuals Positivism Vs Non-Positivism objective reality Vs perceived reality Quantitative Vs Qualitative number Vs voice

10 metode penelitian kualitatif - daniel sparringa Qualitative Methods: Some Implications Tidak tunggal tetapi jamak;  Bukan protokol tetapi pendekatan penuh asumsi;  Teori dan metode tak dapat dipisahkan;  Rekonstruksi teori yang relevan dengan data adalah tujuan penting;  Pemahaman data menurut perspektif subjek/informan adalah esensi dalam pengumpulan dan analisis data;


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