An Introduction to Global Climate Change. What is Climate Climate is the aggregated pattern of weather, meaning averages, extremes, timing, spatial distribution.
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Presentasi berjudul: "An Introduction to Global Climate Change. What is Climate Climate is the aggregated pattern of weather, meaning averages, extremes, timing, spatial distribution."— Transcript presentasi:
An Introduction to Global Climate Change
What is Climate Climate is the aggregated pattern of weather, meaning averages, extremes, timing, spatial distribution of… hot & cold cloudy & clear humid & dry drizzles & downpours snowfall, snowpack, & snowmelt blizzards, tornadoes, & typhoons (after Holdren NCES, 2008)
Climate change means altered patterns. Global average temperature is just one measure of the state of the global climate as expressed in these patterns. Small temperature changes big changes in the patterns.
What is an extreme event (CCSP SAP 3.3)
Global Temperatures are increasing Green bars show 95% confidence intervals the 15 hottest years all occurred since 1990 http://data.giss.nasa.gov/gistemp/graphs/
Warmest 9th Warmest 2007 Surface Temperature
Historic record of global climate change Warming of the climate system is unequivocal, as is now evident from observations of increases in global average air and ocean temperatures, widespread melting of snow and ice, and rising global mean sea level.
Warm nights increasing Cold nights decreasing Frequency of occurrence of cold or warm temperatures for 202 global stations for 3 time periods:1901 to 1950 (black), 1951 to 1978 (blue) and 1979 to 2003 (red).
Proportion of extreme precipitation events increasing in most areas NH Winter NH Summer The frequency of heavy precipitation events has increased over most land areas - consistent with warming and increases of atmospheric water vapor while more intense and longer droughts have been observed since the 1970s, particularly in the tropics and subtropics.
Greenhouse gas concentrations Compared to natural changes over the past 10,000 years, the spike in concentrations of CO 2 & CH 4 in the past 250 years is extraordinary. Humans are responsible for the recent dramatic increase emissions. Fossil CO 2 & CH 4 lack carbon-14, and the observed drop in atmospheric C-14 is measurable. (IPCC AR4 WG1, 2007)
causes of climate change human activity This earthing human activity is the main cause of climate change especially human activities that lead to environmental degradation such as : deforestation construction of residential water catchment area dispose of plant waste carelessly
causes of climate change Global Warming One of the causes of climate change is global warming earth Global warming is an increase in the average temperature of the earth's surface either by land or sea. The influence of global warming on climate change is very significant, for example, is from a study revealed that global warming could increase the intensity of the like. This proves that the climate anomalies often occur in nature.
causes of climate change The greenhouse effect The greenhouse effect is a major cause of global warming made the earth is experiencing climate change. The main events of the greenhouse effect caused by human activities such as : pollution from factories motor vehicle pollution the agricultural sector These events can have an impact on the melting of the ice or the snow at the poles that could lead to rising sea levels around the tropics
causes of climate change El Nino and La Nina El Nino is the occurrence of an increase in temperature or the temperature of the sea water in the area of Peru and Ecuador that could disrupt global climate impact. These events generally occurred within two to seven years. While La Nina is the opposite of El Nino is when the temperature or the temperature of sea water in the area of Peru and Ecuador to cool. La Nina events can cause high winds, heavy rains and flooding in areas around Indnesia
causes of climate change Depletion of the ozone layer Important to know that the current ozone layer in the earth's atmosphere dwindling and this is one of the causes of global climate change. Sunlight shining on the earth directly radiated to earth without filtered first layer of ozone ( because of dwindling ), this makes the sun was blazing, this is one reason why the earth is increasingly hot and we are getting uncomfortable again on this earth
The Solutions By 2050, we could get all the energy we need from renewable sources. Achieving this goal IS possible. Energy efficiencyEnergy efficiency may well be the most rapid and cost-effective tool to reducing carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, yet it is still overlooked by many businesses and governments. Increases in energy efficiency must be seen as a crucial part of reducing CO 2 emissions and minimising our dependence on fossil fuels. Renewable energyRenewable energy g Preventing forest loss ' generated from natural sources – water, wind, solar, biomass or geothermal – will play a key role in replacing the world's dependence on fossil fuel based energy sources, such as coal, oil and natural gas which are not renewable.
What businesses can do Business has a vital role in implementing technologies that reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. Making increasingly better use of resources in manufacturing processes and creating better-performing products with ever-lower energy demands is becoming part of normal business practice. is technology that removes and stores the CO 2 during the production of energy from fossil fuels. With further research and investment, CSS technology may prove to be the bridging technology needed to 'get us over the line' Carbon-capture and storage (CCS) Preventing forest loss will go a long way to reducing the threat of climate change. Forests are the largest storehouse of carbon, after coal and oil. When they are destroyed – by logging and clearing for developing – massive quantities of CO 2 is released into the atmosphere.